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Solves the maximization problem weights^T*x with the constraint norm(x)=1.


This op solves a batch of maximization problems at one time. The first axis is considered as the batch dimension, and each 'row' is treated as an independent maximization problem.

This op is mainly used to generate adversarial examples (e.g., FGSM proposed by Goodfellow et al.). Specifically, the 'weights' are gradients, and 'x' is the adversarial perturbation. The desired perturbation is the one causing the largest loss increase. In this op, the loss increase is approximated by the dot product between gradient and perturbation, as in the first-order Taylor approximation of the loss function.


  • weights: tensor representing a batch of weights to define maximization objective.
  • norm_type: one of configs.NormType, the type of vector norm.


A tensor representing a batch of adversarial perturbation as the solution to the maximization problems. The returned tensor has the same shape and type as 'weights'.