Importing Data

The Dataset API enables you to build complex input pipelines from simple, reusable pieces. For example, the pipeline for an image model might aggregate data from files in a distributed file system, apply random perturbations to each image, and merge randomly selected images into a batch for training. The pipeline for a text model might involve extracting symbols from raw text data, converting them to embedding identifiers with a lookup table, and batching together sequences of different lengths. The Dataset API makes it easy to deal with large amounts of data, different data formats, and complicated transformations.

The Dataset API introduces two new abstractions to TensorFlow:

  • A tf.data.Dataset represents a sequence of elements, in which each element contains one or more Tensor objects. For example, in an image pipeline, an element might be a single training example, with a pair of tensors representing the image data and a label. There are two distinct ways to create a dataset:

  • Creating a source (e.g. Dataset.from_tensor_slices()) constructs a dataset from one or more tf.Tensor objects.

  • Applying a transformation (e.g. Dataset.batch()) constructs a dataset from one or more tf.data.Dataset objects.

  • A tf.data.Iterator provides the main way to extract elements from a dataset. The operation returned by Iterator.get_next() yields the next element of a Dataset when executed, and typically acts as the interface between input pipeline code and your model. The simplest iterator is a "one-shot iterator", which is associated with a particular Dataset and iterates through it once. For more sophisticated uses, the Iterator.initializer operation enables you to reinitialize and parameterize an iterator with different datasets, so that you can, for example, iterate over training and validation data multiple times in the same program.

Basic mechanics

This section of the guide describes the fundamentals of creating different kinds of Dataset and Iterator objects, and how to extract data from them.

To start an input pipeline, you must define a source. For example, to construct a Dataset from some tensors in memory, you can use tf.data.Dataset.from_tensors() or tf.data.Dataset.from_tensor_slices(). Alternatively, if your input data are on disk in the recommend TFRecord format, you can construct a tf.data.TFRecordDataset.

Once you have a Dataset object, you can transform it into a new Dataset by chaining method calls on the tf.data.Dataset object. For example, you can apply per-element transformations such as Dataset.map() (to apply a function to each element), and multi-element transformations such as Dataset.batch(). See the documentation for tf.data.Dataset for a complete list of transformations.

The most common way to consume values from a Dataset is to make an iterator object that provides access to one element of the dataset at a time (for example, by calling Dataset.make_one_shot_iterator()). A tf.data.Iterator provides two operations: Iterator.initializer, which enables you to (re)initialize the iterator's state; and Iterator.get_next(), which returns tf.Tensor objects that correspond to the symbolic next element. Depending on your use case, you might choose a different type of iterator, and the options are outlined below.

Dataset structure

A dataset comprises elements that each have the same structure. An element contains one or more tf.Tensor objects, called components. Each component has a tf.DType representing the type of elements in the tensor, and a tf.TensorShape representing the (possibly partially specified) static shape of each element. The Dataset.output_types and Dataset.output_shapes properties allow you to inspect the inferred types and shapes of each component of a dataset element. The nested structure of these properties map to the structure of an element, which may be a single tensor, a tuple of tensors, or a nested tuple of tensors. For example:

dataset1 = tf.data.Dataset.from_tensor_slices(tf.random_uniform([4, 10]))
print(dataset1.output_types)  # ==> "tf.float32"
print(dataset1.output_shapes)  # ==> "(10,)"

dataset2 = tf.data.Dataset.from_tensor_slices(
   (tf.random_uniform([4]),
    tf.random_uniform([4, 100], maxval=100, dtype=tf.int32)))
print(dataset2.output_types)  # ==> "(tf.float32, tf.int32)"
print(dataset2.output_shapes)  # ==> "((), (100,))"

dataset3 = tf.data.Dataset.zip((dataset1, dataset2))
print(dataset3.output_types)  # ==> (tf.float32, (tf.float32, tf.int32))
print(dataset3.output_shapes)  # ==> "(10, ((), (100,)))"

It is often convenient to give names to each component of an element, for example if they represent different features of a training example. In addition to tuples, you can use collections.namedtuple or a dictionary mapping strings to tensors to represent a single element of a Dataset.

dataset = tf.data.Dataset.from_tensor_slices(
   {"a": tf.random_uniform([4]),
    "b": tf.random_uniform([4, 100], maxval=100, dtype=tf.int32)})
print(dataset.output_types)  # ==> "{'a': tf.float32, 'b': tf.int32}"
print(dataset.output_shapes)  # ==> "{'a': (), 'b': (100,)}"

The Dataset transformations support datasets of any structure. When using the Dataset.map(), Dataset.flat_map(), and Dataset.filter() transformations, which apply a function to each element, the element structure determines the arguments of the function:

dataset1 = dataset1.map(lambda x: ...)

dataset2 = dataset2.flat_map(lambda x, y: ...)

# Note: Argument destructuring is not available in Python 3.
dataset3 = dataset3.filter(lambda x, (y, z): ...)

Creating an iterator

Once you have built a Dataset to represent your input data, the next step is to create an Iterator to access elements from that dataset. The Dataset API currently supports the following iterators, in increasing level of sophistication:

  • one-shot,
  • initializable,
  • reinitializable, and
  • feedable.

A one-shot iterator is the simplest form of iterator, which only supports iterating once through a dataset, with no need for explicit initialization. One-shot iterators handle almost all of the cases that the existing queue-based input pipelines support, but they do not support parameterization. Using the example of Dataset.range():

dataset = tf.data.Dataset.range(100)
iterator = dataset.make_one_shot_iterator()
next_element = iterator.get_next()

for i in range(100):
  value = sess.run(next_element)
  assert i == value

An initializable iterator requires you to run an explicit iterator.initializer operation before using it. In exchange for this inconvenience, it enables you to parameterize the definition of the dataset, using one or more tf.placeholder() tensors that can be fed when you initialize the iterator. Continuing the Dataset.range() example:

max_value = tf.placeholder(tf.int64, shape=[])
dataset = tf.data.Dataset.range(max_value)
iterator = dataset.make_initializable_iterator()
next_element = iterator.get_next()

# Initialize an iterator over a dataset with 10 elements.
sess.run(iterator.initializer, feed_dict={max_value: 10})
for i in range(10):
  value = sess.run(next_element)
  assert i == value

# Initialize the same iterator over a dataset with 100 elements.
sess.run(iterator.initializer, feed_dict={max_value: 100})
for i in range(100):
  value = sess.run(next_element)
  assert i == value

A reinitializable iterator can be initialized from multiple different Dataset objects. For example, you might have a training input pipeline that uses random perturbations to the input images to improve generalization, and a validation input pipeline that evaluates predictions on unmodified data. These pipelines will typically use different Dataset objects that have the same structure (i.e. the same types and compatible shapes for each component).

# Define training and validation datasets with the same structure.
training_dataset = tf.data.Dataset.range(100).map(
    lambda x: x + tf.random_uniform([], -10, 10, tf.int64))
validation_dataset = tf.data.Dataset.range(50)

# A reinitializable iterator is defined by its structure. We could use the
# `output_types` and `output_shapes` properties of either `training_dataset`
# or `validation_dataset` here, because they are compatible.
iterator = Iterator.from_structure(training_dataset.output_types,
                                   training_dataset.output_shapes)
next_element = iterator.get_next()

training_init_op = iterator.make_initializer(training_dataset)
validation_init_op = iterator.make_initializer(validation_dataset)

# Run 20 epochs in which the training dataset is traversed, followed by the
# validation dataset.
for _ in range(20):
  # Initialize an iterator over the training dataset.
  sess.run(training_init_op)
  for _ in range(100):
    sess.run(next_element)

  # Initialize an iterator over the validation dataset.
  sess.run(validation_init_op)
  for _ in range(50):
    sess.run(next_element)

A feedable iterator can be used together with tf.placeholder to select what Iterator to use in each call to tf.Session.run, via the familiar feed_dict mechanism. It offers the same functionality as a reinitializable iterator, but it does not require you to initialize the iterator from the start of a dataset when you switch between iterators. For example, using the same training and validation example from above, you can use tf.data.Iterator.from_string_handle to define a feedable iterator that allows you to switch between the two datasets:

# Define training and validation datasets with the same structure.
training_dataset = tf.data.Dataset.range(100).map(
    lambda x: x + tf.random_uniform([], -10, 10, tf.int64)).repeat()
validation_dataset = tf.data.Dataset.range(50)

# A feedable iterator is defined by a handle placeholder and its structure. We
# could use the `output_types` and `output_shapes` properties of either
# `training_dataset` or `validation_dataset` here, because they have
# identical structure.
handle = tf.placeholder(tf.string, shape=[])
iterator = tf.data.Iterator.from_string_handle(
    handle, training_dataset.output_types, training_dataset.output_shapes)
next_element = iterator.get_next()

# You can use feedable iterators with a variety of different kinds of iterator
# (such as one-shot and initializable iterators).
training_iterator = training_dataset.make_one_shot_iterator()
validation_iterator = validation_dataset.make_initializable_iterator()

# The `Iterator.string_handle()` method returns a tensor that can be evaluated
# and used to feed the `handle` placeholder.
training_handle = sess.run(training_iterator.string_handle())
validation_handle = sess.run(validation_iterator.string_handle())

# Loop forever, alternating between training and validation.
while True:
  # Run 200 steps using the training dataset. Note that the training dataset is
  # infinite, and we resume from where we left off in the previous `while` loop
  # iteration.
  for _ in range(200):
    sess.run(next_element, feed_dict={handle: training_handle})

  # Run one pass over the validation dataset.
  sess.run(validation_iterator.initializer)
  for _ in range(50):
    sess.run(next_element, feed_dict={handle: validation_handle})

Consuming values from an iterator

The Iterator.get_next() method returns one or more tf.Tensor objects that correspond to the symbolic next element of an iterator. Each time these tensors are evaluated, they take the value of the next element in the underlying dataset. (Note that, like other stateful objects in TensorFlow, calling Iterator.get_next() does not immediately advance the iterator. Instead you must use the returned tf.Tensor objects in a TensorFlow expression, and pass the result of that expression to tf.Session.run() to get the next elements and advance the iterator.)

If the iterator reaches the end of the dataset, executing the Iterator.get_next() operation will raise a tf.errors.OutOfRangeError. After this point the iterator will be in an unusable state, and you must initialize it again if you want to use it further.

dataset = tf.data.Dataset.range(5)
iterator = dataset.make_initializable_iterator()
next_element = iterator.get_next()

# Typically `result` will be the output of a model, or an optimizer's
# training operation.
result = tf.add(next_element, next_element)

sess.run(iterator.initializer)
print(sess.run(result))  # ==> "0"
print(sess.run(result))  # ==> "2"
print(sess.run(result))  # ==> "4"
print(sess.run(result))  # ==> "6"
print(sess.run(result))  # ==> "8"
try:
  sess.run(result)
except tf.errors.OutOfRangeError:
  print("End of dataset")  # ==> "End of dataset"

A common pattern is to wrap the "training loop" in a try-except block:

sess.run(iterator.initializer)
while True:
  try:
    sess.run(result)
  except tf.errors.OutOfRangeError:
    break

If each element of the dataset has a nested structure, the return value of Iterator.get_next() will be one or more tf.Tensor objects in the same nested structure:

dataset1 = tf.data.Dataset.from_tensor_slices(tf.random_uniform([4, 10]))
dataset2 = tf.data.Dataset.from_tensor_slices((tf.random_uniform([4]), tf.random_uniform([4, 100])))
dataset3 = tf.data.Dataset.zip((dataset1, dataset2))

iterator = dataset3.make_initializable_iterator()

sess.run(iterator.initializer)
next1, (next2, next3) = iterator.get_next()

Note that evaluating any of next1, next2, or next3 will advance the iterator for all components. A typical consumer of an iterator will include all components in a single expression.

Reading input data

Consuming NumPy arrays

If all of your input data fit in memory, the simplest way to create a Dataset from them is to convert them to tf.Tensor objects and use Dataset.from_tensor_slices().

# Load the training data into two NumPy arrays, for example using `np.load()`.
with np.load("/var/data/training_data.npy") as data:
  features = data["features"]
  labels = data["labels"]

# Assume that each row of `features` corresponds to the same row as `labels`.
assert features.shape[0] == labels.shape[0]

dataset = tf.data.Dataset.from_tensor_slices((features, labels))

Note that the above code snippet will embed the features and labels arrays in your TensorFlow graph as tf.constant() operations. This works well for a small dataset, but wastes memory---because the contents of the array will be copied multiple times---and can run into the 2GB limit for the tf.GraphDef protocol buffer.

As an alternative, you can define the Dataset in terms of tf.placeholder() tensors, and feed the NumPy arrays when you initialize an Iterator over the dataset.

# Load the training data into two NumPy arrays, for example using `np.load()`.
with np.load("/var/data/training_data.npy") as data:
  features = data["features"]
  labels = data["labels"]

# Assume that each row of `features` corresponds to the same row as `labels`.
assert features.shape[0] == labels.shape[0]

features_placeholder = tf.placeholder(features.dtype, features.shape)
labels_placeholder = tf.placeholder(labels.dtype, labels.shape)

dataset = tf.data.Dataset.from_tensor_slices((features_placeholder, labels_placeholder))
# [Other transformations on `dataset`...]
dataset = ...
iterator = dataset.make_initializable_iterator()

sess.run(iterator.initializer, feed_dict={features_placeholder: features,
                                          labels_placeholder: labels})

Consuming TFRecord data

The Dataset API supports a variety of file formats so that you can process large datasets that do not fit in memory. For example, the TFRecord file format is a simple record-oriented binary format that many TensorFlow applications use for training data. The tf.data.TFRecordDataset class enables you to stream over the contents of one or more TFRecord files as part of an input pipeline.

# Creates a dataset that reads all of the examples from two files.
filenames = ["/var/data/file1.tfrecord", "/var/data/file2.tfrecord"]
dataset = tf.data.TFRecordDataset(filenames)

The filenames argument to the TFRecordDataset initializer can either be a string, a list of strings, or a tf.Tensor of strings. Therefore if you have two sets of files for training and validation purposes, you can use a tf.placeholder(tf.string) to represent the filenames, and initialize an iterator from the appropriate filenames:

filenames = tf.placeholder(tf.string, shape=[None])
dataset = tf.data.TFRecordDataset(filenames)
dataset = dataset.map(...)  # Parse the record into tensors.
dataset = dataset.repeat()  # Repeat the input indefinitely.
dataset = dataset.batch(32)
iterator = dataset.make_initializable_iterator()

# You can feed the initializer with the appropriate filenames for the current
# phase of execution, e.g. training vs. validation.

# Initialize `iterator` with training data.
training_filenames = ["/var/data/file1.tfrecord", "/var/data/file2.tfrecord"]
sess.run(iterator.initializer, feed_dict={filenames: training_filenames})

# Initialize `iterator` with validation data.
validation_filenames = ["/var/data/validation1.tfrecord", ...]
sess.run(iterator.initializer, feed_dict={filenames: validation_filenames})

Consuming text data

Many datasets are distributed as one or more text files. The tf.data.TextLineDataset provides an easy way to extract lines from one or more text files. Given one or more filenames, a TextLineDataset will produce one string-valued element per line of those files. Like a TFRecordDataset, TextLineDataset accepts filenames as a tf.Tensor, so you can parameterize it by passing a tf.placeholder(tf.string).

filenames = ["/var/data/file1.txt", "/var/data/file2.txt"]
dataset = tf.data.TextLineDataset(filenames)

By default, a TextLineDataset yields every line of each file, which may not be desirable, for example if the file starts with a header line, or contains comments. These lines can be removed using the Dataset.skip() and Dataset.filter() transformations. To apply these transformations to each file separately, we use Dataset.flat_map() to create a nested Dataset for each file.

filenames = ["/var/data/file1.txt", "/var/data/file2.txt"]

dataset = tf.data.Dataset.from_tensor_slices(filenames)

# Use `Dataset.flat_map()` to transform each file as a separate nested dataset,
# and then concatenate their contents sequentially into a single "flat" dataset.
# * Skip the first line (header row).
# * Filter out lines beginning with "#" (comments).
dataset = dataset.flat_map(
    lambda filename: (
        tf.data.TextLineDataset(filename)
        .skip(1)
        .filter(lambda line: tf.not_equal(tf.substr(line, 0, 1), "#"))))

For a full example of parsing a CSV file using datasets, see imports85.py in Regression Examples.

Preprocessing data with Dataset.map()

The Dataset.map(f) transformation produces a new dataset by applying a given function f to each element of the input dataset. It is based on the map() function that is commonly applied to lists (and other structures) in functional programming languages. The function f takes the tf.Tensor objects that represent a single element in the input, and returns the tf.Tensor objects that will represent a single element in the new dataset. Its implementation uses standard TensorFlow operations to transform one element into another.

This section covers common examples of how to use Dataset.map().

Parsing tf.Example protocol buffer messages

Many input pipelines extract tf.train.Example protocol buffer messages from a TFRecord-format file (written, for example, using tf.python_io.TFRecordWriter). Each tf.train.Example record contains one or more "features", and the input pipeline typically converts these features into tensors.

# Transforms a scalar string `example_proto` into a pair of a scalar string and
# a scalar integer, representing an image and its label, respectively.
def _parse_function(example_proto):
  features = {"image": tf.FixedLenFeature((), tf.string, default_value=""),
              "label": tf.FixedLenFeature((), tf.int32, default_value=0)}
  parsed_features = tf.parse_single_example(example_proto, features)
  return parsed_features["image"], parsed_features["label"]

# Creates a dataset that reads all of the examples from two files, and extracts
# the image and label features.
filenames = ["/var/data/file1.tfrecord", "/var/data/file2.tfrecord"]
dataset = tf.data.TFRecordDataset(filenames)
dataset = dataset.map(_parse_function)

Decoding image data and resizing it

When training a neural network on real-world image data, it is often necessary to convert images of different sizes to a common size, so that they may be batched into a fixed size.

# Reads an image from a file, decodes it into a dense tensor, and resizes it
# to a fixed shape.
def _parse_function(filename, label):
  image_string = tf.read_file(filename)
  image_decoded = tf.image.decode_image(image_string)
  image_resized = tf.image.resize_images(image_decoded, [28, 28])
  return image_resized, label

# A vector of filenames.
filenames = tf.constant(["/var/data/image1.jpg", "/var/data/image2.jpg", ...])

# `labels[i]` is the label for the image in `filenames[i].
labels = tf.constant([0, 37, ...])

dataset = tf.data.Dataset.from_tensor_slices((filenames, labels))
dataset = dataset.map(_parse_function)

Applying arbitrary Python logic with tf.py_func()

For performance reasons, we encourage you to use TensorFlow operations for preprocessing your data whenever possible. However, it is sometimes useful to call upon external Python libraries when parsing your input data. To do so, invoke, the tf.py_func() operation in a Dataset.map() transformation.

import cv2

# Use a custom OpenCV function to read the image, instead of the standard
# TensorFlow `tf.read_file()` operation.
def _read_py_function(filename, label):
  image_decoded = cv2.imread(image_string, cv2.IMREAD_GRAYSCALE)
  return image_decoded, label

# Use standard TensorFlow operations to resize the image to a fixed shape.
def _resize_function(image_decoded, label):
  image_decoded.set_shape([None, None, None])
  image_resized = tf.image.resize_images(image_decoded, [28, 28])
  return image_resized, label

filenames = ["/var/data/image1.jpg", "/var/data/image2.jpg", ...]
labels = [0, 37, 29, 1, ...]

dataset = tf.data.Dataset.from_tensor_slices((filenames, labels))
dataset = dataset.map(
    lambda filename, label: tuple(tf.py_func(
        _read_py_function, [filename, label], [tf.uint8, label.dtype])))
dataset = dataset.map(_resize_function)

Batching dataset elements

Simple batching

The simplest form of batching stacks n consecutive elements of a dataset into a single element. The Dataset.batch() transformation does exactly this, with the same constraints as the tf.stack() operator, applied to each component of the elements: i.e. for each component i, all elements must have a tensor of the exact same shape.

inc_dataset = tf.data.Dataset.range(100)
dec_dataset = tf.data.Dataset.range(0, -100, -1)
dataset = tf.data.Dataset.zip((inc_dataset, dec_dataset))
batched_dataset = dataset.batch(4)

iterator = batched_dataset.make_one_shot_iterator()
next_element = iterator.get_next()

print(sess.run(next_element))  # ==> ([0, 1, 2,   3],   [ 0, -1,  -2,  -3])
print(sess.run(next_element))  # ==> ([4, 5, 6,   7],   [-4, -5,  -6,  -7])
print(sess.run(next_element))  # ==> ([8, 9, 10, 11],   [-8, -9, -10, -11])

Batching tensors with padding

The above recipe works for tensors that all have the same size. However, many models (e.g. sequence models) work with input data that can have varying size (e.g. sequences of different lengths). To handle this case, the Dataset.padded_batch() transformation enables you to batch tensors of different shape by specifying one or more dimensions in which they may be padded.

dataset = tf.data.Dataset.range(100)
dataset = dataset.map(lambda x: tf.fill([tf.cast(x, tf.int32)], x))
dataset = dataset.padded_batch(4, padded_shapes=[None])

iterator = dataset.make_one_shot_iterator()
next_element = iterator.get_next()

print(sess.run(next_element))  # ==> [[0, 0, 0], [1, 0, 0], [2, 2, 0], [3, 3, 3]]
print(sess.run(next_element))  # ==> [[4, 4, 4, 4, 0, 0, 0],
                               #      [5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 0, 0],
                               #      [6, 6, 6, 6, 6, 6, 0],
                               #      [7, 7, 7, 7, 7, 7, 7]]

The Dataset.padded_batch() transformation allows you to set different padding for each dimension of each component, and it may be variable-length (signified by None in the example above) or constant-length. It is also possible to override the padding value, which defaults to 0.

Training workflows

Processing multiple epochs

The Dataset API offers two main ways to process multiple epochs of the same data.

The simplest way to iterate over a dataset in multiple epochs is to use the Dataset.repeat() transformation. For example, to create a dataset that repeats its input for 10 epochs:

filenames = ["/var/data/file1.tfrecord", "/var/data/file2.tfrecord"]
dataset = tf.data.TFRecordDataset(filenames)
dataset = dataset.map(...)
dataset = dataset.repeat(10)
dataset = dataset.batch(32)

Applying the Dataset.repeat() transformation with no arguments will repeat the input indefinitely. The Dataset.repeat() transformation concatenates its arguments without signaling the end of one epoch and the beginning of the next epoch.

If you want to receive a signal at the end of each epoch, you can write a training loop that catches the tf.errors.OutOfRangeError at the end of a dataset. At that point you might collect some statistics (e.g. the validation error) for the epoch.

filenames = ["/var/data/file1.tfrecord", "/var/data/file2.tfrecord"]
dataset = tf.data.TFRecordDataset(filenames)
dataset = dataset.map(...)
dataset = dataset.batch(32)
iterator = dataset.make_initializable_iterator()
next_element = iterator.get_next()

# Compute for 100 epochs.
for _ in range(100):
  sess.run(iterator.initializer)
  while True:
    try:
      sess.run(next_element)
    except tf.errors.OutOfRangeError:
      break

  # [Perform end-of-epoch calculations here.]

Randomly shuffling input data

The Dataset.shuffle() transformation randomly shuffles the input dataset using a similar algorithm to tf.RandomShuffleQueue: it maintains a fixed-size buffer and chooses the next element uniformly at random from that buffer.

filenames = ["/var/data/file1.tfrecord", "/var/data/file2.tfrecord"]
dataset = tf.data.TFRecordDataset(filenames)
dataset = dataset.map(...)
dataset = dataset.shuffle(buffer_size=10000)
dataset = dataset.batch(32)
dataset = dataset.repeat()

Using high-level APIs

The tf.train.MonitoredTrainingSession API simplifies many aspects of running TensorFlow in a distributed setting. MonitoredTrainingSession uses the tf.errors.OutOfRangeError to signal that training has completed, so to use it with the Dataset API, we recommend using Dataset.make_one_shot_iterator(). For example:

filenames = ["/var/data/file1.tfrecord", "/var/data/file2.tfrecord"]
dataset = tf.data.TFRecordDataset(filenames)
dataset = dataset.map(...)
dataset = dataset.shuffle(buffer_size=10000)
dataset = dataset.batch(32)
dataset = dataset.repeat(num_epochs)
iterator = dataset.make_one_shot_iterator()

next_example, next_label = iterator.get_next()
loss = model_function(next_example, next_label)

training_op = tf.train.AdagradOptimizer(...).minimize(loss)

with tf.train.MonitoredTrainingSession(...) as sess:
  while not sess.should_stop():
    sess.run(training_op)

To use a Dataset in the input_fn of a tf.estimator.Estimator, we also recommend using Dataset.make_one_shot_iterator(). For example:

def dataset_input_fn():
  filenames = ["/var/data/file1.tfrecord", "/var/data/file2.tfrecord"]
  dataset = tf.data.TFRecordDataset(filenames)

  # Use `tf.parse_single_example()` to extract data from a `tf.Example`
  # protocol buffer, and perform any additional per-record preprocessing.
  def parser(record):
    keys_to_features = {
        "image_data": tf.FixedLenFeature((), tf.string, default_value=""),
        "date_time": tf.FixedLenFeature((), tf.int64, default_value=""),
        "label": tf.FixedLenFeature((), tf.int64,
                                    default_value=tf.zeros([], dtype=tf.int64)),
    }
    parsed = tf.parse_single_example(record, keys_to_features)

    # Perform additional preprocessing on the parsed data.
    image = tf.decode_jpeg(parsed["image_data"])
    image = tf.reshape(image, [299, 299, 1])
    label = tf.cast(parsed["label"], tf.int32)

    return {"image_data": image, "date_time": parsed["date_time"]}, label

  # Use `Dataset.map()` to build a pair of a feature dictionary and a label
  # tensor for each example.
  dataset = dataset.map(parser)
  dataset = dataset.shuffle(buffer_size=10000)
  dataset = dataset.batch(32)
  dataset = dataset.repeat(num_epochs)
  iterator = dataset.make_one_shot_iterator()

  # `features` is a dictionary in which each value is a batch of values for
  # that feature; `labels` is a batch of labels.
  features, labels = iterator.get_next()
  return features, labels