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tf.keras.experimental.WideDeepModel

Wide & Deep Model for regression and classification problems.

Inherits From: Model, Layer, Module

This model jointly train a linear and a dnn model.

Example:

linear_model = LinearModel()
dnn_model = keras.Sequential([keras.layers.Dense(units=64),
                             keras.layers.Dense(units=1)])
combined_model = WideDeepModel(linear_model, dnn_model)
combined_model.compile(optimizer=['sgd', 'adam'], 'mse', ['mse'])
# define dnn_inputs and linear_inputs as separate numpy arrays or
# a single numpy array if dnn_inputs is same as linear_inputs.
combined_model.fit([linear_inputs, dnn_inputs], y, epochs)
# or define a single `tf.data.Dataset` that contains a single tensor or
# separate tensors for dnn_inputs and linear_inputs.
dataset = tf.data.Dataset.from_tensors(([linear_inputs, dnn_inputs], y))
combined_model.fit(dataset, epochs)

Both linear and dnn model can be pre-compiled and trained separately before jointly training:

Example:

linear_model = LinearModel()
linear_model.compile('adagrad', 'mse')
linear_model.fit(linear_inputs, y, epochs)
dnn_model = keras.Sequential([keras.layers.Dense(units=1)])
dnn_model.compile('rmsprop', 'mse')
dnn_model.fit(dnn_inputs, y, epochs)
combined_model = WideDeepModel(linear_model, dnn_model)
combined_model.compile(optimizer=['sgd', 'adam'], 'mse', ['mse'])
combined_model.fit([linear_inputs, dnn_inputs], y, epochs)

linear_model a premade LinearModel, its output must match the output of the dnn model.
dnn_model a tf.keras.Model, its output must match the output of the linear model.
activation Activation function. Set it to None to maintain a linear activation.
**kwargs The keyword arguments that are passed on to BaseLayer.init. Allowed keyword arguments include name.

distribute_strategy The tf.distribute.Strategy this model was created under.
layers

metrics_names Returns the model's display labels for all outputs.

inputs = tf.keras.layers.Input(shape=(3,))
outputs = tf.keras.layers.Dense(2)(inputs)
model = tf.keras.models.Model(inputs=inputs, outputs=outputs)
model.compile(optimizer="Adam", loss="mse", metrics=["mae"])
model.metrics_names
[]
x = np.random.random((2, 3))
y = np.random.randint(0, 2, (2, 2))
model.fit(x, y)
model.metrics_names
['loss', 'mae']
inputs = tf.keras.layers.Input(shape=(3,))
d = tf.keras.layers.Dense(2, name='out')
output_1 = d(inputs)
output_2 = d(inputs)
model = tf.keras.models.Model(
   inputs=inputs, outputs=[output_1, output_2])
model.compile(optimizer="Adam", loss="mse", metrics=["mae", "acc"])
model.fit(x, (y, y))
model.metrics_names
['loss', 'out_loss', 'out_1_loss', 'out_mae', 'out_acc', 'out_1_mae',
'out_1_acc']

run_eagerly Settable attribute indicating whether the model should run eagerly.

Running eagerly means that your model will be run step by step, like Python code. Your model might run slower, but it should become easier for you to debug it by stepping into individual layer calls.

By default, we will attempt to compile your model to a static graph to deliver the best execution performance.

Methods

call

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Calls the model on new inputs.

In this case call just reapplies all ops in the graph to the new inputs (e.g. build a new computational graph from the provided inputs).

Args
inputs A tensor or list of tensors.
training Boolean or boolean scalar tensor, indicating whether to run the Network in training mode or inference mode.
mask A mask or list of masks. A mask can be either a tensor or None (no mask).

Returns
A tensor if there is a single output, or a list of tensors if there are more than one outputs.

compile

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Configures the model for training.

