This page describes the details of exporting (saving) a model from a TensorFlow program to the SavedModel format of TensorFlow 2. This format is the recommended way to share pre-trained models and model pieces on TensorFlow Hub. It replaces the older TF1 Hub format and comes with a new set of APIs. You can find more information on exporting the TF1 Hub format models in TF1 Hub format export. You can find details on how to compress the SavedModel for sharing it on TensorFlow Hub here.
Some model-building toolkits already provide tools to do this (e.g., see below for TensorFlow Model Garden).
SavedModel is TensorFlow's standard serialization format for trained models or model pieces. It stores the model's trained weights together with the exact TensorFlow operations to perform its computation. It can be used independently from the code that created it. In particular, it can be reused across different high-level model-building APIs like Keras, because TensorFlow operations are their common basic language.
Saving from Keras
Starting with TensorFlow 2,
tf.keras.models.save_model() default to the SavedModel format (not HDF5). The
resulting SavedModels that can be used with
similar adapters for other high-level APIs as they become available.
To share a complete Keras Model, just save it with
To share a piece of a Keras Model, make the piece a Model in itself and then save that. You can either lay out the code like that from the start....
piece_to_share = tf.keras.Model(...) full_model = tf.keras.Sequential([piece_to_share, ...]) full_model.fit(...) piece_to_share.save(...)
...or cut out the piece to share after the fact (if it aligns with the layering of your full model):
full_model = tf.keras.Model(...) sharing_input = full_model.get_layer(...).get_output_at(0) sharing_output = full_model.get_layer(...).get_output_at(0) piece_to_share = tf.keras.Model(sharing_input, sharing_output) piece_to_share.save(..., include_optimizer=False)
TensorFlow Models on GitHub uses the
former approach for BERT (see
note the split between
core_model for export and the
restoring the checkpoint) and the the latter approach for ResNet (see
Saving from low-level TensorFlow
This requires good familiarity with TensorFlow's SavedModel Guide.
If you want to provide more than just a serving signature, you should implement the Reusable SavedModel interface. Conceptually, this looks like
class MyMulModel(tf.train.Checkpoint): def __init__(self, v_init): super().__init__() self.v = tf.Variable(v_init) self.variables = [self.v] self.trainable_variables = [self.v] self.regularization_losses = [ tf.function(input_signature=)(lambda: 0.001 * self.v**2), ] @tf.function(input_signature=[tf.TensorSpec(shape=None, dtype=tf.float32)]) def __call__(self, inputs): return tf.multiply(inputs, self.v) tf.saved_model.save(MyMulModel(2.0), "/tmp/my_mul") layer = hub.KerasLayer("/tmp/my_mul") print(layer([10., 20.])) # [20., 40.] layer.trainable = True print(layer.trainable_weights) # [2.] print(layer.losses) # 0.004
Advice for SavedModel creators
When creating a SavedModel for sharing on TensorFlow Hub, think ahead if and how its consumers should fine-tune it, and provide guidance in the documentation.
Saving from a Keras Model should make all the mechanics of fine-tuning work
(saving weight regularization losses, declaring trainable variables, tracing
__call__ for both
Choose a model interface that plays well with gradient flow, e.g., output logits instead of softmax probabilities or top-k predictions.
If the model use dropout, batch normalization, or similar training techniques that involve hyperparameters, set them to values that make sense across many expected target problems and batch sizes. (As of this writing, saving from Keras does not make it easy to let consumers adjust them.)
Weight regularizers on individual layers are saved (with their regularization
strength coefficients), but weight regularization from within the optimizer
tf.keras.optimizers.Ftrl.l1_regularization_strength=...)) is lost.
Advise consumers of your SavedModel accordingly.
TensorFlow Model Garden
The TensorFlow Model Garden repo contains a lot of examples of creating reusable TF2 Saved Models to be uploaded on tfhub.dev.
The TensorFlow Hub team generates only a small fraction of the assets that are available on tfhub.dev. We rely primarily on researchers at Google and DeepMind, corporate and academic research institutions, and ML enthusiasts to produce models. As a result, we can't guarantee that we can fulfill community requests for specific assets, and we can't provide time estimates for new asset availability.
The Community Model Requests milestone below contains requests from the community for specific assets -- if you or someone you know is interested in producing the asset and sharing it on tfhub.dev, we welcome the submission!