Delegates enable hardware acceleration of TensorFlow Lite models by leveraging on-device accelerators such as the GPU and Digital Signal Processor (DSP).
By default, TensorFlow Lite utilizes CPU kernels that are optimized for the ARM Neon instruction set. However, the CPU is a multi-purpose processor that isn't necessarily optimized for the heavy arithmetic typically found in Machine Learning models (for example, the matrix math involved in convolution and dense layers).
On the other hand, most modern mobile phones contain chips that are better at handling these heavy operations. Utilizing them for neural network operations provides huge benefits in terms of latency and power efficiency. For example, GPUs can provide upto a 5x speedup in latency, while the Qualcomm® Hexagon DSP has shown to reduce power consumption upto 75% in our experiments.
Each of these accelerators have associated APIs that enable custom computations, such as OpenCL or OpenGL ES for mobile GPU and the Qualcomm® Hexagon SDK for DSP. Typically, you would have to write a lot of custom code to run a neural network through these interfaces. Things get even more complicated when you consider that each accelerator has its pros & cons and cannot execute every operation in a neural network. TensorFlow Lite's Delegate API solves this problem by acting as a bridge between the TFLite runtime and these lower-level APIs.
Choosing a Delegate
TensorFlow Lite supports multiple delegates, each of which is optimized for certain platform(s) and particular types of models. Usually, there will be multiple delegates applicable to your use-case, depending on two major criteria: the Platform (Android or iOS?) you target, and the Model-type (floating-point or quantized?) that you are trying to accelerate.
Delegates by Platform
Cross-platform (Android & iOS)
- GPU delegate - The GPU delegate can be used on both Android and iOS. It is optimized to run 32-bit and 16-bit float based models where a GPU is available. It also supports 8-bit quantized models and provides GPU performance on par with their float versions. For details on the GPU delegate, see TensorFlow Lite on GPU. For step-by-step tutorials on using the GPU delegate with Android and iOS, see TensorFlow Lite GPU Delegate Tutorial.
- NNAPI delegate for newer Android devices - The NNAPI delegate can be used to accelerate models on Android devices with GPU, DSP and / or NPU available. It is available in Android 8.1 (API 27+) or higher. For an overview of the NNAPI delegate, step-by-step instructions and best practices, see TensorFlow Lite NNAPI delegate.
- Hexagon delegate for older Android devices - The Hexagon delegate can be used to accelerate models on Android devices with Qualcomm Hexagon DSP. It can be used on devices running older versions of Android that do not support NNAPI. See TensorFlow Lite Hexagon delegate for more detail.
- Core ML delegate for newer iPhones and iPads - For newer iPhones and iPads where Neural Engine is available, you can use Core ML delegate to accelerate inference for 32-bit or 16-bit floating-point models. Neural Engine is available Apple mobile devices with A12 SoC or higher. For an overview of the Core ML delegate and step-by-step instructions, see TensorFlow Lite Core ML delegate.
Delegates by model type
Each accelerator is designed with a certain bit-width of data in mind. If you provide a floating-point model to a delegate that only supports 8-bit quantized operations (such as the Hexagon delegate), it will reject all its operations and the model will run entirely on the CPU. To avoid such surprises, the table below provides an overview of delegate support based on model type:
|Floating-point (32 bit)||Yes||Yes||No||Yes|
|Post-training float16 quantization||Yes||No||No||Yes|
|Post-training dynamic range quantization||Yes||Yes||No||No|
|Post-training integer quantization||Yes||Yes||Yes||No|
The information in this section acts as a rough guideline for shortlisting the delegates that could improve your application. However, it is important to note that each delegate has a pre-defined set of operations it supports, and may perform differently depending on the model and device; for example, the NNAPI delegate may choose to use Google's Edge-TPU on a Pixel phone while utilizing a DSP on another device. Therefore, it is usually recommended that you perform some benchmarking to gauge how useful a delegate is for your needs. This also helps justify the binary size increase associated with attaching a delegate to the TensorFlow Lite runtime.
TensorFlow Lite has extensive performance and accuracy-evaluation tooling that can empower developers to be confident in using delegates in their application. These tools are discussed in the next section.
Tools for Evaluation
Latency & memory footprint
benchmark tool can be
used with suitable parameters to estimate model performance, including average
inference latency, initialization overhead, memory footprint, etc. This tool
supports multiple flags to figure out the best delegate configuration for your
model. For instance,
--gpu_backend=gl can be specified with
measure GPU execution with OpenGL. The complete list of supported delegate
parameters is defined in the
Here’s an example run for a quantized model with GPU via
adb shell /data/local/tmp/benchmark_model \ --graph=/data/local/tmp/mobilenet_v1_224_quant.tflite \ --use_gpu=true
You can download pre-built version of this tool for Android, 64-bit ARM architecture here (more details).
Accuracy & correctness
Delegates usually perform computations at a different precision than their CPU counterparts. As a result, there is an (usually minor) accuracy tradeoff associated with utilizing a delegate for hardware acceleration. Note that this isn't always true; for example, since the GPU uses floating-point precision to run quantized models, there might be a slight precision improvement (for e.g., <1% Top-5 improvement in ILSVRC image classification).
TensorFlow Lite has two types of tooling to measure how accurately a delegate behaves for a given model: Task-Based and Task-Agnostic. All the tools described in this section support the advanced delegation parameters used by the benchmarking tool from the previous section. Note that the sub-sections below focus on delegate evaluation (Does the delegate perform the same as the CPU?) rather than model evaluation (Is the model itself good for the task?).
TensorFlow Lite has tools to evaluate correctness on two image-based tasks:
ILSVRC 2012 (Image Classification) with top-K accuracy
COCO Object Detection (w/ bounding boxes) with mean Average Precision (mAP)
Prebuilt binaries of these tools (Android, 64-bit ARM architecture), along with documentation can be found here:
The example below demonstrates image classification evaluation with NNAPI utilizing Google's Edge-TPU on a Pixel 4:
adb shell /data/local/tmp/run_eval \ --model_file=/data/local/tmp/mobilenet_quant_v1_224.tflite \ --ground_truth_images_path=/data/local/tmp/ilsvrc_images \ --ground_truth_labels=/data/local/tmp/ilsvrc_validation_labels.txt \ --model_output_labels=/data/local/tmp/model_output_labels.txt \ --output_file_path=/data/local/tmp/accuracy_output.txt \ --num_images=0 # Run on all images. \ --use_nnapi=true \ --nnapi_accelerator_name=google-edgetpu
The expected output is a list of Top-K metrics from 1 to 10:
Top-1 Accuracy: 0.733333 Top-2 Accuracy: 0.826667 Top-3 Accuracy: 0.856667 Top-4 Accuracy: 0.87 Top-5 Accuracy: 0.89 Top-6 Accuracy: 0.903333 Top-7 Accuracy: 0.906667 Top-8 Accuracy: 0.913333 Top-9 Accuracy: 0.92 Top-10 Accuracy: 0.923333
For tasks where there isn't an established on-device evaluation tool, or if you are experimenting with custom models, TensorFlow Lite has the Inference Diff tool. (Android, 64-bit ARM binary architecture binary here)
Inference Diff compares TensorFlow Lite execution (in terms of latency & output-value deviation) in two settings:
- Single-threaded CPU Inference
- User-defined Inference - defined by these parameters
To do so, the tool generates random Gaussian data and passes it through two TFLite Interpreters - one running single-threaded CPU kernels, and the other parameterized by the user's arguments.
It measures the latency of both, as well as the absolute difference between the output tensors from each Interpreter, on a per-element basis.
For a model with a single output tensor, the output might look like this:
Num evaluation runs: 50 Reference run latency: avg=84364.2(us), std_dev=12525(us) Test run latency: avg=7281.64(us), std_dev=2089(us) OutputDiff: avg_error=1.96277e-05, std_dev=6.95767e-06
What this means is that for the output tensor at index
0, the elements from
the CPU output different from the delegate output by an average of
Note that interpreting these numbers requires deeper knowledge of the model, and what each output tensor signifies. If its a simple regression that determines some sort of score or embedding, the difference should be low (otherwise it's an error with the delegate). However, outputs like the 'detection class' one from SSD models is a little harder to interpret. For example, it might show a difference using this tool, but that may not mean something really wrong with the delegate: consider two (fake) classes: "TV (ID: 10)", "Monitor (ID:20)" - If a delegate is slightly off the golden truth and shows monitor instead of TV, the output diff for this tensor might be something as high as 20-10 = 10.