Question and Answer

Use a pre-trained model to answer questions based on the content of a given passage.

Get started

If you are new to TensorFlow Lite and are working with Android, we recommend exploring the following example applications that can help you get started.

Android example

If you are using a platform other than Android, or you are already familiar with the TensorFlow Lite APIs, you can download our starter question and answer model.

Download starter model and vocab

How it works

The model can be used to build a system that can answer users’ questions in natural language. It was created using a pre-trained BERT model fine-tuned on SQuAD 1.1 dataset.

BERT, or Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers, is a method of pre-training language representations which obtains state-of-the-art results on a wide array of Natural Language Processing tasks.

This app uses a compressed version of BERT, MobileBERT, that runs 4x faster and has 4x smaller model size.

SQuAD, or Stanford Question Answering Dataset, is a reading comprehension dataset consisting of articles from Wikipedia and a set of question-answer pairs for each article.

The model takes a passage and a question as input, then returns a segment of the passage that most likely answers the question. It requires semi-complex pre-processing including tokenization and post-processing steps that are described in the BERT paper and implemented in the sample app.

Performance Benchmarks

Performance benchmark numbers are generated with the tool described here.

Model Name Model size Device CPU
Mobile Bert 100.5 Mb Pixel 3 (Android 10) 123ms*
Pixel 4 (Android 10) 74ms*
iPhone XS (iOS 12.4.1) 257ms**

* 4 threads used.

** 2 threads used on iPhone for the best performance result.

Example output

Passage (Input)

Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware. It is considered one of the Big Four technology companies, alongside Amazon, Apple, and Facebook.

Google was founded in September 1998 by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while they were Ph.D. students at Stanford University in California. Together they own about 14 percent of its shares and control 56 percent of the stockholder voting power through supervoting stock. They incorporated Google as a California privately held company on September 4, 1998, in California. Google was then reincorporated in Delaware on October 22, 2002. An initial public offering (IPO) took place on August 19, 2004, and Google moved to its headquarters in Mountain View, California, nicknamed the Googleplex. In August 2015, Google announced plans to reorganize its various interests as a conglomerate called Alphabet Inc. Google is Alphabet's leading subsidiary and will continue to be the umbrella company for Alphabet's Internet interests. Sundar Pichai was appointed CEO of Google, replacing Larry Page who became the CEO of Alphabet.

Question (Input)

Who is the CEO of Google?

Answer (Output)

Sundar Pichai

Read more about BERT