Create a TFX pipeline using templates

Introduction

This document will provide instructions to create a TensorFlow Extended (TFX) pipeline using templates which are provided with TFX Python package. Many of the instructions are Linux shell commands, which will run on an AI Platform Notebooks instance. Corresponding Jupyter Notebook code cells which invoke those commands using ! are provided.

You will build a pipeline using Taxi Trips dataset released by the City of Chicago. We strongly encourage you to try building your own pipeline using your dataset by utilizing this pipeline as a baseline.

Step 1. Set up your environment.

AI Platform Pipelines will prepare a development environment to build a pipeline, and a Kubeflow Pipeline cluster to run the newly built pipeline.

Install tfx python package with kfp extra requirement.

import sys
# Use the latest version of pip.
!pip install --upgrade pip
# Install tfx and kfp Python packages.
!pip install --upgrade "tfx[kfp]<2"

Let's check the versions of TFX.

python3 -c "from tfx import version ; print('TFX version: {}'.format(version.__version__))"
TFX version: 1.14.0

In AI Platform Pipelines, TFX is running in a hosted Kubernetes environment using Kubeflow Pipelines.

Let's set some environment variables to use Kubeflow Pipelines.

First, get your GCP project ID.

# Read GCP project id from env.
shell_output=!gcloud config list --format 'value(core.project)' 2>/dev/null
GOOGLE_CLOUD_PROJECT=shell_output[0]
%env GOOGLE_CLOUD_PROJECT={GOOGLE_CLOUD_PROJECT}
print("GCP project ID:" + GOOGLE_CLOUD_PROJECT)
env: GOOGLE_CLOUD_PROJECT=tensorflow-testing
GCP project ID:tensorflow-testing

We also need to access your KFP cluster. You can access it in your Google Cloud Console under "AI Platform > Pipeline" menu. The "endpoint" of the KFP cluster can be found from the URL of the Pipelines dashboard, or you can get it from the URL of the Getting Started page where you launched this notebook. Let's create an ENDPOINT environment variable and set it to the KFP cluster endpoint. ENDPOINT should contain only the hostname part of the URL. For example, if the URL of the KFP dashboard is <a href="https://1e9deb537390ca22-dot-asia-east1.pipelines.googleusercontent.com/#/start">https://1e9deb537390ca22-dot-asia-east1.pipelines.googleusercontent.com/#/start</a>, ENDPOINT value becomes 1e9deb537390ca22-dot-asia-east1.pipelines.googleusercontent.com.

# This refers to the KFP cluster endpoint
ENDPOINT='' # Enter your ENDPOINT here.
if not ENDPOINT:
    from absl import logging
    logging.error('Set your ENDPOINT in this cell.')
ERROR:absl:Set your ENDPOINT in this cell.

Set the image name as tfx-pipeline under the current GCP project.

# Docker image name for the pipeline image.
CUSTOM_TFX_IMAGE='gcr.io/' + GOOGLE_CLOUD_PROJECT + '/tfx-pipeline'

And, it's done. We are ready to create a pipeline.

Step 2. Copy the predefined template to your project directory.

In this step, we will create a working pipeline project directory and files by copying additional files from a predefined template.

You may give your pipeline a different name by changing the PIPELINE_NAME below. This will also become the name of the project directory where your files will be put.

PIPELINE_NAME="my_pipeline"
import os
PROJECT_DIR=os.path.join(os.path.expanduser("~"),"imported",PIPELINE_NAME)

TFX includes the taxi template with the TFX python package. If you are planning to solve a point-wise prediction problem, including classification and regresssion, this template could be used as a starting point.

The tfx template copy CLI command copies predefined template files into your project directory.

!tfx template copy \
  --pipeline-name={PIPELINE_NAME} \
  --destination-path={PROJECT_DIR} \
  --model=taxi
CLI
Copying taxi pipeline template
model_analysis.ipynb -> /home/kbuilder/imported/my_pipeline/model_analysis.ipynb
features_test.py -> /home/kbuilder/imported/my_pipeline/models/features_test.py
preprocessing.py -> /home/kbuilder/imported/my_pipeline/models/preprocessing.py
__init__.py -> /home/kbuilder/imported/my_pipeline/models/__init__.py
preprocessing_test.py -> /home/kbuilder/imported/my_pipeline/models/preprocessing_test.py
constants.py -> /home/kbuilder/imported/my_pipeline/models/estimator_model/constants.py
model.py -> /home/kbuilder/imported/my_pipeline/models/estimator_model/model.py
__init__.py -> /home/kbuilder/imported/my_pipeline/models/estimator_model/__init__.py
model_test.py -> /home/kbuilder/imported/my_pipeline/models/estimator_model/model_test.py
constants.py -> /home/kbuilder/imported/my_pipeline/models/keras_model/constants.py
model.py -> /home/kbuilder/imported/my_pipeline/models/keras_model/model.py
__init__.py -> /home/kbuilder/imported/my_pipeline/models/keras_model/__init__.py
model_test.py -> /home/kbuilder/imported/my_pipeline/models/keras_model/model_test.py
features.py -> /home/kbuilder/imported/my_pipeline/models/features.py
local_runner.py -> /home/kbuilder/imported/my_pipeline/local_runner.py
__init__.py -> /home/kbuilder/imported/my_pipeline/__init__.py
.gitignore -> /home/kbuilder/imported/my_pipeline/.gitignore
kubeflow_v2_runner.py -> /home/kbuilder/imported/my_pipeline/kubeflow_v2_runner.py
kubeflow_runner.py -> /home/kbuilder/imported/my_pipeline/kubeflow_runner.py
data_validation.ipynb -> /home/kbuilder/imported/my_pipeline/data_validation.ipynb
__init__.py -> /home/kbuilder/imported/my_pipeline/pipeline/__init__.py
configs.py -> /home/kbuilder/imported/my_pipeline/pipeline/configs.py
pipeline.py -> /home/kbuilder/imported/my_pipeline/pipeline/pipeline.py

Change the working directory context in this notebook to the project directory.

%cd {PROJECT_DIR}
/home/kbuilder/imported/my_pipeline

Step 3. Browse your copied source files

The TFX template provides basic scaffold files to build a pipeline, including Python source code, sample data, and Jupyter Notebooks to analyse the output of the pipeline. The taxi template uses the same Chicago Taxi dataset and ML model as the Airflow Tutorial.

Here is brief introduction to each of the Python files.

  • pipeline - This directory contains the definition of the pipeline
    • configs.py — defines common constants for pipeline runners
    • pipeline.py — defines TFX components and a pipeline
  • models - This directory contains ML model definitions.
    • features.py, features_test.py — defines features for the model
    • preprocessing.py, preprocessing_test.py — defines preprocessing jobs using tf::Transform
    • estimator - This directory contains an Estimator based model.
      • constants.py — defines constants of the model
      • model.py, model_test.py — defines DNN model using TF estimator
    • keras - This directory contains a Keras based model.
      • constants.py — defines constants of the model
      • model.py, model_test.py — defines DNN model using Keras
  • local_runner.py, kubeflow_runner.py — define runners for each orchestration engine

You might notice that there are some files with _test.py in their name. These are unit tests of the pipeline and it is recommended to add more unit tests as you implement your own pipelines. You can run unit tests by supplying the module name of test files with -m flag. You can usually get a module name by deleting .py extension and replacing / with .. For example:

{sys.executable} -m models.features_test
{sys.executable} -m models.keras_model.model_test
2023-10-10 09:11:38.220962: W tensorflow/core/common_runtime/gpu/gpu_device.cc:1960] Cannot dlopen some GPU libraries. Please make sure the missing libraries mentioned above are installed properly if you would like to use GPU. Follow the guide at https://www.tensorflow.org/install/gpu for how to download and setup the required libraries for your platform.
Skipping registering GPU devices...
Running tests under Python 3.9.18: /tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/bin/python
[ RUN      ] FeaturesTest.testNumberOfBucketFeatureBucketCount
INFO:tensorflow:time(__main__.FeaturesTest.testNumberOfBucketFeatureBucketCount): 0.0s
I1010 09:11:38.223980 140356436404032 test_util.py:2462] time(__main__.FeaturesTest.testNumberOfBucketFeatureBucketCount): 0.0s
[       OK ] FeaturesTest.testNumberOfBucketFeatureBucketCount
[ RUN      ] FeaturesTest.testTransformedNames
INFO:tensorflow:time(__main__.FeaturesTest.testTransformedNames): 0.0s
I1010 09:11:38.224363 140356436404032 test_util.py:2462] time(__main__.FeaturesTest.testTransformedNames): 0.0s
[       OK ] FeaturesTest.testTransformedNames
[ RUN      ] FeaturesTest.test_session
[  SKIPPED ] FeaturesTest.test_session
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Ran 3 tests in 0.001s

