# tfq.differentiators.LinearCombination

Differentiate a circuit with respect to its inputs by

Inherits From: `Differentiator`

linearly combining values obtained by evaluating the op using parameter values perturbed about their forward-pass values.

````my_op = tfq.get_expectation_op()`
`weights = [5, 6, 7]`
`perturbations = [0, 0.5, 0.25]`
`linear_differentiator = tfq.differentiators.LinearCombination(`
`   weights, perturbations`
`)`
`# Get an expectation op, with this differentiator attached.`
`op = linear_differentiator.generate_differentiable_op(`
`    analytic_op=my_op`
`)`
`qubit = cirq.GridQubit(0, 0)`
`circuit = tfq.convert_to_tensor([`
`    cirq.Circuit(cirq.X(qubit) ** sympy.Symbol('alpha'))`
`])`
`psums = tfq.convert_to_tensor([[cirq.Z(qubit)]])`
`symbol_values = np.array([[0.123]], dtype=np.float32)`
`# Calculate tfq gradient.`
`symbol_values_t = tf.convert_to_tensor(symbol_values)`
`symbol_names = tf.convert_to_tensor(['alpha'])`
`with tf.GradientTape() as g:`
`    g.watch(symbol_values_t)`
`    expectations = op(circuit, symbol_names, symbol_values_t, psums`
`)`
`# Gradient would be: 5 * f(x+0) + 6 * f(x+0.5) + 7 * f(x+0.25)`
`grads = g.gradient(expectations, symbol_values_t)`
`# Note: this gradient visn't correct in value, but showcases`
`# the principle of how gradients can be defined in a very flexible`
`# fashion.`
`grads`
`tf.Tensor([[5.089467]], shape=(1, 1), dtype=float32)`
```

`weights` Python `list` of real numbers representing linear combination coeffecients for each perturbed function evaluation.
`perturbations` Python `list` of real numbers representing perturbation values.

## Methods

### `differentiate_analytic`

View source

Differentiate a circuit with analytical expectation.

This is called at graph runtime by TensorFlow. `differentiate_analytic` calls he inheriting differentiator's `get_gradient_circuits` and uses those components to construct the gradient.

Args
`programs` `tf.Tensor` of strings with shape [batch_size] containing the string representations of the circuits to be executed.
`symbol_names` `tf.Tensor` of strings with shape [n_params], which is used to specify the order in which the values in `symbol_values` should be placed inside of the circuits in `programs`.
`symbol_values` `tf.Tensor` of real numbers with shape [batch_size, n_params] specifying parameter values to resolve into the circuits specified by programs, following the ordering dictated by `symbol_names`.
`pauli_sums` `tf.Tensor` of strings with shape [batch_size, n_ops] containing the string representation of the operators that will be used on all of the circuits in the expectation calculations.
`forward_pass_vals` `tf.Tensor` of real numbers with shape [batch_size, n_ops] containing the output of the forward pass through the op you are differentiating.
`grad` `tf.Tensor` of real numbers with shape [batch_size, n_ops] representing the gradient backpropagated to the output of the op you are differentiating through.

Returns
A `tf.Tensor` with the same shape as `symbol_values` representing the gradient backpropageted to the `symbol_values` input of the op you are differentiating through.

### `differentiate_sampled`

View source

Differentiate a circuit with sampled expectation.

This is called at graph runtime by TensorFlow. `differentiate_sampled` calls he inheriting differentiator's `get_gradient_circuits` and uses those components to construct the gradient.

Args
`programs` `tf.Tensor` of strings with shape [batch_size] containing the string representations of the circuits to be executed.
`symbol_names` `tf.Tensor` of strings with shape [n_params], which is used to specify the order in which the values in `symbol_values` should be placed inside of the circuits in `programs`.
`symbol_values` `tf.Tensor` of real numbers with shape [batch_size, n_params] specifying parameter values to resolve into the circuits specified by programs, following the ordering dictated by `symbol_names`.
`pauli_sums` `tf.Tensor` of strings with shape [batch_size, n_ops] containing the string representation of the operators that will be used on all of the circuits in the expectation calculations.
`num_samples` `tf.Tensor` of positive integers representing the number of samples per term in each term of pauli_sums used during the forward pass.
`forward_pass_vals` `tf.Tensor` of real numbers with shape [batch_size, n_ops] containing the output of the forward pass through the op you are differentiating.
`grad` `tf.Tensor` of real numbers with shape [batch_size, n_ops] representing the gradient backpropagated to the output of the op you are differentiating through.

Returns
A `tf.Tensor` with the same shape as `symbol_values` representing the gradient backpropageted to the `symbol_values` input of the op you are differentiating through.

### `generate_differentiable_op`

View source

Generate a differentiable op by attaching self to an op.

This function returns a `tf.function` that passes values through to `forward_op` during the forward pass and this differentiator (`self`) to backpropagate through the op during the backward pass. If sampled_op is provided the differentiators `differentiate_sampled` method will be invoked (which requires sampled_op to be a sample based expectation op with num_samples input tensor). If analytic_op is provided the differentiators `differentiate_analytic` method will be invoked (which requires analytic_op to be an analytic based expectation op that does NOT have num_samples as an input). If both sampled_op and analytic_op are provided an exception will be raised.

This `generate_differentiable_op()` can be called only ONCE because of the `one differentiator per op` policy. You need to call `refresh()` to reuse this differentiator with another op.

Args
`sampled_op` A `callable` op that you want to make differentiable using this differentiator's `differentiate_sampled` method.
`analytic_op` A `callable` op that you want to make differentiable using this differentiators `differentiate_analytic` method.

Returns
A `callable` op that who's gradients are now registered to be a call to this differentiators `differentiate_*` function.

### `get_gradient_circuits`

View source

See base class description.

### `refresh`

View source

Refresh this differentiator in order to use it with other ops.

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