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Accelerator backends

It's pretty straightforward to describe a Tensor calculation, but when and how that calculation is performed will depend on which backend is used for the Tensors and when the results are needed on the host CPU.

Behind the scenes, operations on Tensors are dispatched to accelerators like GPUs or TPUs, or run on the CPU when no accelerator is available. This happens automatically for you, and makes it easy to perform complex parallel calculations using a high-level interface. However, it can be useful to understand how this dispatch occurs and be able to customize it for optimal performance.

Swift for TensorFlow has two backends for performing accelerated computation: TensorFlow eager mode and X10. The default backend is TensorFlow eager mode, but that can be overridden. An interactive tutorial is available that walks you through the use of these different backends.

TensorFlow eager mode

The TensorFlow eager mode backend leverages the TensorFlow C API to send each Tensor operation to a GPU or CPU as it is encountered. The result of that operation is then retrieved and passed on to the next operation.

This operation-by-operation dispatch is straightforward to understand and requires no explicit configuration within your code. However, in many cases it does not result in optimal performance due to the overhead from sending off many small operations, combined with the lack of operation fusion and optimization that can occur when graphs of operations are present. Finally, TensorFlow eager mode is incompatible with TPUs, and can only be used with CPUs and GPUs.

X10 (XLA-based tracing)

X10 is the name of the Swift for TensorFlow backend that uses lazy tensor tracing and the XLA optimizing compiler to in many cases significantly improve performance over operation-by-operation dispatch. Additionally, it adds compatibility for TPUs, accelerators specifically optimized for the kinds of calculations found within machine learning models.

The use of X10 for Tensor calculations is not the default, so you need to opt in to this backend. That is done by specifying that a Tensor is placed on an XLA device:

let tensor1 = Tensor<Float>([0.0, 1.0, 2.0], on: Device.defaultXLA)
let tensor2 = Tensor<Float>([1.5, 2.5, 3.5], on: Device.defaultXLA)

After that point, describing a calculation is exactly the same as for TensorFlow eager mode:

let tensor3 = tensor1 + tensor2

Further detail can be provided when creating a Tensor, such as what kind of accelerator to use and even which one, if several are available. For example, a Tensor can be created on the second TPU device (assuming it is visible to the host the program is running on) using the following:

let tpuTensor = Tensor<Float>([0.0, 1.0, 2.0], on: Device(kind: .TPU, ordinal: 1, backend: .XLA))

No implicit movement of Tensors between devices is performed, so if two Tensors on different devices are used in an operation together, a runtime error will occur. To manually copy the contents of a Tensor to a new device, you can use the Tensor(copying:to:) initializer. Some larger-scale structures that contain Tensors within them, like models and optimizers, have helper functions for moving all of their interior Tensors to a new device in one step.

Unlike TensorFlow eager mode, operations using the X10 backend are not individually dispatched as they are encountered. Instead, dispatching to an accelerator is only triggered by either reading calculated values back to the host or by placing an explicit barrier. The way this works is that the runtime starts from the value being read to the host (or the last calculation before a manual barrier) and traces the graph of calculations that result in that value.

This traced graph is then converted to the XLA HLO intermediate representation and passed to the XLA compiler to be optimized and compiled for execution on the accelerator. From there, the entire calculation is sent to the accelerator and the end result obtained.

Calculation is a time-consuming process, so X10 is best used with massively parallel calculations that are expressed via a graph and that are performed many times. Hash values and caching are used so that identical graphs are only compiled once for every unique configuration.

For machine learning models, the training process often involves a loop where the model is subjected to the same series of calculations over and over. You'll want each of these passes to be seen as a repetition of the same trace, rather than one long graph with repeated units inside it. This is enabled by the manual insertion of a call to LazyTensorBarrier() function at the locations in your code where you wish for a trace to end.

Mixed-precision support in X10

Training with mixed precision via X10 is supported and both low-level and high-level API are provided to control it. The low-level API offers two computed properties: toReducedPrecision and toFullPrecision which convert between full and reduced precision, along with isReducedPrecision to query the precision. Besides Tensors, models and optimizers can be converted between full and reduced precision using this API.

Note that conversion to reduced precision doesn't change the logical type of a Tensor. If t is a Tensor<Float>, t.toReducedPrecision is also a Tensor<Float> with a reduced-precision underlying representation.

As with devices, operations between tensors of different precisions are not allowed. This avoids silent and unwanted promotion to 32-bit floats, which would be hard to detect by the user.