Args
optimizer String (name of optimizer) or optimizer instance. See tf.keras.optimizers.
loss String (name of objective function), objective function or tf.keras.losses.Loss instance. See tf.keras.losses. An objective function is any callable with the signature loss = fn(y_true, y_pred), where y_true = ground truth values with shape = [batch_size, d0, .. dN], except sparse loss functions such as sparse categorical crossentropy where shape = [batch_size, d0, .. dN-1]. y_pred = predicted values with shape = [batch_size, d0, .. dN]. It returns a weighted loss float tensor. If a custom Loss instance is used and reduction is set to NONE, return value has the shape [batch_size, d0, .. dN-1] ie. per-sample or per-timestep loss values; otherwise, it is a scalar. If the model has multiple outputs, you can use a different loss on each output by passing a dictionary or a list of losses. The loss value that will be minimized by the model will then be the sum of all individual losses.
metrics List of metrics to be evaluated by the model during training and testing. Each of this can be a string (name of a built-in function), function or a tf.keras.metrics.Metric instance. See tf.keras.metrics. Typically you will use metrics=['accuracy']. A function is any callable with the signature result = fn(y_true, y_pred). To specify different metrics for different outputs of a multi-output model, you could also pass a dictionary, such as metrics={'output_a': 'accuracy', 'output_b': ['accuracy', 'mse']}. You can also pass a list (len = len(outputs)) of lists of metrics such as metrics=[['accuracy'], ['accuracy', 'mse']] or metrics=['accuracy', ['accuracy', 'mse']]. When you pass the strings 'accuracy' or 'acc', we convert this to one of tf.keras.metrics.BinaryAccuracy, tf.keras.metrics.CategoricalAccuracy, tf.keras.metrics.SparseCategoricalAccuracy based on the loss function used and the model output shape. We do a similar conversion for the strings 'crossentropy' and 'ce' as well.
loss_weights Optional list or dictionary specifying scalar coefficients (Python floats) to weight the loss contributions of different model outputs. The loss value that will be minimized by the model will then be the weighted sum of all individual losses, weighted by the loss_weights coefficients. If a list, it is expected to have a 1:1 mapping to the model's outputs. If a dict, it is expected to map output names (strings) to scalar coefficients.
weighted_metrics List of metrics to be evaluated and weighted by sample_weight or class_weight during training and testing.
run_eagerly Bool. Defaults to False. If True, this Model's logic will not be wrapped in a tf.function. Recommended to leave this as None unless your Model cannot be run inside a tf.function. run_eagerly=True is not supported when using tf.distribute.experimental.ParameterServerStrategy.
steps_per_execution Int. Defaults to 1. The number of batches to run during each tf.function call. Running multiple batches inside a single tf.function call can greatly improve performance on TPUs or small models with a large Python overhead. At most, one full epoch will be run each execution. If a number larger than the size of the epoch is passed, the execution will be truncated to the size of the epoch. Note that if steps_per_execution is set to N, Callback.on_batch_begin and Callback.on_batch_end methods will only be called every N batches (i.e. before/after each tf.function execution).
**kwargs Arguments supported for backwards compatibility only.

Raises
ValueError In case of invalid arguments for optimizer, loss or metrics.

evaluate

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Returns the loss value & metrics values for the model in test mode.

Computation is done in batches (see the batch_size arg.)

Args
x Input data. It could be:

  • A Numpy array (or array-like), or a list of arrays (in case the model has multiple inputs).
  • A TensorFlow tensor, or a list of tensors (in case the model has multiple inputs).
  • A dict mapping input names to the corresponding array/tensors, if the model has named inputs.
  • A tf.data dataset. Should return a tuple of either (inputs, targets) or (inputs, targets, sample_weights).
  • A generator or keras.utils.Sequence returning (inputs, targets) or (inputs, targets, sample_weights). A more detailed description of unpacking behavior for iterator types (Dataset, generator, Sequence) is given in the Unpacking behavior for iterator-like inputs section of Model.fit.
y Target data. Like the input data x, it could be either Numpy array(s) or TensorFlow tensor(s). It should be consistent with x (you cannot have Numpy inputs and tensor targets, or inversely). If x is a dataset, generator or keras.utils.Sequence instance, y should not be specified (since targets will be obtained from the iterator/dataset).
batch_size Integer or None. Number of samples per batch of computation. If unspecified, batch_size will default to 32. Do not specify the batch_size if your data is in the form of a dataset, generators, or keras.utils.Sequence instances (since they generate batches).
verbose 0 or 1. Verbosity mode. 0 = silent, 1 = progress bar.
sample_weight Optional Numpy array of weights for the test samples, used for weighting the loss function. You can either pass a flat (1D) Numpy array with the same length as the input samples (1:1 mapping between weights and samples), or in the case of temporal data, you can pass a 2D array with shape (samples, sequence_length), to apply a different weight to every timestep of every sample. This argument is not supported when x is a dataset, instead pass sample weights as the third element of x.
steps Integer or None. Total number of steps (batches of samples) before declaring the evaluation round finished. Ignored with the default value of None. If x is a tf.data dataset and steps is None, 'evaluate' will run until the dataset is exhausted. This argument is not supported with array inputs.
callbacks List of keras.callbacks.Callback instances. List of callbacks to apply during evaluation. See callbacks.
max_queue_size Integer. Used for generator or keras.utils.Sequence input only. Maximum size for the generator queue. If unspecified, max_queue_size will default to 10.
workers Integer. Used for generator or keras.utils.Sequence input only. Maximum number of processes to spin up when using process-based threading. If unspecified, workers will default to 1.
use_multiprocessing Boolean. Used for generator or keras.utils.Sequence input only. If True, use process-based threading. If unspecified, use_multiprocessing will default to False. Note that because this implementation relies on multiprocessing, you should not pass non-picklable arguments to the generator as they can't be passed easily to children processes.
return_dict If True, loss and metric results are returned as a dict, with each key being the name of the metric. If False, they are returned as a list.
**kwargs Unused at this time.

See the discussion of Unpacking behavior for iterator-like inputs for Model.fit.

Model.evaluate is not yet supported with tf.distribute.experimental.ParameterServerStrategy.

Returns
Scalar test loss (if the model has a single output and no metrics) or list of scalars (if the model has multiple outputs and/or metrics). The attribute model.metrics_names will give you the display labels for the scalar outputs.

Raises
RuntimeError If model.evaluate is wrapped in tf.function.
ValueError in case of invalid arguments.

evaluate_generator

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Evaluates the model on a data generator.

DEPRECATED:

Model.evaluate now supports generators, so there is no longer any need to use this endpoint.

fit

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Trains the model for a fixed number of epochs (iterations on a dataset).

Args
x Input data. It could be:

  • A Numpy array (or array-like), or a list of arrays (in case the model has multiple inputs).
  • A TensorFlow tensor, or a list of tensors (in case the model has multiple inputs).
  • A dict mapping input names to the corresponding array/tensors, if the model has named inputs.
  • A tf.data dataset. Should return a tuple of either (inputs, targets) or (inputs, targets, sample_weights).
  • A generator or keras.utils.Sequence returning (inputs, targets) or (inputs, targets, sample_weights).
  • A tf.keras.utils.experimental.DatasetCreator, which wraps a callable that takes a single argument of type tf.distribute.InputContext, and returns a tf.data.Dataset. DatasetCreator should be used when users prefer to specify the per-replica batching and sharding logic for the Dataset. See tf.keras.utils.experimental.DatasetCreator doc for more information. A more detailed description of unpacking behavior for iterator types (Dataset, generator, Sequence) is given below. If using tf.distribute.experimental.ParameterServerStrategy, only DatasetCreator type is supported for x.
y Target data. Like the input data x, it could be either Numpy array(s) or TensorFlow tensor(s). It should be consistent with x (you cannot have Numpy inputs and tensor targets, or inversely). If x is a dataset, generator, or keras.utils.Sequence instance, y should not be specified (since targets will be obtained from x).
batch_size Integer or None. Number of samples per gradient update. If unspecified, batch_size will default to 32. Do not specify the batch_size if your data is in the form of datasets, generators, or keras.utils.Sequence instances (since they generate batches).
epochs Integer. Number of epochs to train the model. An epoch is an iteration over the entire x and y data provided. Note that in conjunction with initial_epoch, epochs is to be understood as "final epoch". The model is not trained for a number of iterations given by epochs, but merely until the epoch of index epochs is reached.
verbose 'auto', 0, 1, or 2. Verbosity mode. 0 = silent, 1 = progress bar, 2 = one line per epoch. 'auto' defaults to 1 for most cases, but 2 when used with ParameterServerStrategy. Note that the progress bar is not particularly useful when logged to a file, so verbose=2 is recommended when not running interactively (eg, in a production environment).
callbacks List of