OK (skipped=1)
2023-10-10 09:11:42.650798: W tensorflow/core/common_runtime/gpu/gpu_device.cc:1960] Cannot dlopen some GPU libraries. Please make sure the missing libraries mentioned above are installed properly if you would like to use GPU. Follow the guide at https://www.tensorflow.org/install/gpu for how to download and setup the required libraries for your platform.
Skipping registering GPU devices...
Running tests under Python 3.9.18: /tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/bin/python
[ RUN      ] ModelTest.testBuildKerasModel
WARNING:tensorflow:From /home/kbuilder/imported/my_pipeline/models/keras_model/model.py:110: numeric_column (from tensorflow.python.feature_column.feature_column_v2) is deprecated and will be removed in a future version.
Instructions for updating:
Use Keras preprocessing layers instead, either directly or via the `tf.keras.utils.FeatureSpace` utility. Each of `tf.feature_column.*` has a functional equivalent in `tf.keras.layers` for feature preprocessing when training a Keras model.
W1010 09:11:42.653620 139726571321152 deprecation.py:364] From /home/kbuilder/imported/my_pipeline/models/keras_model/model.py:110: numeric_column (from tensorflow.python.feature_column.feature_column_v2) is deprecated and will be removed in a future version.
Instructions for updating:
Use Keras preprocessing layers instead, either directly or via the `tf.keras.utils.FeatureSpace` utility. Each of `tf.feature_column.*` has a functional equivalent in `tf.keras.layers` for feature preprocessing when training a Keras model.
WARNING:tensorflow:From /home/kbuilder/imported/my_pipeline/models/keras_model/model.py:121: categorical_column_with_identity (from tensorflow.python.feature_column.feature_column_v2) is deprecated and will be removed in a future version.
Instructions for updating:
Use Keras preprocessing layers instead, either directly or via the `tf.keras.utils.FeatureSpace` utility. Each of `tf.feature_column.*` has a functional equivalent in `tf.keras.layers` for feature preprocessing when training a Keras model.
W1010 09:11:42.653870 139726571321152 deprecation.py:364] From /home/kbuilder/imported/my_pipeline/models/keras_model/model.py:121: categorical_column_with_identity (from tensorflow.python.feature_column.feature_column_v2) is deprecated and will be removed in a future version.
Instructions for updating:
Use Keras preprocessing layers instead, either directly or via the `tf.keras.utils.FeatureSpace` utility. Each of `tf.feature_column.*` has a functional equivalent in `tf.keras.layers` for feature preprocessing when training a Keras model.
WARNING:tensorflow:From /home/kbuilder/imported/my_pipeline/models/keras_model/model.py:137: indicator_column (from tensorflow.python.feature_column.feature_column_v2) is deprecated and will be removed in a future version.
Instructions for updating:
Use Keras preprocessing layers instead, either directly or via the `tf.keras.utils.FeatureSpace` utility. Each of `tf.feature_column.*` has a functional equivalent in `tf.keras.layers` for feature preprocessing when training a Keras model.
W1010 09:11:42.653963 139726571321152 deprecation.py:364] From /home/kbuilder/imported/my_pipeline/models/keras_model/model.py:137: indicator_column (from tensorflow.python.feature_column.feature_column_v2) is deprecated and will be removed in a future version.
Instructions for updating:
Use Keras preprocessing layers instead, either directly or via the `tf.keras.utils.FeatureSpace` utility. Each of `tf.feature_column.*` has a functional equivalent in `tf.keras.layers` for feature preprocessing when training a Keras model.
I1010 09:11:42.786143 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:461] Model: "model"
I1010 09:11:42.786280 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:462] __________________________________________________________________________________________________
I1010 09:11:42.786348 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:459]  Layer (type)                Output Shape                 Param #   Connected to                  
I1010 09:11:42.786394 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:464] ==================================================================================================
I1010 09:11:42.786556 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:459]  pickup_latitude_xf (InputL  [(None,)]                    0         []                            
I1010 09:11:42.786624 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:459]  ayer)                                                                                            
I1010 09:11:42.786668 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:565]                                                                                                   
I1010 09:11:42.786814 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:459]  trip_miles_xf (InputLayer)  [(None,)]                    0         []                            
I1010 09:11:42.786866 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:565]                                                                                                   
I1010 09:11:42.786964 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:459]  trip_start_hour_xf (InputL  [(None,)]                    0         []                            
I1010 09:11:42.787028 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:459]  ayer)                                                                                            
I1010 09:11:42.787065 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:565]                                                                                                   
I1010 09:11:42.787217 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:459]  dense_features (DenseFeatu  (None, 1)                    0         ['pickup_latitude_xf[0][0]',  
I1010 09:11:42.787275 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:459]  res)                                                                'trip_miles_xf[0][0]',       
I1010 09:11:42.787320 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:459]                                                                      'trip_start_hour_xf[0][0]']  
I1010 09:11:42.787356 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:565]                                                                                                   
I1010 09:11:42.787506 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:459]  dense (Dense)               (None, 1)                    2         ['dense_features[0][0]']      
I1010 09:11:42.787558 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:565]                                                                                                   
I1010 09:11:42.787677 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:459]  dense_1 (Dense)             (None, 1)                    2         ['dense[0][0]']               
I1010 09:11:42.787730 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:565]                                                                                                   
I1010 09:11:42.787886 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:459]  dense_features_1 (DenseFea  (None, 34)                   0         ['pickup_latitude_xf[0][0]',  
I1010 09:11:42.787953 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:459]  tures)                                                              'trip_miles_xf[0][0]',       
I1010 09:11:42.787999 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:459]                                                                      'trip_start_hour_xf[0][0]']  
I1010 09:11:42.788035 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:565]                                                                                                   
I1010 09:11:42.788125 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:459]  concatenate (Concatenate)   (None, 35)                   0         ['dense_1[0][0]',             
I1010 09:11:42.788179 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:459]                                                                      'dense_features_1[0][0]']    
I1010 09:11:42.788217 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:565]                                                                                                   
I1010 09:11:42.788339 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:459]  dense_2 (Dense)             (None, 1)                    36        ['concatenate[0][0]']         
I1010 09:11:42.788386 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:565]                                                                                                   
I1010 09:11:42.788475 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:459]  tf.compat.v1.squeeze (TFOp  (None,)                      0         ['dense_2[0][0]']             
I1010 09:11:42.788525 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:459]  Lambda)                                                                                          
I1010 09:11:42.788561 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:565]                                                                                                   
I1010 09:11:42.788595 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:573] ==================================================================================================
I1010 09:11:42.789077 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:589] Total params: 40 (160.00 Byte)
I1010 09:11:42.789163 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:593] Trainable params: 40 (160.00 Byte)
I1010 09:11:42.789207 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:597] Non-trainable params: 0 (0.00 Byte)
I1010 09:11:42.789242 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:601] __________________________________________________________________________________________________
I1010 09:11:42.862980 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:461] Model: "model_1"
I1010 09:11:42.863101 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:462] __________________________________________________________________________________________________
I1010 09:11:42.863170 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:459]  Layer (type)                Output Shape                 Param #   Connected to                  
I1010 09:11:42.863216 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:464] ==================================================================================================
I1010 09:11:42.863375 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:459]  pickup_latitude_xf (InputL  [(None,)]                    0         []                            
I1010 09:11:42.863436 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:459]  ayer)                                                                                            
I1010 09:11:42.863477 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:565]                                                                                                   
I1010 09:11:42.863576 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:459]  trip_miles_xf (InputLayer)  [(None,)]                    0         []                            
I1010 09:11:42.863620 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:565]                                                                                                   
I1010 09:11:42.863720 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:459]  trip_start_hour_xf (InputL  [(None,)]                    0         []                            
I1010 09:11:42.863772 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:459]  ayer)                                                                                            
I1010 09:11:42.863810 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:565]                                                                                                   
I1010 09:11:42.863965 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:459]  dense_features_2 (DenseFea  (None, 1)                    0         ['pickup_latitude_xf[0][0]',  
I1010 09:11:42.864024 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:459]  tures)                                                              'trip_miles_xf[0][0]',       
I1010 09:11:42.864070 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:459]                                                                      'trip_start_hour_xf[0][0]']  
I1010 09:11:42.864108 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:565]                                                                                                   
I1010 09:11:42.864243 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:459]  dense_3 (Dense)             (None, 1)                    2         ['dense_features_2[0][0]']    
I1010 09:11:42.864294 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:565]                                                                                                   
I1010 09:11:42.864454 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:459]  dense_features_3 (DenseFea  (None, 34)                   0         ['pickup_latitude_xf[0][0]',  
I1010 09:11:42.864512 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:459]  tures)                                                              'trip_miles_xf[0][0]',       
I1010 09:11:42.864562 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:459]                                                                      'trip_start_hour_xf[0][0]']  
I1010 09:11:42.864619 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:565]                                                                                                   
I1010 09:11:42.864729 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:459]  concatenate_1 (Concatenate  (None, 35)                   0         ['dense_3[0][0]',             
I1010 09:11:42.864787 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:459]  )                                                                   'dense_features_3[0][0]']    
I1010 09:11:42.864830 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:565]                                                                                                   
I1010 09:11:42.864967 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:459]  dense_4 (Dense)             (None, 1)                    36        ['concatenate_1[0][0]']       
I1010 09:11:42.865020 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:565]                                                                                                   
I1010 09:11:42.865121 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:459]  tf.compat.v1.squeeze_1 (TF  (None,)                      0         ['dense_4[0][0]']             
I1010 09:11:42.865177 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:459]  OpLambda)                                                                                        
I1010 09:11:42.865219 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:565]                                                                                                   
I1010 09:11:42.865259 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:573] ==================================================================================================
I1010 09:11:42.865767 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:589] Total params: 38 (152.00 Byte)
I1010 09:11:42.865844 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:593] Trainable params: 38 (152.00 Byte)
I1010 09:11:42.865890 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:597] Non-trainable params: 0 (0.00 Byte)
I1010 09:11:42.865928 139726571321152 layer_utils.py:601] __________________________________________________________________________________________________
INFO:tensorflow:time(__main__.ModelTest.testBuildKerasModel): 0.21s
I1010 09:11:42.866127 139726571321152 test_util.py:2462] time(__main__.ModelTest.testBuildKerasModel): 0.21s
[       OK ] ModelTest.testBuildKerasModel
[ RUN      ] ModelTest.test_session
[  SKIPPED ] ModelTest.test_session
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Ran 2 tests in 0.213s

OK (skipped=1)

Step 4. Run your first TFX pipeline

Components in the TFX pipeline will generate outputs for each run as ML Metadata Artifacts, and they need to be stored somewhere. You can use any storage which the KFP cluster can access, and for this example we will use Google Cloud Storage (GCS). A default GCS bucket should have been created automatically. Its name will be <your-project-id>-kubeflowpipelines-default.

Let's upload our sample data to GCS bucket so that we can use it in our pipeline later.

gsutil cp data/data.csv gs://{GOOGLE_CLOUD_PROJECT}-kubeflowpipelines-default/tfx-template/data/taxi/data.csv
BucketNotFoundException: 404 gs://tensorflow-testing-kubeflowpipelines-default bucket does not exist.

Let's create a TFX pipeline using the tfx pipeline create command.

!tfx pipeline create  --pipeline-path=kubeflow_runner.py --endpoint={ENDPOINT} \
--build-image
CLI
Creating pipeline
Detected Kubeflow.
Use --engine flag if you intend to use a different orchestrator.
Failed to load kube config.
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 174, in _new_conn
    conn = connection.create_connection(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/util/connection.py", line 95, in create_connection
    raise err
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/util/connection.py", line 85, in create_connection
    sock.connect(sa)
ConnectionRefusedError: [Errno 111] Connection refused

During handling of the above exception, another exception occurred:

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 714, in urlopen
    httplib_response = self._make_request(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 415, in _make_request
    conn.request(method, url, **httplib_request_kw)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 244, in request
    super(HTTPConnection, self).request(method, url, body=body, headers=headers)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1285, in request
    self._send_request(method, url, body, headers, encode_chunked)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1331, in _send_request
    self.endheaders(body, encode_chunked=encode_chunked)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1280, in endheaders
    self._send_output(message_body, encode_chunked=encode_chunked)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1040, in _send_output
    self.send(msg)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 980, in send
    self.connect()
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 205, in connect
    conn = self._new_conn()
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 186, in _new_conn
    raise NewConnectionError(
urllib3.exceptions.NewConnectionError: <urllib3.connection.HTTPConnection object at 0x7f33869d4a90>: Failed to establish a new connection: [Errno 111] Connection refused

During handling of the above exception, another exception occurred:

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/bin/tfx", line 8, in <module>
    sys.exit(cli_group())
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1157, in __call__
    return self.main(*args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1078, in main
    rv = self.invoke(ctx)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1688, in invoke
    return _process_result(sub_ctx.command.invoke(sub_ctx))
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1688, in invoke
    return _process_result(sub_ctx.command.invoke(sub_ctx))
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1434, in invoke
    return ctx.invoke(self.callback, **ctx.params)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 783, in invoke
    return __callback(*args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/decorators.py", line 92, in new_func
    return ctx.invoke(f, obj, *args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 783, in invoke
    return __callback(*args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/commands/pipeline.py", line 150, in create_pipeline
    handler_factory.create_handler(ctx.flags_dict).create_pipeline()
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/handler/handler_factory.py", line 106, in create_handler
    return detect_handler(flags_dict)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/handler/handler_factory.py", line 60, in detect_handler
    return kubeflow_handler.KubeflowHandler(flags_dict)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/handler/kubeflow_handler.py", line 59, in __init__
    self._client = kfp.Client(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp/_client.py", line 196, in __init__
    if not self._context_setting['namespace'] and self.get_kfp_healthz(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp/_client.py", line 410, in get_kfp_healthz
    response = self._healthz_api.get_healthz()
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api/healthz_service_api.py", line 63, in get_healthz
    return self.get_healthz_with_http_info(**kwargs)  # noqa: E501
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api/healthz_service_api.py", line 134, in get_healthz_with_http_info
    return self.api_client.call_api(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api_client.py", line 364, in call_api
    return self.__call_api(resource_path, method,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api_client.py", line 181, in __call_api
    response_data = self.request(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api_client.py", line 389, in request
    return self.rest_client.GET(url,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/rest.py", line 230, in GET
    return self.request("GET", url,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/rest.py", line 208, in request
    r = self.pool_manager.request(method, url,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/request.py", line 77, in request
    return self.request_encode_url(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/request.py", line 99, in request_encode_url
    return self.urlopen(method, url, **extra_kw)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/poolmanager.py", line 376, in urlopen
    response = conn.urlopen(method, u.request_uri, **kw)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 826, in urlopen
    return self.urlopen(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 826, in urlopen
    return self.urlopen(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 826, in urlopen
    return self.urlopen(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 798, in urlopen
    retries = retries.increment(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/util/retry.py", line 592, in increment
    raise MaxRetryError(_pool, url, error or ResponseError(cause))
urllib3.exceptions.MaxRetryError: HTTPConnectionPool(host='localhost', port=80): Max retries exceeded with url: /apis/v1beta1/healthz (Caused by NewConnectionError('<urllib3.connection.HTTPConnection object at 0x7f33869d4a90>: Failed to establish a new connection: [Errno 111] Connection refused'))

While creating a pipeline, Dockerfile will be generated to build a Docker image. Don't forget to add it to the source control system (for example, git) along with other source files.

Now start an execution run with the newly created pipeline using the tfx run create command.

tfx run create --pipeline-name={PIPELINE_NAME} --endpoint={ENDPOINT}
CLI
Creating a run for pipeline: my_pipeline
Detected Kubeflow.
Use --engine flag if you intend to use a different orchestrator.
Failed to load kube config.
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 174, in _new_conn
    conn = connection.create_connection(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/util/connection.py", line 95, in create_connection
    raise err
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/util/connection.py", line 85, in create_connection
    sock.connect(sa)
ConnectionRefusedError: [Errno 111] Connection refused

During handling of the above exception, another exception occurred:

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 714, in urlopen
    httplib_response = self._make_request(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 415, in _make_request
    conn.request(method, url, **httplib_request_kw)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 244, in request
    super(HTTPConnection, self).request(method, url, body=body, headers=headers)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1285, in request
    self._send_request(method, url, body, headers, encode_chunked)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1331, in _send_request
    self.endheaders(body, encode_chunked=encode_chunked)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1280, in endheaders
    self._send_output(message_body, encode_chunked=encode_chunked)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1040, in _send_output
    self.send(msg)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 980, in send
    self.connect()
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 205, in connect
    conn = self._new_conn()
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 186, in _new_conn
    raise NewConnectionError(
urllib3.exceptions.NewConnectionError: <urllib3.connection.HTTPConnection object at 0x7f22e8e316d0>: Failed to establish a new connection: [Errno 111] Connection refused

During handling of the above exception, another exception occurred:

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/bin/tfx", line 8, in <module>
    sys.exit(cli_group())
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1157, in __call__
    return self.main(*args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1078, in main
    rv = self.invoke(ctx)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1688, in invoke
    return _process_result(sub_ctx.command.invoke(sub_ctx))
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1688, in invoke
    return _process_result(sub_ctx.command.invoke(sub_ctx))
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1434, in invoke
    return ctx.invoke(self.callback, **ctx.params)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 783, in invoke
    return __callback(*args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/decorators.py", line 92, in new_func
    return ctx.invoke(f, obj, *args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 783, in invoke
    return __callback(*args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/commands/run.py", line 94, in create_run
    handler = handler_factory.create_handler(ctx.flags_dict)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/handler/handler_factory.py", line 106, in create_handler
    return detect_handler(flags_dict)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/handler/handler_factory.py", line 60, in detect_handler
    return kubeflow_handler.KubeflowHandler(flags_dict)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/handler/kubeflow_handler.py", line 59, in __init__
    self._client = kfp.Client(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp/_client.py", line 196, in __init__
    if not self._context_setting['namespace'] and self.get_kfp_healthz(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp/_client.py", line 410, in get_kfp_healthz
    response = self._healthz_api.get_healthz()
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api/healthz_service_api.py", line 63, in get_healthz
    return self.get_healthz_with_http_info(**kwargs)  # noqa: E501
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api/healthz_service_api.py", line 134, in get_healthz_with_http_info
    return self.api_client.call_api(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api_client.py", line 364, in call_api
    return self.__call_api(resource_path, method,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api_client.py", line 181, in __call_api
    response_data = self.request(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api_client.py", line 389, in request
    return self.rest_client.GET(url,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/rest.py", line 230, in GET
    return self.request("GET", url,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/rest.py", line 208, in request
    r = self.pool_manager.request(method, url,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/request.py", line 77, in request
    return self.request_encode_url(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/request.py", line 99, in request_encode_url
    return self.urlopen(method, url, **extra_kw)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/poolmanager.py", line 376, in urlopen
    response = conn.urlopen(method, u.request_uri, **kw)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 826, in urlopen
    return self.urlopen(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 826, in urlopen
    return self.urlopen(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 826, in urlopen
    return self.urlopen(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 798, in urlopen
    retries = retries.increment(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/util/retry.py", line 592, in increment
    raise MaxRetryError(_pool, url, error or ResponseError(cause))
urllib3.exceptions.MaxRetryError: HTTPConnectionPool(host='localhost', port=80): Max retries exceeded with url: /apis/v1beta1/healthz (Caused by NewConnectionError('<urllib3.connection.HTTPConnection object at 0x7f22e8e316d0>: Failed to establish a new connection: [Errno 111] Connection refused'))

Or, you can also run the pipeline in the KFP Dashboard. The new execution run will be listed under Experiments in the KFP Dashboard. Clicking into the experiment will allow you to monitor progress and visualize the artifacts created during the execution run.

However, we recommend visiting the KFP Dashboard. You can access the KFP Dashboard from the Cloud AI Platform Pipelines menu in Google Cloud Console. Once you visit the dashboard, you will be able to find the pipeline, and access a wealth of information about the pipeline. For example, you can find your runs under the Experiments menu, and when you open your execution run under Experiments you can find all your artifacts from the pipeline under Artifacts menu.

One of the major sources of failure is permission related problems. Please make sure your KFP cluster has permissions to access Google Cloud APIs. This can be configured when you create a KFP cluster in GCP, or see Troubleshooting document in GCP.

Step 5. Add components for data validation.

In this step, you will add components for data validation including StatisticsGen, SchemaGen, and ExampleValidator. If you are interested in data validation, please see Get started with Tensorflow Data Validation.

Double-click to change directory to pipeline and double-click again to open pipeline.py. Find and uncomment the 3 lines which add StatisticsGen, SchemaGen, and ExampleValidator to the pipeline. (Tip: search for comments containing TODO(step 5):). Make sure to save pipeline.py after you edit it.

You now need to update the existing pipeline with modified pipeline definition. Use the tfx pipeline update command to update your pipeline, followed by the tfx run create command to create a new execution run of your updated pipeline.

# Update the pipeline
!tfx pipeline update \
--pipeline-path=kubeflow_runner.py \
--endpoint={ENDPOINT}
# You can run the pipeline the same way.
!tfx run create --pipeline-name {PIPELINE_NAME} --endpoint={ENDPOINT}
CLI
Updating pipeline
Detected Kubeflow.
Use --engine flag if you intend to use a different orchestrator.
Failed to load kube config.
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 174, in _new_conn
    conn = connection.create_connection(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/util/connection.py", line 95, in create_connection
    raise err
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/util/connection.py", line 85, in create_connection
    sock.connect(sa)
ConnectionRefusedError: [Errno 111] Connection refused

During handling of the above exception, another exception occurred:

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 714, in urlopen
    httplib_response = self._make_request(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 415, in _make_request
    conn.request(method, url, **httplib_request_kw)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 244, in request
    super(HTTPConnection, self).request(method, url, body=body, headers=headers)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1285, in request
    self._send_request(method, url, body, headers, encode_chunked)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1331, in _send_request
    self.endheaders(body, encode_chunked=encode_chunked)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1280, in endheaders
    self._send_output(message_body, encode_chunked=encode_chunked)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1040, in _send_output
    self.send(msg)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 980, in send
    self.connect()
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 205, in connect
    conn = self._new_conn()
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 186, in _new_conn
    raise NewConnectionError(
urllib3.exceptions.NewConnectionError: <urllib3.connection.HTTPConnection object at 0x7fd5fd0fa820>: Failed to establish a new connection: [Errno 111] Connection refused

During handling of the above exception, another exception occurred:

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/bin/tfx", line 8, in <module>
    sys.exit(cli_group())
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1157, in __call__
    return self.main(*args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1078, in main
    rv = self.invoke(ctx)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1688, in invoke
    return _process_result(sub_ctx.command.invoke(sub_ctx))
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1688, in invoke
    return _process_result(sub_ctx.command.invoke(sub_ctx))
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1434, in invoke
    return ctx.invoke(self.callback, **ctx.params)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 783, in invoke
    return __callback(*args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/decorators.py", line 92, in new_func
    return ctx.invoke(f, obj, *args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 783, in invoke
    return __callback(*args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/commands/pipeline.py", line 215, in update_pipeline
    handler_factory.create_handler(ctx.flags_dict).update_pipeline()
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/handler/handler_factory.py", line 106, in create_handler
    return detect_handler(flags_dict)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/handler/handler_factory.py", line 60, in detect_handler
    return kubeflow_handler.KubeflowHandler(flags_dict)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/handler/kubeflow_handler.py", line 59, in __init__
    self._client = kfp.Client(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp/_client.py", line 196, in __init__
    if not self._context_setting['namespace'] and self.get_kfp_healthz(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp/_client.py", line 410, in get_kfp_healthz
    response = self._healthz_api.get_healthz()
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api/healthz_service_api.py", line 63, in get_healthz
    return self.get_healthz_with_http_info(**kwargs)  # noqa: E501
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api/healthz_service_api.py", line 134, in get_healthz_with_http_info
    return self.api_client.call_api(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api_client.py", line 364, in call_api
    return self.__call_api(resource_path, method,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api_client.py", line 181, in __call_api
    response_data = self.request(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api_client.py", line 389, in request
    return self.rest_client.GET(url,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/rest.py", line 230, in GET
    return self.request("GET", url,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/rest.py", line 208, in request
    r = self.pool_manager.request(method, url,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/request.py", line 77, in request
    return self.request_encode_url(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/request.py", line 99, in request_encode_url
    return self.urlopen(method, url, **extra_kw)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/poolmanager.py", line 376, in urlopen
    response = conn.urlopen(method, u.request_uri, **kw)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 826, in urlopen
    return self.urlopen(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 826, in urlopen
    return self.urlopen(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 826, in urlopen
    return self.urlopen(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 798, in urlopen
    retries = retries.increment(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/util/retry.py", line 592, in increment
    raise MaxRetryError(_pool, url, error or ResponseError(cause))
urllib3.exceptions.MaxRetryError: HTTPConnectionPool(host='localhost', port=80): Max retries exceeded with url: /apis/v1beta1/healthz (Caused by NewConnectionError('<urllib3.connection.HTTPConnection object at 0x7fd5fd0fa820>: Failed to establish a new connection: [Errno 111] Connection refused'))
CLI
Creating a run for pipeline: my_pipeline
Detected Kubeflow.
Use --engine flag if you intend to use a different orchestrator.
Failed to load kube config.
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 174, in _new_conn
    conn = connection.create_connection(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/util/connection.py", line 95, in create_connection
    raise err
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/util/connection.py", line 85, in create_connection
    sock.connect(sa)
ConnectionRefusedError: [Errno 111] Connection refused

During handling of the above exception, another exception occurred:

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 714, in urlopen
    httplib_response = self._make_request(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 415, in _make_request
    conn.request(method, url, **httplib_request_kw)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 244, in request
    super(HTTPConnection, self).request(method, url, body=body, headers=headers)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1285, in request
    self._send_request(method, url, body, headers, encode_chunked)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1331, in _send_request
    self.endheaders(body, encode_chunked=encode_chunked)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1280, in endheaders
    self._send_output(message_body, encode_chunked=encode_chunked)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1040, in _send_output
    self.send(msg)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 980, in send
    self.connect()
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 205, in connect
    conn = self._new_conn()
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 186, in _new_conn
    raise NewConnectionError(
urllib3.exceptions.NewConnectionError: <urllib3.connection.HTTPConnection object at 0x7f9c1812ea00>: Failed to establish a new connection: [Errno 111] Connection refused

During handling of the above exception, another exception occurred:

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/bin/tfx", line 8, in <module>
    sys.exit(cli_group())
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1157, in __call__
    return self.main(*args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1078, in main
    rv = self.invoke(ctx)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1688, in invoke
    return _process_result(sub_ctx.command.invoke(sub_ctx))
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1688, in invoke
    return _process_result(sub_ctx.command.invoke(sub_ctx))
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1434, in invoke
    return ctx.invoke(self.callback, **ctx.params)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 783, in invoke
    return __callback(*args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/decorators.py", line 92, in new_func
    return ctx.invoke(f, obj, *args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 783, in invoke
    return __callback(*args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/commands/run.py", line 94, in create_run
    handler = handler_factory.create_handler(ctx.flags_dict)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/handler/handler_factory.py", line 106, in create_handler
    return detect_handler(flags_dict)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/handler/handler_factory.py", line 60, in detect_handler
    return kubeflow_handler.KubeflowHandler(flags_dict)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/handler/kubeflow_handler.py", line 59, in __init__
    self._client = kfp.Client(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp/_client.py", line 196, in __init__
    if not self._context_setting['namespace'] and self.get_kfp_healthz(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp/_client.py", line 410, in get_kfp_healthz
    response = self._healthz_api.get_healthz()
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api/healthz_service_api.py", line 63, in get_healthz
    return self.get_healthz_with_http_info(**kwargs)  # noqa: E501
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api/healthz_service_api.py", line 134, in get_healthz_with_http_info
    return self.api_client.call_api(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api_client.py", line 364, in call_api
    return self.__call_api(resource_path, method,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api_client.py", line 181, in __call_api
    response_data = self.request(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api_client.py", line 389, in request
    return self.rest_client.GET(url,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/rest.py", line 230, in GET
    return self.request("GET", url,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/rest.py", line 208, in request
    r = self.pool_manager.request(method, url,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/request.py", line 77, in request
    return self.request_encode_url(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/request.py", line 99, in request_encode_url
    return self.urlopen(method, url, **extra_kw)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/poolmanager.py", line 376, in urlopen
    response = conn.urlopen(method, u.request_uri, **kw)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 826, in urlopen
    return self.urlopen(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 826, in urlopen
    return self.urlopen(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 826, in urlopen
    return self.urlopen(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 798, in urlopen
    retries = retries.increment(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/util/retry.py", line 592, in increment
    raise MaxRetryError(_pool, url, error or ResponseError(cause))
urllib3.exceptions.MaxRetryError: HTTPConnectionPool(host='localhost', port=80): Max retries exceeded with url: /apis/v1beta1/healthz (Caused by NewConnectionError('<urllib3.connection.HTTPConnection object at 0x7f9c1812ea00>: Failed to establish a new connection: [Errno 111] Connection refused'))

Check pipeline outputs

Visit the KFP dashboard to find pipeline outputs in the page for your pipeline run. Click the Experiments tab on the left, and All runs in the Experiments page. You should be able to find the latest run under the name of your pipeline.

Step 6. Add components for training.

In this step, you will add components for training and model validation including Transform, Trainer, Resolver, Evaluator, and Pusher.

Double-click to open pipeline.py. Find and uncomment the 5 lines which add Transform, Trainer, Resolver, Evaluator and Pusher to the pipeline. (Tip: search for TODO(step 6):)

As you did before, you now need to update the existing pipeline with the modified pipeline definition. The instructions are the same as Step 5. Update the pipeline using tfx pipeline update, and create an execution run using tfx run create.

!tfx pipeline update \
--pipeline-path=kubeflow_runner.py \
--endpoint={ENDPOINT}
!tfx run create --pipeline-name {PIPELINE_NAME} --endpoint={ENDPOINT}
CLI
Updating pipeline
Detected Kubeflow.
Use --engine flag if you intend to use a different orchestrator.
Failed to load kube config.
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 174, in _new_conn
    conn = connection.create_connection(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/util/connection.py", line 95, in create_connection
    raise err
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/util/connection.py", line 85, in create_connection
    sock.connect(sa)
ConnectionRefusedError: [Errno 111] Connection refused

During handling of the above exception, another exception occurred:

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 714, in urlopen
    httplib_response = self._make_request(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 415, in _make_request
    conn.request(method, url, **httplib_request_kw)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 244, in request
    super(HTTPConnection, self).request(method, url, body=body, headers=headers)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1285, in request
    self._send_request(method, url, body, headers, encode_chunked)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1331, in _send_request
    self.endheaders(body, encode_chunked=encode_chunked)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1280, in endheaders
    self._send_output(message_body, encode_chunked=encode_chunked)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1040, in _send_output
    self.send(msg)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 980, in send
    self.connect()
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 205, in connect
    conn = self._new_conn()
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 186, in _new_conn
    raise NewConnectionError(
urllib3.exceptions.NewConnectionError: <urllib3.connection.HTTPConnection object at 0x7fcec5d63760>: Failed to establish a new connection: [Errno 111] Connection refused

During handling of the above exception, another exception occurred:

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/bin/tfx", line 8, in <module>
    sys.exit(cli_group())
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1157, in __call__
    return self.main(*args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1078, in main
    rv = self.invoke(ctx)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1688, in invoke
    return _process_result(sub_ctx.command.invoke(sub_ctx))
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1688, in invoke
    return _process_result(sub_ctx.command.invoke(sub_ctx))
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1434, in invoke
    return ctx.invoke(self.callback, **ctx.params)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 783, in invoke
    return __callback(*args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/decorators.py", line 92, in new_func
    return ctx.invoke(f, obj, *args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 783, in invoke
    return __callback(*args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/commands/pipeline.py", line 215, in update_pipeline
    handler_factory.create_handler(ctx.flags_dict).update_pipeline()
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/handler/handler_factory.py", line 106, in create_handler
    return detect_handler(flags_dict)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/handler/handler_factory.py", line 60, in detect_handler
    return kubeflow_handler.KubeflowHandler(flags_dict)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/handler/kubeflow_handler.py", line 59, in __init__
    self._client = kfp.Client(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp/_client.py", line 196, in __init__
    if not self._context_setting['namespace'] and self.get_kfp_healthz(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp/_client.py", line 410, in get_kfp_healthz
    response = self._healthz_api.get_healthz()
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api/healthz_service_api.py", line 63, in get_healthz
    return self.get_healthz_with_http_info(**kwargs)  # noqa: E501
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api/healthz_service_api.py", line 134, in get_healthz_with_http_info
    return self.api_client.call_api(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api_client.py", line 364, in call_api
    return self.__call_api(resource_path, method,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api_client.py", line 181, in __call_api
    response_data = self.request(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api_client.py", line 389, in request
    return self.rest_client.GET(url,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/rest.py", line 230, in GET
    return self.request("GET", url,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/rest.py", line 208, in request
    r = self.pool_manager.request(method, url,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/request.py", line 77, in request
    return self.request_encode_url(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/request.py", line 99, in request_encode_url
    return self.urlopen(method, url, **extra_kw)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/poolmanager.py", line 376, in urlopen
    response = conn.urlopen(method, u.request_uri, **kw)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 826, in urlopen
    return self.urlopen(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 826, in urlopen
    return self.urlopen(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 826, in urlopen
    return self.urlopen(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 798, in urlopen
    retries = retries.increment(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/util/retry.py", line 592, in increment
    raise MaxRetryError(_pool, url, error or ResponseError(cause))
urllib3.exceptions.MaxRetryError: HTTPConnectionPool(host='localhost', port=80): Max retries exceeded with url: /apis/v1beta1/healthz (Caused by NewConnectionError('<urllib3.connection.HTTPConnection object at 0x7fcec5d63760>: Failed to establish a new connection: [Errno 111] Connection refused'))
CLI
Creating a run for pipeline: my_pipeline
Detected Kubeflow.
Use --engine flag if you intend to use a different orchestrator.
Failed to load kube config.
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 174, in _new_conn
    conn = connection.create_connection(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/util/connection.py", line 95, in create_connection
    raise err
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/util/connection.py", line 85, in create_connection
    sock.connect(sa)
ConnectionRefusedError: [Errno 111] Connection refused

During handling of the above exception, another exception occurred:

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 714, in urlopen
    httplib_response = self._make_request(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 415, in _make_request
    conn.request(method, url, **httplib_request_kw)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 244, in request
    super(HTTPConnection, self).request(method, url, body=body, headers=headers)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1285, in request
    self._send_request(method, url, body, headers, encode_chunked)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1331, in _send_request
    self.endheaders(body, encode_chunked=encode_chunked)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1280, in endheaders
    self._send_output(message_body, encode_chunked=encode_chunked)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1040, in _send_output
    self.send(msg)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 980, in send
    self.connect()
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 205, in connect
    conn = self._new_conn()
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 186, in _new_conn
    raise NewConnectionError(
urllib3.exceptions.NewConnectionError: <urllib3.connection.HTTPConnection object at 0x7f68fe6004c0>: Failed to establish a new connection: [Errno 111] Connection refused

During handling of the above exception, another exception occurred:

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/bin/tfx", line 8, in <module>
    sys.exit(cli_group())
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1157, in __call__
    return self.main(*args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1078, in main
    rv = self.invoke(ctx)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1688, in invoke
    return _process_result(sub_ctx.command.invoke(sub_ctx))
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1688, in invoke
    return _process_result(sub_ctx.command.invoke(sub_ctx))
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1434, in invoke
    return ctx.invoke(self.callback, **ctx.params)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 783, in invoke
    return __callback(*args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/decorators.py", line 92, in new_func
    return ctx.invoke(f, obj, *args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 783, in invoke
    return __callback(*args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/commands/run.py", line 94, in create_run
    handler = handler_factory.create_handler(ctx.flags_dict)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/handler/handler_factory.py", line 106, in create_handler
    return detect_handler(flags_dict)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/handler/handler_factory.py", line 60, in detect_handler
    return kubeflow_handler.KubeflowHandler(flags_dict)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/handler/kubeflow_handler.py", line 59, in __init__
    self._client = kfp.Client(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp/_client.py", line 196, in __init__
    if not self._context_setting['namespace'] and self.get_kfp_healthz(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp/_client.py", line 410, in get_kfp_healthz
    response = self._healthz_api.get_healthz()
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api/healthz_service_api.py", line 63, in get_healthz
    return self.get_healthz_with_http_info(**kwargs)  # noqa: E501
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api/healthz_service_api.py", line 134, in get_healthz_with_http_info
    return self.api_client.call_api(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api_client.py", line 364, in call_api
    return self.__call_api(resource_path, method,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api_client.py", line 181, in __call_api
    response_data = self.request(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api_client.py", line 389, in request
    return self.rest_client.GET(url,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/rest.py", line 230, in GET
    return self.request("GET", url,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/rest.py", line 208, in request
    r = self.pool_manager.request(method, url,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/request.py", line 77, in request
    return self.request_encode_url(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/request.py", line 99, in request_encode_url
    return self.urlopen(method, url, **extra_kw)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/poolmanager.py", line 376, in urlopen
    response = conn.urlopen(method, u.request_uri, **kw)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 826, in urlopen
    return self.urlopen(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 826, in urlopen
    return self.urlopen(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 826, in urlopen
    return self.urlopen(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 798, in urlopen
    retries = retries.increment(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/util/retry.py", line 592, in increment
    raise MaxRetryError(_pool, url, error or ResponseError(cause))
urllib3.exceptions.MaxRetryError: HTTPConnectionPool(host='localhost', port=80): Max retries exceeded with url: /apis/v1beta1/healthz (Caused by NewConnectionError('<urllib3.connection.HTTPConnection object at 0x7f68fe6004c0>: Failed to establish a new connection: [Errno 111] Connection refused'))

When this execution run finishes successfully, you have now created and run your first TFX pipeline in AI Platform Pipelines!

Step 7. (Optional) Try BigQueryExampleGen

BigQuery is a serverless, highly scalable, and cost-effective cloud data warehouse. BigQuery can be used as a source for training examples in TFX. In this step, we will add BigQueryExampleGen to the pipeline.

Double-click to open pipeline.py. Comment out CsvExampleGen and uncomment the line which creates an instance of BigQueryExampleGen. You also need to uncomment the query argument of the create_pipeline function.

We need to specify which GCP project to use for BigQuery, and this is done by setting --project in beam_pipeline_args when creating a pipeline.

Double-click to open configs.py. Uncomment the definition of GOOGLE_CLOUD_REGION, BIG_QUERY_WITH_DIRECT_RUNNER_BEAM_PIPELINE_ARGS and BIG_QUERY_QUERY. You should replace the region value in this file with the correct values for your GCP project.

Change directory one level up. Click the name of the directory above the file list. The name of the directory is the name of the pipeline which is my_pipeline if you didn't change.

Double-click to open kubeflow_runner.py. Uncomment two arguments, query and beam_pipeline_args, for the create_pipeline function.

Now the pipeline is ready to use BigQuery as an example source. Update the pipeline as before and create a new execution run as we did in step 5 and 6.

!tfx pipeline update \
--pipeline-path=kubeflow_runner.py \
--endpoint={ENDPOINT}
!tfx run create --pipeline-name {PIPELINE_NAME} --endpoint={ENDPOINT}
CLI
Updating pipeline
Detected Kubeflow.
Use --engine flag if you intend to use a different orchestrator.
Failed to load kube config.
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 174, in _new_conn
    conn = connection.create_connection(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/util/connection.py", line 95, in create_connection
    raise err
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/util/connection.py", line 85, in create_connection
    sock.connect(sa)
ConnectionRefusedError: [Errno 111] Connection refused

During handling of the above exception, another exception occurred:

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 714, in urlopen
    httplib_response = self._make_request(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 415, in _make_request
    conn.request(method, url, **httplib_request_kw)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 244, in request
    super(HTTPConnection, self).request(method, url, body=body, headers=headers)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1285, in request
    self._send_request(method, url, body, headers, encode_chunked)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1331, in _send_request
    self.endheaders(body, encode_chunked=encode_chunked)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1280, in endheaders
    self._send_output(message_body, encode_chunked=encode_chunked)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1040, in _send_output
    self.send(msg)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 980, in send
    self.connect()
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 205, in connect
    conn = self._new_conn()
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 186, in _new_conn
    raise NewConnectionError(
urllib3.exceptions.NewConnectionError: <urllib3.connection.HTTPConnection object at 0x7f35baaf6070>: Failed to establish a new connection: [Errno 111] Connection refused

During handling of the above exception, another exception occurred:

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/bin/tfx", line 8, in <module>
    sys.exit(cli_group())
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1157, in __call__
    return self.main(*args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1078, in main
    rv = self.invoke(ctx)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1688, in invoke
    return _process_result(sub_ctx.command.invoke(sub_ctx))
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1688, in invoke
    return _process_result(sub_ctx.command.invoke(sub_ctx))
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1434, in invoke
    return ctx.invoke(self.callback, **ctx.params)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 783, in invoke
    return __callback(*args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/decorators.py", line 92, in new_func
    return ctx.invoke(f, obj, *args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 783, in invoke
    return __callback(*args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/commands/pipeline.py", line 215, in update_pipeline
    handler_factory.create_handler(ctx.flags_dict).update_pipeline()
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/handler/handler_factory.py", line 106, in create_handler
    return detect_handler(flags_dict)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/handler/handler_factory.py", line 60, in detect_handler
    return kubeflow_handler.KubeflowHandler(flags_dict)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/handler/kubeflow_handler.py", line 59, in __init__
    self._client = kfp.Client(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp/_client.py", line 196, in __init__
    if not self._context_setting['namespace'] and self.get_kfp_healthz(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp/_client.py", line 410, in get_kfp_healthz
    response = self._healthz_api.get_healthz()
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api/healthz_service_api.py", line 63, in get_healthz
    return self.get_healthz_with_http_info(**kwargs)  # noqa: E501
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api/healthz_service_api.py", line 134, in get_healthz_with_http_info
    return self.api_client.call_api(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api_client.py", line 364, in call_api
    return self.__call_api(resource_path, method,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api_client.py", line 181, in __call_api
    response_data = self.request(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api_client.py", line 389, in request
    return self.rest_client.GET(url,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/rest.py", line 230, in GET
    return self.request("GET", url,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/rest.py", line 208, in request
    r = self.pool_manager.request(method, url,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/request.py", line 77, in request
    return self.request_encode_url(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/request.py", line 99, in request_encode_url
    return self.urlopen(method, url, **extra_kw)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/poolmanager.py", line 376, in urlopen
    response = conn.urlopen(method, u.request_uri, **kw)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 826, in urlopen
    return self.urlopen(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 826, in urlopen
    return self.urlopen(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 826, in urlopen
    return self.urlopen(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 798, in urlopen
    retries = retries.increment(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/util/retry.py", line 592, in increment
    raise MaxRetryError(_pool, url, error or ResponseError(cause))
urllib3.exceptions.MaxRetryError: HTTPConnectionPool(host='localhost', port=80): Max retries exceeded with url: /apis/v1beta1/healthz (Caused by NewConnectionError('<urllib3.connection.HTTPConnection object at 0x7f35baaf6070>: Failed to establish a new connection: [Errno 111] Connection refused'))
CLI
Creating a run for pipeline: my_pipeline
Detected Kubeflow.
Use --engine flag if you intend to use a different orchestrator.
Failed to load kube config.
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 174, in _new_conn
    conn = connection.create_connection(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/util/connection.py", line 95, in create_connection
    raise err
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/util/connection.py", line 85, in create_connection
    sock.connect(sa)
ConnectionRefusedError: [Errno 111] Connection refused

During handling of the above exception, another exception occurred:

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 714, in urlopen
    httplib_response = self._make_request(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 415, in _make_request
    conn.request(method, url, **httplib_request_kw)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 244, in request
    super(HTTPConnection, self).request(method, url, body=body, headers=headers)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1285, in request
    self._send_request(method, url, body, headers, encode_chunked)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1331, in _send_request
    self.endheaders(body, encode_chunked=encode_chunked)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1280, in endheaders
    self._send_output(message_body, encode_chunked=encode_chunked)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1040, in _send_output
    self.send(msg)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 980, in send
    self.connect()
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 205, in connect
    conn = self._new_conn()
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 186, in _new_conn
    raise NewConnectionError(
urllib3.exceptions.NewConnectionError: <urllib3.connection.HTTPConnection object at 0x7effd41020a0>: Failed to establish a new connection: [Errno 111] Connection refused

During handling of the above exception, another exception occurred:

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/bin/tfx", line 8, in <module>
    sys.exit(cli_group())
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1157, in __call__
    return self.main(*args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1078, in main
    rv = self.invoke(ctx)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1688, in invoke
    return _process_result(sub_ctx.command.invoke(sub_ctx))
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1688, in invoke
    return _process_result(sub_ctx.command.invoke(sub_ctx))
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1434, in invoke
    return ctx.invoke(self.callback, **ctx.params)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 783, in invoke
    return __callback(*args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/decorators.py", line 92, in new_func
    return ctx.invoke(f, obj, *args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 783, in invoke
    return __callback(*args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/commands/run.py", line 94, in create_run
    handler = handler_factory.create_handler(ctx.flags_dict)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/handler/handler_factory.py", line 106, in create_handler
    return detect_handler(flags_dict)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/handler/handler_factory.py", line 60, in detect_handler
    return kubeflow_handler.KubeflowHandler(flags_dict)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/handler/kubeflow_handler.py", line 59, in __init__
    self._client = kfp.Client(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp/_client.py", line 196, in __init__
    if not self._context_setting['namespace'] and self.get_kfp_healthz(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp/_client.py", line 410, in get_kfp_healthz
    response = self._healthz_api.get_healthz()
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api/healthz_service_api.py", line 63, in get_healthz
    return self.get_healthz_with_http_info(**kwargs)  # noqa: E501
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api/healthz_service_api.py", line 134, in get_healthz_with_http_info
    return self.api_client.call_api(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api_client.py", line 364, in call_api
    return self.__call_api(resource_path, method,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api_client.py", line 181, in __call_api
    response_data = self.request(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api_client.py", line 389, in request
    return self.rest_client.GET(url,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/rest.py", line 230, in GET
    return self.request("GET", url,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/rest.py", line 208, in request
    r = self.pool_manager.request(method, url,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/request.py", line 77, in request
    return self.request_encode_url(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/request.py", line 99, in request_encode_url
    return self.urlopen(method, url, **extra_kw)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/poolmanager.py", line 376, in urlopen
    response = conn.urlopen(method, u.request_uri, **kw)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 826, in urlopen
    return self.urlopen(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 826, in urlopen
    return self.urlopen(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 826, in urlopen
    return self.urlopen(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 798, in urlopen
    retries = retries.increment(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/util/retry.py", line 592, in increment
    raise MaxRetryError(_pool, url, error or ResponseError(cause))
urllib3.exceptions.MaxRetryError: HTTPConnectionPool(host='localhost', port=80): Max retries exceeded with url: /apis/v1beta1/healthz (Caused by NewConnectionError('<urllib3.connection.HTTPConnection object at 0x7effd41020a0>: Failed to establish a new connection: [Errno 111] Connection refused'))

Step 8. (Optional) Try Dataflow with KFP

Several TFX Components uses Apache Beam to implement data-parallel pipelines, and it means that you can distribute data processing workloads using Google Cloud Dataflow. In this step, we will set the Kubeflow orchestrator to use dataflow as the data processing back-end for Apache Beam.

Double-click pipeline to change directory, and double-click to open configs.py. Uncomment the definition of GOOGLE_CLOUD_REGION, and DATAFLOW_BEAM_PIPELINE_ARGS.

Change directory one level up. Click the name of the directory above the file list. The name of the directory is the name of the pipeline which is my_pipeline if you didn't change.

Double-click to open kubeflow_runner.py. Uncomment beam_pipeline_args. (Also make sure to comment out current beam_pipeline_args that you added in Step 7.)

Now the pipeline is ready to use Dataflow. Update the pipeline and create an execution run as we did in step 5 and 6.

!tfx pipeline update \
--pipeline-path=kubeflow_runner.py \
--endpoint={ENDPOINT}
!tfx run create --pipeline-name {PIPELINE_NAME} --endpoint={ENDPOINT}
CLI
Updating pipeline
Detected Kubeflow.
Use --engine flag if you intend to use a different orchestrator.
Failed to load kube config.
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 174, in _new_conn
    conn = connection.create_connection(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/util/connection.py", line 95, in create_connection
    raise err
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/util/connection.py", line 85, in create_connection
    sock.connect(sa)
ConnectionRefusedError: [Errno 111] Connection refused

During handling of the above exception, another exception occurred:

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 714, in urlopen
    httplib_response = self._make_request(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 415, in _make_request
    conn.request(method, url, **httplib_request_kw)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 244, in request
    super(HTTPConnection, self).request(method, url, body=body, headers=headers)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1285, in request
    self._send_request(method, url, body, headers, encode_chunked)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1331, in _send_request
    self.endheaders(body, encode_chunked=encode_chunked)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1280, in endheaders
    self._send_output(message_body, encode_chunked=encode_chunked)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1040, in _send_output
    self.send(msg)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 980, in send
    self.connect()
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 205, in connect
    conn = self._new_conn()
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 186, in _new_conn
    raise NewConnectionError(
urllib3.exceptions.NewConnectionError: <urllib3.connection.HTTPConnection object at 0x7f8971241a00>: Failed to establish a new connection: [Errno 111] Connection refused

During handling of the above exception, another exception occurred:

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/bin/tfx", line 8, in <module>
    sys.exit(cli_group())
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1157, in __call__
    return self.main(*args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1078, in main
    rv = self.invoke(ctx)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1688, in invoke
    return _process_result(sub_ctx.command.invoke(sub_ctx))
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1688, in invoke
    return _process_result(sub_ctx.command.invoke(sub_ctx))
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1434, in invoke
    return ctx.invoke(self.callback, **ctx.params)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 783, in invoke
    return __callback(*args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/decorators.py", line 92, in new_func
    return ctx.invoke(f, obj, *args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 783, in invoke
    return __callback(*args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/commands/pipeline.py", line 215, in update_pipeline
    handler_factory.create_handler(ctx.flags_dict).update_pipeline()
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/handler/handler_factory.py", line 106, in create_handler
    return detect_handler(flags_dict)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/handler/handler_factory.py", line 60, in detect_handler
    return kubeflow_handler.KubeflowHandler(flags_dict)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/handler/kubeflow_handler.py", line 59, in __init__
    self._client = kfp.Client(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp/_client.py", line 196, in __init__
    if not self._context_setting['namespace'] and self.get_kfp_healthz(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp/_client.py", line 410, in get_kfp_healthz
    response = self._healthz_api.get_healthz()
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api/healthz_service_api.py", line 63, in get_healthz
    return self.get_healthz_with_http_info(**kwargs)  # noqa: E501
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api/healthz_service_api.py", line 134, in get_healthz_with_http_info
    return self.api_client.call_api(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api_client.py", line 364, in call_api
    return self.__call_api(resource_path, method,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api_client.py", line 181, in __call_api
    response_data = self.request(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api_client.py", line 389, in request
    return self.rest_client.GET(url,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/rest.py", line 230, in GET
    return self.request("GET", url,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/rest.py", line 208, in request
    r = self.pool_manager.request(method, url,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/request.py", line 77, in request
    return self.request_encode_url(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/request.py", line 99, in request_encode_url
    return self.urlopen(method, url, **extra_kw)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/poolmanager.py", line 376, in urlopen
    response = conn.urlopen(method, u.request_uri, **kw)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 826, in urlopen
    return self.urlopen(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 826, in urlopen
    return self.urlopen(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 826, in urlopen
    return self.urlopen(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 798, in urlopen
    retries = retries.increment(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/util/retry.py", line 592, in increment
    raise MaxRetryError(_pool, url, error or ResponseError(cause))
urllib3.exceptions.MaxRetryError: HTTPConnectionPool(host='localhost', port=80): Max retries exceeded with url: /apis/v1beta1/healthz (Caused by NewConnectionError('<urllib3.connection.HTTPConnection object at 0x7f8971241a00>: Failed to establish a new connection: [Errno 111] Connection refused'))
CLI
Creating a run for pipeline: my_pipeline
Detected Kubeflow.
Use --engine flag if you intend to use a different orchestrator.
Failed to load kube config.
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 174, in _new_conn
    conn = connection.create_connection(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/util/connection.py", line 95, in create_connection
    raise err
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/util/connection.py", line 85, in create_connection
    sock.connect(sa)
ConnectionRefusedError: [Errno 111] Connection refused

During handling of the above exception, another exception occurred:

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 714, in urlopen
    httplib_response = self._make_request(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 415, in _make_request
    conn.request(method, url, **httplib_request_kw)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 244, in request
    super(HTTPConnection, self).request(method, url, body=body, headers=headers)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1285, in request
    self._send_request(method, url, body, headers, encode_chunked)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1331, in _send_request
    self.endheaders(body, encode_chunked=encode_chunked)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1280, in endheaders
    self._send_output(message_body, encode_chunked=encode_chunked)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1040, in _send_output
    self.send(msg)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 980, in send
    self.connect()
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 205, in connect
    conn = self._new_conn()
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 186, in _new_conn
    raise NewConnectionError(
urllib3.exceptions.NewConnectionError: <urllib3.connection.HTTPConnection object at 0x7fcfd34eca00>: Failed to establish a new connection: [Errno 111] Connection refused

During handling of the above exception, another exception occurred:

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/bin/tfx", line 8, in <module>
    sys.exit(cli_group())
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1157, in __call__
    return self.main(*args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1078, in main
    rv = self.invoke(ctx)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1688, in invoke
    return _process_result(sub_ctx.command.invoke(sub_ctx))
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1688, in invoke
    return _process_result(sub_ctx.command.invoke(sub_ctx))
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1434, in invoke
    return ctx.invoke(self.callback, **ctx.params)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 783, in invoke
    return __callback(*args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/decorators.py", line 92, in new_func
    return ctx.invoke(f, obj, *args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 783, in invoke
    return __callback(*args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/commands/run.py", line 94, in create_run
    handler = handler_factory.create_handler(ctx.flags_dict)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/handler/handler_factory.py", line 106, in create_handler
    return detect_handler(flags_dict)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/handler/handler_factory.py", line 60, in detect_handler
    return kubeflow_handler.KubeflowHandler(flags_dict)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/handler/kubeflow_handler.py", line 59, in __init__
    self._client = kfp.Client(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp/_client.py", line 196, in __init__
    if not self._context_setting['namespace'] and self.get_kfp_healthz(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp/_client.py", line 410, in get_kfp_healthz
    response = self._healthz_api.get_healthz()
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api/healthz_service_api.py", line 63, in get_healthz
    return self.get_healthz_with_http_info(**kwargs)  # noqa: E501
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api/healthz_service_api.py", line 134, in get_healthz_with_http_info
    return self.api_client.call_api(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api_client.py", line 364, in call_api
    return self.__call_api(resource_path, method,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api_client.py", line 181, in __call_api
    response_data = self.request(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api_client.py", line 389, in request
    return self.rest_client.GET(url,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/rest.py", line 230, in GET
    return self.request("GET", url,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/rest.py", line 208, in request
    r = self.pool_manager.request(method, url,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/request.py", line 77, in request
    return self.request_encode_url(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/request.py", line 99, in request_encode_url
    return self.urlopen(method, url, **extra_kw)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/poolmanager.py", line 376, in urlopen
    response = conn.urlopen(method, u.request_uri, **kw)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 826, in urlopen
    return self.urlopen(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 826, in urlopen
    return self.urlopen(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 826, in urlopen
    return self.urlopen(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 798, in urlopen
    retries = retries.increment(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/util/retry.py", line 592, in increment
    raise MaxRetryError(_pool, url, error or ResponseError(cause))
urllib3.exceptions.MaxRetryError: HTTPConnectionPool(host='localhost', port=80): Max retries exceeded with url: /apis/v1beta1/healthz (Caused by NewConnectionError('<urllib3.connection.HTTPConnection object at 0x7fcfd34eca00>: Failed to establish a new connection: [Errno 111] Connection refused'))

You can find your Dataflow jobs in Dataflow in Cloud Console.

Step 9. (Optional) Try Cloud AI Platform Training and Prediction with KFP

TFX interoperates with several managed GCP services, such as Cloud AI Platform for Training and Prediction. You can set your Trainer component to use Cloud AI Platform Training, a managed service for training ML models. Moreover, when your model is built and ready to be served, you can push your model to Cloud AI Platform Prediction for serving. In this step, we will set our Trainer and Pusher component to use Cloud AI Platform services.

Before editing files, you might first have to enable AI Platform Training & Prediction API.

Double-click pipeline to change directory, and double-click to open configs.py. Uncomment the definition of GOOGLE_CLOUD_REGION, GCP_AI_PLATFORM_TRAINING_ARGS and GCP_AI_PLATFORM_SERVING_ARGS. We will use our custom built container image to train a model in Cloud AI Platform Training, so we should set masterConfig.imageUri in GCP_AI_PLATFORM_TRAINING_ARGS to the same value as CUSTOM_TFX_IMAGE above.

Change directory one level up, and double-click to open kubeflow_runner.py. Uncomment ai_platform_training_args and ai_platform_serving_args.

Update the pipeline and create an execution run as we did in step 5 and 6.

!tfx pipeline update \
--pipeline-path=kubeflow_runner.py \
--endpoint={ENDPOINT}
!tfx run create --pipeline-name {PIPELINE_NAME} --endpoint={ENDPOINT}
CLI
Updating pipeline
Detected Kubeflow.
Use --engine flag if you intend to use a different orchestrator.
Failed to load kube config.
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 174, in _new_conn
    conn = connection.create_connection(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/util/connection.py", line 95, in create_connection
    raise err
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/util/connection.py", line 85, in create_connection
    sock.connect(sa)
ConnectionRefusedError: [Errno 111] Connection refused

During handling of the above exception, another exception occurred:

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 714, in urlopen
    httplib_response = self._make_request(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 415, in _make_request
    conn.request(method, url, **httplib_request_kw)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 244, in request
    super(HTTPConnection, self).request(method, url, body=body, headers=headers)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1285, in request
    self._send_request(method, url, body, headers, encode_chunked)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1331, in _send_request
    self.endheaders(body, encode_chunked=encode_chunked)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1280, in endheaders
    self._send_output(message_body, encode_chunked=encode_chunked)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1040, in _send_output
    self.send(msg)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 980, in send
    self.connect()
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 205, in connect
    conn = self._new_conn()
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 186, in _new_conn
    raise NewConnectionError(
urllib3.exceptions.NewConnectionError: <urllib3.connection.HTTPConnection object at 0x7f86a4092550>: Failed to establish a new connection: [Errno 111] Connection refused

During handling of the above exception, another exception occurred:

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/bin/tfx", line 8, in <module>
    sys.exit(cli_group())
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1157, in __call__
    return self.main(*args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1078, in main
    rv = self.invoke(ctx)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1688, in invoke
    return _process_result(sub_ctx.command.invoke(sub_ctx))
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1688, in invoke
    return _process_result(sub_ctx.command.invoke(sub_ctx))
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1434, in invoke
    return ctx.invoke(self.callback, **ctx.params)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 783, in invoke
    return __callback(*args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/decorators.py", line 92, in new_func
    return ctx.invoke(f, obj, *args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 783, in invoke
    return __callback(*args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/commands/pipeline.py", line 215, in update_pipeline
    handler_factory.create_handler(ctx.flags_dict).update_pipeline()
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/handler/handler_factory.py", line 106, in create_handler
    return detect_handler(flags_dict)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/handler/handler_factory.py", line 60, in detect_handler
    return kubeflow_handler.KubeflowHandler(flags_dict)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/handler/kubeflow_handler.py", line 59, in __init__
    self._client = kfp.Client(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp/_client.py", line 196, in __init__
    if not self._context_setting['namespace'] and self.get_kfp_healthz(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp/_client.py", line 410, in get_kfp_healthz
    response = self._healthz_api.get_healthz()
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api/healthz_service_api.py", line 63, in get_healthz
    return self.get_healthz_with_http_info(**kwargs)  # noqa: E501
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api/healthz_service_api.py", line 134, in get_healthz_with_http_info
    return self.api_client.call_api(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api_client.py", line 364, in call_api
    return self.__call_api(resource_path, method,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api_client.py", line 181, in __call_api
    response_data = self.request(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api_client.py", line 389, in request
    return self.rest_client.GET(url,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/rest.py", line 230, in GET
    return self.request("GET", url,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/rest.py", line 208, in request
    r = self.pool_manager.request(method, url,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/request.py", line 77, in request
    return self.request_encode_url(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/request.py", line 99, in request_encode_url
    return self.urlopen(method, url, **extra_kw)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/poolmanager.py", line 376, in urlopen
    response = conn.urlopen(method, u.request_uri, **kw)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 826, in urlopen
    return self.urlopen(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 826, in urlopen
    return self.urlopen(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 826, in urlopen
    return self.urlopen(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 798, in urlopen
    retries = retries.increment(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/util/retry.py", line 592, in increment
    raise MaxRetryError(_pool, url, error or ResponseError(cause))
urllib3.exceptions.MaxRetryError: HTTPConnectionPool(host='localhost', port=80): Max retries exceeded with url: /apis/v1beta1/healthz (Caused by NewConnectionError('<urllib3.connection.HTTPConnection object at 0x7f86a4092550>: Failed to establish a new connection: [Errno 111] Connection refused'))
CLI
Creating a run for pipeline: my_pipeline
Detected Kubeflow.
Use --engine flag if you intend to use a different orchestrator.
Failed to load kube config.
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 174, in _new_conn
    conn = connection.create_connection(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/util/connection.py", line 95, in create_connection
    raise err
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/util/connection.py", line 85, in create_connection
    sock.connect(sa)
ConnectionRefusedError: [Errno 111] Connection refused

During handling of the above exception, another exception occurred:

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 714, in urlopen
    httplib_response = self._make_request(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 415, in _make_request
    conn.request(method, url, **httplib_request_kw)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 244, in request
    super(HTTPConnection, self).request(method, url, body=body, headers=headers)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1285, in request
    self._send_request(method, url, body, headers, encode_chunked)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1331, in _send_request
    self.endheaders(body, encode_chunked=encode_chunked)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1280, in endheaders
    self._send_output(message_body, encode_chunked=encode_chunked)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 1040, in _send_output
    self.send(msg)
  File "/usr/lib/python3.9/http/client.py", line 980, in send
    self.connect()
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 205, in connect
    conn = self._new_conn()
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 186, in _new_conn
    raise NewConnectionError(
urllib3.exceptions.NewConnectionError: <urllib3.connection.HTTPConnection object at 0x7fd69f6f82b0>: Failed to establish a new connection: [Errno 111] Connection refused

During handling of the above exception, another exception occurred:

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/bin/tfx", line 8, in <module>
    sys.exit(cli_group())
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1157, in __call__
    return self.main(*args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1078, in main
    rv = self.invoke(ctx)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1688, in invoke
    return _process_result(sub_ctx.command.invoke(sub_ctx))
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1688, in invoke
    return _process_result(sub_ctx.command.invoke(sub_ctx))
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 1434, in invoke
    return ctx.invoke(self.callback, **ctx.params)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 783, in invoke
    return __callback(*args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/decorators.py", line 92, in new_func
    return ctx.invoke(f, obj, *args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/click/core.py", line 783, in invoke
    return __callback(*args, **kwargs)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/commands/run.py", line 94, in create_run
    handler = handler_factory.create_handler(ctx.flags_dict)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/handler/handler_factory.py", line 106, in create_handler
    return detect_handler(flags_dict)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/handler/handler_factory.py", line 60, in detect_handler
    return kubeflow_handler.KubeflowHandler(flags_dict)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/tfx/tools/cli/handler/kubeflow_handler.py", line 59, in __init__
    self._client = kfp.Client(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp/_client.py", line 196, in __init__
    if not self._context_setting['namespace'] and self.get_kfp_healthz(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp/_client.py", line 410, in get_kfp_healthz
    response = self._healthz_api.get_healthz()
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api/healthz_service_api.py", line 63, in get_healthz
    return self.get_healthz_with_http_info(**kwargs)  # noqa: E501
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api/healthz_service_api.py", line 134, in get_healthz_with_http_info
    return self.api_client.call_api(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api_client.py", line 364, in call_api
    return self.__call_api(resource_path, method,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api_client.py", line 181, in __call_api
    response_data = self.request(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/api_client.py", line 389, in request
    return self.rest_client.GET(url,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/rest.py", line 230, in GET
    return self.request("GET", url,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/kfp_server_api/rest.py", line 208, in request
    r = self.pool_manager.request(method, url,
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/request.py", line 77, in request
    return self.request_encode_url(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/request.py", line 99, in request_encode_url
    return self.urlopen(method, url, **extra_kw)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/poolmanager.py", line 376, in urlopen
    response = conn.urlopen(method, u.request_uri, **kw)
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 826, in urlopen
    return self.urlopen(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 826, in urlopen
    return self.urlopen(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 826, in urlopen
    return self.urlopen(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 798, in urlopen
    retries = retries.increment(
  File "/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/util/retry.py", line 592, in increment
    raise MaxRetryError(_pool, url, error or ResponseError(cause))
urllib3.exceptions.MaxRetryError: HTTPConnectionPool(host='localhost', port=80): Max retries exceeded with url: /apis/v1beta1/healthz (Caused by NewConnectionError('<urllib3.connection.HTTPConnection object at 0x7fd69f6f82b0>: Failed to establish a new connection: [Errno 111] Connection refused'))

You can find your training jobs in Cloud AI Platform Jobs. If your pipeline completed successfully, you can find your model in Cloud AI Platform Models.

Step 10. Ingest YOUR data to the pipeline

We made a pipeline for a model using the Chicago Taxi dataset. Now it's time to put your data into the pipeline.

Your data can be stored anywhere your pipeline can access, including GCS, or BigQuery. You will need to modify the pipeline definition to access your data.

  1. If your data is stored in files, modify the DATA_PATH in kubeflow_runner.py or local_runner.py and set it to the location of your files. If your data is stored in BigQuery, modify BIG_QUERY_QUERY in pipeline/configs.py to correctly query for your data.
  2. Add features in models/features.py.
  3. Modify models/preprocessing.py to transform input data for training.
  4. Modify models/keras/model.py and models/keras/constants.py to describe your ML model.
    • You can use an estimator based model, too. Change RUN_FN constant to models.estimator.model.run_fn in pipeline/configs.py.

Please see Trainer component guide for more introduction.

Cleaning up

To clean up all Google Cloud resources used in this project, you can delete the Google Cloud project you used for the tutorial.

Alternatively, you can clean up individual resources by visiting each consoles: