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Ferramenta de autoria TFLite

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TensorFlow Lite Authoring API fornece uma maneira de manter seus tf.function modelos compatibile com TensorFlow Lite.

Configurar

import tensorflow as tf

Problema de compatibilidade entre TensorFlow e TensorFlow Lite

Se quiser usar seu modelo TF em dispositivos, você precisa convertê-lo em um modelo TFLite para usá-lo a partir do intérprete TFLite. Durante a conversão, você pode encontrar um erro de compatibilidade devido a operações do TensorFlow incompatíveis com o conjunto de operações integradas TFLite.

Este é um tipo de problema irritante. Como você pode detectá-lo mais cedo, como no momento da criação do modelo?

Note-se que o seguinte código irá falhar na converter.convert() chamada.

@tf.function(input_signature=[
    tf.TensorSpec(shape=[None], dtype=tf.float32)
])
def f(x):
  return tf.cosh(x)

# Evaluate the tf.function
result = f(tf.constant([0.0]))
print (f"result = {result}")
result = [1.]
# Convert the tf.function
converter = tf.lite.TFLiteConverter.from_concrete_functions(
    [f.get_concrete_function()], f)
try:
  fb_model = converter.convert()
except Exception as e:
  print(f"Got an exception: {e}")
Got an exception: /tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/framework/op_def_library.py:746:0: error: 'tf.Cosh' op is neither a custom op nor a flex op
/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/ops/gen_math_ops.py:2538:0: note: called from
/tmp/ipykernel_11095/885400331.py:5:0: note: called from
/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/framework/func_graph.py:1125:0: note: called from
/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/eager/def_function.py:672:0: note: called from
/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/framework/func_graph.py:1143:0: note: called from
/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/eager/function.py:3402:0: note: called from
/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/eager/function.py:3557:0: note: called from
/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/eager/function.py:3157:0: note: called from
/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/eager/def_function.py:781:0: note: called from
/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/framework/op_def_library.py:746:0: note: Error code: ERROR_NEEDS_FLEX_OPS
<unknown>:0: error: failed while converting: 'main': 
Some ops are not supported by the native TFLite runtime, you can enable TF kernels fallback using TF Select. See instructions: https://www.tensorflow.org/lite/guide/ops_select 
TF Select ops: Cosh
Details:
    tf.Cosh(tensor<?xf32>) -> (tensor<?xf32>) : {device = ""}
2021-11-15 12:14:34.777684: W tensorflow/compiler/mlir/lite/python/tf_tfl_flatbuffer_helpers.cc:363] Ignored output_format.
2021-11-15 12:14:34.777724: W tensorflow/compiler/mlir/lite/python/tf_tfl_flatbuffer_helpers.cc:366] Ignored drop_control_dependency.
loc(callsite("Cosh"("/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/framework/op_def_library.py":746:0) at callsite("/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/ops/gen_math_ops.py":2538:0 at callsite("/tmp/ipykernel_11095/885400331.py":5:0 at callsite("/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/framework/func_graph.py":1125:0 at callsite("/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/eager/def_function.py":672:0 at callsite("/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/framework/func_graph.py":1143:0 at callsite("/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/eager/function.py":3402:0 at callsite("/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/eager/function.py":3557:0 at callsite("/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/eager/function.py":3157:0 at "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/eager/def_function.py":781:0)))))))))): error: 'tf.Cosh' op is neither a custom op nor a flex op
error: failed while converting: 'main': 
Some ops are not supported by the native TFLite runtime, you can enable TF kernels fallback using TF Select. See instructions: https://www.tensorflow.org/lite/guide/ops_select 
TF Select ops: Cosh
Details:
    tf.Cosh(tensor<?xf32>) -> (tensor<?xf32>) : {device = ""}

Uso de autoria com reconhecimento de alvo simples

Introduzimos a API de autoria para detectar o problema de compatibilidade do TensorFlow Lite durante o tempo de criação do modelo.

Você só precisa adicionar @tf.lite.experimental.authoring.compatible decorador de quebrar a tf.function modelo para verificar a compatibilidade TFLite.

Depois disso, a compatibilidade será verificada automaticamente ao avaliar seu modelo.

@tf.lite.experimental.authoring.compatible
@tf.function(input_signature=[
    tf.TensorSpec(shape=[None], dtype=tf.float32)
])
def f(x):
  return tf.cosh(x)

# Evaluate the tf.function
result = f(tf.constant([0.0]))
print (f"result = {result}")
COMPATIBILITY WARNING: op 'tf.Cosh' require(s) "Select TF Ops" for model conversion for TensorFlow Lite. https://www.tensorflow.org/lite/guide/ops_select
Op: tf.Cosh

  - /tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/framework/op_def_library.py:746
  - /tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/ops/gen_math_ops.py:2538
  - /tmp/ipykernel_11095/885400331.py:5

result = [1.]
2021-11-15 12:14:34.816991: W tensorflow/compiler/mlir/lite/python/tf_tfl_flatbuffer_helpers.cc:363] Ignored output_format.
2021-11-15 12:14:34.817023: W tensorflow/compiler/mlir/lite/python/tf_tfl_flatbuffer_helpers.cc:366] Ignored drop_control_dependency.
loc(callsite("Cosh"("/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/framework/op_def_library.py":746:0) at callsite("/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/ops/gen_math_ops.py":2538:0 at callsite("/tmp/ipykernel_11095/885400331.py":5:0 at callsite("/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/framework/func_graph.py":1125:0 at callsite("/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/eager/def_function.py":672:0 at callsite("/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/framework/func_graph.py":1143:0 at callsite("/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/eager/function.py":3402:0 at callsite("/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/eager/function.py":3557:0 at callsite("/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/eager/function.py":3157:0 at "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/eager/def_function.py":781:0)))))))))): error: 'tf.Cosh' op is neither a custom op nor a flex op
error: failed while converting: 'main': 
Some ops are not supported by the native TFLite runtime, you can enable TF kernels fallback using TF Select. See instructions: https://www.tensorflow.org/lite/guide/ops_select 
TF Select ops: Cosh
Details:
    tf.Cosh(tensor<?xf32>) -> (tensor<?xf32>) : {device = ""}

Se qualquer problema de compatibilidade TensorFlow Lite é encontrado, ele irá mostrar COMPATIBILITY WARNING ou COMPATIBILITY ERROR com a localização exata do op problemático. Neste exemplo, ele mostra a localização dos tf.Cosh op em seu modelo tf.function.

Você também pode verificar o log de compatibilidade com o <function_name>.get_compatibility_log() método.

compatibility_log = '\n'.join(f.get_compatibility_log())
print (f"compatibility_log = {compatibility_log}")
compatibility_log = COMPATIBILITY WARNING: op 'tf.Cosh' require(s) "Select TF Ops" for model conversion for TensorFlow Lite. https://www.tensorflow.org/lite/guide/ops_select
Op: tf.Cosh

  - /tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/framework/op_def_library.py:746
  - /tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/ops/gen_math_ops.py:2538
  - /tmp/ipykernel_11095/885400331.py:5

Crie uma exceção para uma incompatibilidade

Você pode fornecer uma opção para o @tf.lite.experimental.authoring.compatible decorador. O raise_exception opção dá-lhe uma exceção quando você está tentando avaliar o modelo decorados.

@tf.lite.experimental.authoring.compatible(raise_exception=True)
@tf.function(input_signature=[
    tf.TensorSpec(shape=[None], dtype=tf.float32)
])
def f(x):
  return tf.cosh(x)

# Evaluate the tf.function
try:
  result = f(tf.constant([0.0]))
  print (f"result = {result}")
except Exception as e:
  print(f"Got an exception: {e}")
COMPATIBILITY WARNING: op 'tf.Cosh' require(s) "Select TF Ops" for model conversion for TensorFlow Lite. https://www.tensorflow.org/lite/guide/ops_select
Op: tf.Cosh

  - /tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/framework/op_def_library.py:746
  - /tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/ops/gen_math_ops.py:2538
  - /tmp/ipykernel_11095/885400331.py:5

Got an exception: CompatibilityException at <tensorflow.python.eager.def_function.Function object at 0x7ff2e016fc50>
2021-11-15 12:14:34.863629: W tensorflow/compiler/mlir/lite/python/tf_tfl_flatbuffer_helpers.cc:363] Ignored output_format.
2021-11-15 12:14:34.863657: W tensorflow/compiler/mlir/lite/python/tf_tfl_flatbuffer_helpers.cc:366] Ignored drop_control_dependency.
loc(callsite("Cosh"("/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/framework/op_def_library.py":746:0) at callsite("/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/ops/gen_math_ops.py":2538:0 at callsite("/tmp/ipykernel_11095/885400331.py":5:0 at callsite("/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/framework/func_graph.py":1125:0 at callsite("/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/eager/def_function.py":672:0 at callsite("/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/framework/func_graph.py":1143:0 at callsite("/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/eager/function.py":3402:0 at callsite("/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/eager/function.py":3557:0 at callsite("/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/eager/function.py":3157:0 at "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/eager/def_function.py":781:0)))))))))): error: 'tf.Cosh' op is neither a custom op nor a flex op
error: failed while converting: 'main': 
Some ops are not supported by the native TFLite runtime, you can enable TF kernels fallback using TF Select. See instructions: https://www.tensorflow.org/lite/guide/ops_select 
TF Select ops: Cosh
Details:
    tf.Cosh(tensor<?xf32>) -> (tensor<?xf32>) : {device = ""}

Especificando o uso de "Selecionar operações TF"

Se você já está ciente de Select TF ops uso, você pode dizer isso para o API Authoring definindo converter_target_spec . É o mesmo tf.lite.TargetSpec objeto que você vai usá-lo para tf.lite.TFLiteConverter API.

target_spec = tf.lite.TargetSpec()
target_spec.supported_ops = [
    tf.lite.OpsSet.TFLITE_BUILTINS,
    tf.lite.OpsSet.SELECT_TF_OPS,
]
@tf.lite.experimental.authoring.compatible(converter_target_spec=target_spec, raise_exception=True)
@tf.function(input_signature=[
    tf.TensorSpec(shape=[None], dtype=tf.float32)
])
def f(x):
  return tf.cosh(x)

# Evaluate the tf.function
result = f(tf.constant([0.0]))
print (f"result = {result}")
2021-11-15 12:14:34.921628: W tensorflow/compiler/mlir/lite/python/tf_tfl_flatbuffer_helpers.cc:363] Ignored output_format.
WARNING:absl:Buffer deduplication procedure will be skipped when flatbuffer library is not properly loaded
result = [1.]
2021-11-15 12:14:34.921661: W tensorflow/compiler/mlir/lite/python/tf_tfl_flatbuffer_helpers.cc:366] Ignored drop_control_dependency.
2021-11-15 12:14:34.934915: W tensorflow/compiler/mlir/lite/flatbuffer_export.cc:1891] TFLite interpreter needs to link Flex delegate in order to run the model since it contains the following Select TFop(s):
Flex ops: FlexCosh
Details:
    tf.Cosh(tensor<?xf32>) -> (tensor<?xf32>) : {device = ""}
See instructions: https://www.tensorflow.org/lite/guide/ops_select

Verificando a compatibilidade da GPU

Se você quiser garantir o seu modelo é compatibile com delegado GPU de TensorFlow Lite, você pode definir experimental_supported_backends de tf.lite.TargetSpec .

O exemplo a seguir mostra como garantir a compatibilidade do delegado de GPU do seu modelo. Observe que este modelo tem problemas de compatibilidade, pois usa um tensor 2D com o operador tf.slice e o operador tf.cosh sem suporte. Você vai ver dois COMPATIBILITY WARNING com as informações de localização.

target_spec = tf.lite.TargetSpec()
target_spec.supported_ops = [
    tf.lite.OpsSet.TFLITE_BUILTINS,
    tf.lite.OpsSet.SELECT_TF_OPS,
]
target_spec.experimental_supported_backends = ["GPU"]
@tf.lite.experimental.authoring.compatible(converter_target_spec=target_spec)
@tf.function(input_signature=[
    tf.TensorSpec(shape=[4, 4], dtype=tf.float32)
])
def func(x):
  y = tf.cosh(x)
  return y + tf.slice(x, [1, 1], [1, 1])

result = func(tf.ones(shape=(4,4), dtype=tf.float32))
'tfl.slice' op is not GPU compatible: SLICE supports for 3 or 4 dimensional tensors only, but node has 2 dimensional tensors.

  - /tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/util/dispatch.py:1096
  - /tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/util/traceback_utils.py:150
  - /tmp/ipykernel_11095/3833138856.py:13

'tf.Cosh' op is not GPU compatible: Not supported custom op FlexCosh

  - /tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/framework/op_def_library.py:746
  - /tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/ops/gen_math_ops.py:2538
  - /tmp/ipykernel_11095/3833138856.py:12

COMPATIBILITY WARNING: op 'tf.Cosh, tfl.slice' aren't compatible with TensorFlow Lite GPU delegate. https://www.tensorflow.org/lite/performance/gpu
2021-11-15 12:14:34.998044: W tensorflow/compiler/mlir/lite/python/tf_tfl_flatbuffer_helpers.cc:363] Ignored output_format.
2021-11-15 12:14:34.998077: W tensorflow/compiler/mlir/lite/python/tf_tfl_flatbuffer_helpers.cc:366] Ignored drop_control_dependency.
2021-11-15 12:14:35.012457: W tensorflow/compiler/mlir/lite/flatbuffer_export.cc:1891] TFLite interpreter needs to link Flex delegate in order to run the model since it contains the following Select TFop(s):
Flex ops: FlexCosh
Details:
    tf.Cosh(tensor<4x4xf32>) -> (tensor<4x4xf32>) : {device = ""}
See instructions: https://www.tensorflow.org/lite/guide/ops_select
loc(callsite("Cosh"("/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/framework/op_def_library.py":746:0) at callsite("/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/ops/gen_math_ops.py":2538:0 at callsite("/tmp/ipykernel_11095/3833138856.py":12:0 at callsite("/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/framework/func_graph.py":1125:0 at callsite("/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/eager/def_function.py":672:0 at callsite("/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/framework/func_graph.py":1143:0 at callsite("/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/eager/function.py":3402:0 at callsite("/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/eager/function.py":3557:0 at callsite("/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/eager/function.py":3157:0 at "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/eager/def_function.py":781:0)))))))))): error: 'tf.Cosh' op is not GPU compatible: Not supported custom op FlexCosh
loc(callsite("Slice"("/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/util/dispatch.py":1096:0) at callsite("/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/util/traceback_utils.py":150:0 at callsite("/tmp/ipykernel_11095/3833138856.py":13:0 at callsite("/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/framework/func_graph.py":1125:0 at callsite("/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/eager/def_function.py":672:0 at callsite("/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/framework/func_graph.py":1143:0 at callsite("/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/eager/function.py":3402:0 at callsite("/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/eager/function.py":3557:0 at callsite("/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/eager/function.py":3157:0 at "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/eager/def_function.py":781:0)))))))))): error: 'tfl.slice' op is not GPU compatible: SLICE supports for 3 or 4 dimensional tensors only, but node has 2 dimensional tensors.

Consulte Mais informação

Para obter mais informações, consulte: