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tfdf.keras.DistributedGradientBoostedTreesModel

Distributed Gradient Boosted Trees learning algorithm.

Inherits From: DistributedGradientBoostedTreesModel, CoreModel

Exact distributed version of the Gradient Boosted Tree learning algorithm. See the documentation of the non-distributed Gradient Boosted Tree learning algorithm for an introduction to GBTs.

Usage example:

import tensorflow_decision_forests as tfdf
import pandas as pd

dataset = pd.read_csv("project/dataset.csv")
tf_dataset = tfdf.keras.pd_dataframe_to_tf_dataset(dataset, label="my_label")

model = tfdf.keras.DistributedGradientBoostedTreesModel()
model.fit(tf_dataset)

print(model.summary())

task Task to solve (e.g. Task.CLASSIFICATION, Task.REGRESSION, Task.RANKING).
features Specify the list and semantic of the input features of the model. If not specified, all the available features will be used. If specified and if exclude_non_specified_features=True, only the features in features will be used by the model. If "preprocessing" is used, features corresponds to the output of the preprocessing. In this case, it is recommended for the preprocessing to return a dictionary of tensors.
exclude_non_specified_features If true, only use the features specified in features.
preprocessing Functional keras model or @tf.function to apply on the input feature before the model to train. This preprocessing model can consume and return tensors, list of tensors or dictionary of tensors. If specified, the model only "sees" the output of the preprocessing (and not the raw input). Can be used to prepare the features or to stack multiple models on top of each other. Unlike preprocessing done in the tf.dataset, the operation in "preprocessing" are serialized with the model.
postprocessing Like "preprocessing" but applied on the model output.
ranking_group Only for task=Task.RANKING. Name of a tf.string feature that identifies queries in a query/document ranking task. The ranking group is not added automatically for the set of features if exclude_non_specified_features=false.
temp_directory Temporary directory used to store the model Assets after the training, and possibly as a work directory during the training. This temporary directory is necessary for the model to be exported after training e.g. model.save(path). If not specified, temp_directory is set to a temporary directory using tempfile.TemporaryDirectory. This directory is deleted when the model python object is garbage-collected.
verbose If true, displays information about the training.
hyperparameter_template Override the default value of the hyper-parameters. If None (default) the default parameters of the library are used. If set, default_hyperparameter_template refers to one of the following preconfigured hyper-parameter sets. Those sets outperforms the default hyper-parameters (either generally or in specific scenarios). You can omit the version (e.g. remove "@v5") to use the last version of the template. In this case, the hyper-parameter can change in between releases (not recommended for training in production).
advanced_arguments Advanced control of the model that most users won't need to use. See AdvancedArguments for details.
num_threads Number of threads used to train the model. Different learning algorithms use multi-threading differently and with different degree of efficiency. If specified, num_threads field of the advanced_arguments.yggdrasil_deployment_config has priority.
name The name of the model.
max_vocab_count Default maximum size of the vocabulary for CATEGORICAL and CATEGORICAL_SET features stored as strings. If more unique values exist, only the most frequent values are kept, and the remaining values are considered as out-of-vocabulary. The value max_vocab_count defined in a FeatureUsage (if any) takes precedence.
apply_link_function If true, applies the link function (a.k.a. activation function), if any, before returning the model prediction. If false, returns the pre-link function model output. For example, in the case of binary classification, the pre-link function output is a logic while the post-link function is a probability. Default: True.
max_depth Maximum depth of the tree. max_depth=1 means that all trees will be roots. Negative values are ignored. Default: 6.
maximum_model_size_in_memory_in_bytes Limit the size of the model when stored in ram. Different algorithms can enforce this limit differently. Note that when models are compiled into an inference, the size of the inference engine is generally much smaller than the original model. Default: -1.0.
maximum_training_duration_seconds Maximum training duration of the model expressed in seconds. Each learning algorithm is free to use this parameter at it sees fit. Enabling maximum training duration makes the model training non-deterministic. Default: -1.0.
min_examples Minimum number of examples in a node. Default: 5.
num_trees Maximum number of decision trees. The effective number of trained tree can be smaller if early stopping is enabled. Default: 300.
shrinkage Coefficient applied to each tree prediction. A small value (0.02) tends to give more accurate results (assuming enough trees are trained), but results in larger models. Analogous to neural network learning rate. Default: 0.1.
use_hessian_gain Use true, uses a formulation of split gain with a hessian term i.e. optimizes the splits to minimize the variance of "gradient / hessian. Available for all losses except regression. Default: False.
activity_regularizer Optional regularizer function for the output of this layer.
compute_dtype The dtype of the layer's computations.

This is equivalent to Layer.dtype_policy.compute_dtype. Unless mixed precision is used, this is the same as Layer.dtype, the dtype of the weights.

Layers automatically cast their inputs to the compute dtype, which causes computations and the output to be in the compute dtype as well. This is done by the base Layer class in Layer.call, so you do not have to insert these casts if implementing your own layer.

Layers often perform certain internal computations in higher precision when compute_dtype is float16 or bfloat16 for numeric stability. The output will still typically be float16 or bfloat16 in such cases.

distribute_strategy The tf.distribute.Strategy this model was created under.
dtype The dtype of the layer weights.

This is equivalent to Layer.dtype_policy.variable_dtype. Unless mixed precision is used, this is the same as Layer.compute_dtype, the dtype of the layer's computations.

dtype_policy The dtype policy associated with this layer.

This is an instance of a tf.keras.mixed_precision.Policy.

dynamic Whether the layer is dynamic (eager-only); set in the constructor.
input Retrieves the input tensor(s) of a layer.

Only applicable if the layer has exactly one input, i.e. if it is connected to one incoming layer.

input_spec InputSpec instance(s) describing the input format for this layer.

When you create a layer subclass, you can set self.input_spec to enable the layer to run input compatibility checks when it is called. Consider a Conv2D layer: it can only be called on a single input tensor of rank 4. As such, you can set, in __init__():

self.input_spec = tf.keras.layers.InputSpec(ndim=4)

Now, if you try to call the layer on an input that isn't rank 4 (for instance, an input of shape (2,), it will raise a nicely-formatted error:

ValueError: Input 0 of layer conv2d is incompatible with the layer:
expected ndim=4, found ndim=1. Full shape received: [2]

Input checks that can be specified via input_spec include:

  • Structure (e.g. a single input, a list of 2 inputs, etc)
  • Shape
  • Rank (ndim)
  • Dtype

For more information, see tf.keras.layers.InputSpec.

layers

losses List of losses added using the add_loss() API.

Variable regularization tensors are created when this property is accessed, so it is eager safe: accessing losses under a tf.GradientTape will propagate gradients back to the corresponding variables.

class MyLayer(tf.keras.layers.Layer):
  def call(self, inputs):
    self.add_loss(tf.abs(tf.reduce_mean(inputs)))
    return inputs
l = MyLayer()
l(np.ones((10, 1)))
l.losses
[1.0]
inputs = tf.keras.Input(shape=(10,))
x = tf.keras.layers.Dense(10)(inputs)
outputs = tf.keras.layers.Dense(1)(x)
model = tf.keras.Model(inputs, outputs)
# Activity regularization.
len(model.losses)
0
model.add_loss(tf.abs(tf.reduce_mean(x)))
len(model.losses)
1
inputs = tf.keras.Input(shape=(10,))
d = tf.keras.layers.Dense(10, kernel_initializer='ones')
x = d(inputs)
outputs = tf.keras.layers.Dense(1)(x)
model = tf.keras.Model(inputs, outputs)
# Weight regularization.
model.add_loss(lambda: tf.reduce_mean(d.kernel))
model.losses
[<tf.Tensor: shape=(), dtype=float32, numpy=1.0>]

metrics Returns the model's metrics added using compile(), add_metric() APIs.

inputs = tf.keras.layers.Input(shape=(3,))
outputs = tf.keras.layers.Dense(2)(inputs)
model = tf.keras.models.Model(inputs=inputs, outputs=outputs)
model.compile(optimizer="Adam", loss="mse", metrics=["mae"])
[m.name for m in model.metrics]
[]
x = np.random.random((2, 3))
y = np.random.randint(0, 2, (2, 2))
model.fit(x, y)
[m.name for m in model.metrics]
['loss', 'mae']
inputs = tf.keras.layers.Input(shape=(3,))
d = tf.keras.layers.Dense(2, name='out')
output_1 = d(inputs)
output_2 = d(inputs)
model = tf.keras.models.Model(
   inputs=inputs, outputs=[output_1, output_2])
model.add_metric(
   tf.reduce_sum(output_2), name='mean', aggregation='mean')
model.compile(optimizer="Adam", loss="mse", metrics=["mae", "acc"])
model.fit(x, (y, y))
[m.name for m in model.metrics]
['loss', 'out_loss', 'out_1_loss', 'out_mae', 'out_acc', 'out_1_mae',
'out_1_acc', 'mean']

metrics_names Returns the model's display labels for all outputs.

inputs = tf.keras.layers.Input(shape=(3,))
outputs = tf.keras.layers.Dense(2)(inputs)
model = tf.keras.models.Model(inputs=inputs, outputs=outputs)
model.compile(optimizer="Adam", loss="mse", metrics=["mae"])
model.metrics_names
[]
x = np.random.random((2, 3))
y = np.random.randint(0, 2, (2, 2))
model.fit(x, y)
model.metrics_names
['loss', 'mae']
inputs = tf.keras.layers.Input(shape=(3,))
d = tf.keras.layers.Dense(2, name='out')
output_1 = d(inputs)
output_2 = d(inputs)
model = tf.keras.models.Model(
   inputs=inputs, outputs=[output_1, output_2])
model.compile(optimizer="Adam", loss="mse", metrics=["mae", "acc"])
model.fit(x, (y, y))
model.metrics_names
['loss', 'out_loss', 'out_1_loss', 'out_mae', 'out_acc', 'out_1_mae',
'out_1_acc']

name_scope Returns a tf.name_scope instance for this class.
non_trainable_weights List of all non-trainable weights tracked by this layer.

Non-trainable weights are not updated during training. They are expected to be updated manually in call().

output Retrieves the output tensor(s) of a layer.

Only applicable if the layer has exactly one output, i.e. if it is connected to one incoming layer.

run_eagerly Settable attribute indicating whether the model should run eagerly.

Running eagerly means that your model will be run step by step, like Python code. Your model might run slower, but it should become easier for you to debug it by stepping into individual layer calls.

By default, we will attempt to compile your model to a static graph to deliver the best execution performance.

submodules Sequence of all sub-modules.

Submodules are modules which are properties of this module, or found as properties of modules which are properties of this module (and so on).

a = tf.Module()
b = tf.Module()
c = tf.Module()
a.b = b
b.c = c
list(a.submodules) == [b, c]
True
list(b.submodules) == [c]
True
list(c.submodules) == []
True

supports_masking Whether this layer supports computing a mask using compute_mask.
trainable

trainable_weights List of all trainable weights tracked by this layer.

Trainable weights are updated via gradient descent during training.

variable_dtype Alias of Layer.dtype, the dtype of the weights.
weights Returns the list of all layer variables/weights.

Methods

add_loss

Add loss tensor(s), potentially dependent on layer inputs.

Some losses (for instance, activity regularization losses) may be dependent on the inputs passed when calling a layer. Hence, when reusing the same layer on different inputs a and b, some entries in layer.losses may be dependent on a and some on b. This method automatically keeps track of dependencies.

This method can be used inside a subclassed layer or model's call function, in which case losses should be a Tensor or list of Tensors.

Example:

class MyLayer(tf.keras.layers.Layer):
  def call(self, inputs):
    self.add_loss(tf.abs(tf.reduce_mean(inputs)))
    return inputs

This method can also be called directly on a Functional Model during construction. In this case, any loss Tensors passed to this Model must be symbolic and be able to be traced back to the model's Inputs. These losses become part of the model's topology and are tracked in get_config.

Example:

inputs = tf.keras.Input(shape=(10,))
x = tf.keras.layers.Dense(10)(inputs)
outputs = tf.keras.layers.Dense(1)(x)
model = tf.keras.Model(inputs, outputs)
# Activity regularization.
model.add_loss(tf.abs(tf.reduce_mean(x)))

If this is not the case for your loss (if, for example, your loss references a Variable of one of the model's layers), you can wrap your loss in a zero-argument lambda. These losses are not tracked as part of the model's topology since they can't be serialized.

Example:

inputs = tf.keras.Input(shape=(10,))
d = tf.keras.layers.Dense(10)
x = d(inputs)
outputs = tf.keras.layers.Dense(1)(x)
model = tf.keras.Model(inputs, outputs)
# Weight regularization.
model.add_loss(lambda: tf.reduce_mean(d.kernel))

Args
losses Loss tensor, or list/tuple of tensors. Rather than tensors, losses may also be zero-argument callables which create a loss tensor.
**kwargs Additional keyword arguments for backward compatibility. Accepted values: inputs - Deprecated, will be automatically inferred.

add_metric

Adds metric tensor to the layer.

This method can be used inside the call() method of a subclassed layer or model.

class MyMetricLayer(tf.keras.layers.Layer):
  def __init__(self):
    super(MyMetricLayer, self).__init__(name='my_metric_layer')
    self.mean = tf.keras.metrics.Mean(name='metric_1')

  def call(self, inputs):
    self.add_metric(self.mean(inputs))
    self.add_metric(tf.reduce_sum(inputs), name='metric_2')
    return inputs

This method can also be called directly on a Functional Model during construction. In this case, any tensor passed to this Model must be symbolic and be able to be traced back to the model's Inputs. These metrics become part of the model's topology and are tracked when you save the model via save().

inputs = tf.keras.Input(shape=(10,))
x = tf.keras.layers.Dense(10)(inputs)
outputs = tf.keras.layers.Dense(1)(x)
model = tf.keras.Model(inputs, outputs)
model.add_metric(math_ops.reduce_sum(x), name='metric_1')
inputs = tf.keras.Input(shape=(10,))
x = tf.keras.layers.Dense(10)(inputs)
outputs = tf.keras.layers.Dense(1)(x)
model = tf.keras.Model(inputs, outputs)
model.add_metric(tf.keras.metrics.Mean()(x), name='metric_1')

Args
value Metric tensor.
name String metric name.
**kwargs Additional keyword arguments for backward compatibility. Accepted values: aggregation - When the value tensor provided is not the result of calling a keras.Metric instance, it will be aggregated by default using a keras.Metric.Mean.

build

Builds the model based on input shapes received.

This is to be used for subclassed models, which do not know at instantiation time what their inputs look like.

This method only exists for users who want to call model.build() in a standalone way (as a substitute for calling the model on real data to build it). It will never be called by the framework (and thus it will never throw unexpected errors in an unrelated workflow).

Args
input_shape Single tuple, TensorShape instance, or list/dict of shapes, where shapes are tuples, integers, or TensorShape instances.

Raises
ValueError

  1. In case of invalid user-provided data (not of type tuple, list, TensorShape, or dict).
  2. If the model requires call arguments that are agnostic to the input shapes (positional or keyword arg in call signature).
  3. If not all layers were properly built.
  4. If float type inputs are not supported within the layers.

In each of these cases, the user should build their model by calling it on real tensor data.

call

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Inference of the model.

This method is used for prediction and evaluation of a trained model.

Args
inputs Input tensors.
training Is the model being trained. Always False.

Returns
Model predictions.

capabilities

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Lists the capabilities of the learning algorithm.

compile

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Configure the model for training.

Unlike for most Keras model, calling "compile" is optional before calling "fit".

Args
metrics Metrics to report during training.

Raises
ValueError Invalid arguments.

compute_mask

Computes an output mask tensor.

Args
inputs Tensor or list of tensors.
mask Tensor or list of tensors.

Returns
None or a tensor (or list of tensors, one per output tensor of the layer).

compute_output_shape

Computes the output shape of the layer.

If the layer has not been built, this method will call build on the layer. This assumes that the layer will later be used with inputs that match the input shape provided here.

Args
input_shape Shape tuple (tuple of integers) or list of shape tuples (one per output tensor of the layer). Shape tuples can include None for free dimensions, instead of an integer.

Returns
An input shape tuple.

count_params

Count the total number of scalars composing the weights.

Returns
An integer count.

Raises
ValueError if the layer isn't yet built (in which case its weights aren't yet defined).

evaluate

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Returns the loss value & metrics values for the model.

See details on keras.Model.evaluate.

Args
*args Passed to keras.Model.evaluate.
**kwargs Passed to keras.Model.evaluate. Scalar test loss (if the model has a single output and no metrics) or list of scalars (if the model has multiple outputs and/or metrics). See details in keras.Model.evaluate.

fit

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Trains the model.

The following dataset formats are supported:

  1. "x" is a tf.data.Dataset containing a tuple "(features, labels)". "features" can be a dictionary a tensor, a list of tensors or a dictionary of tensors (recommended). "labels" is a tensor.

  2. "x" is a tensor, list of tensors or dictionary of tensors containing the input features. "y" is a tensor.

  3. "x" is a numpy-array, list of numpy-arrays or dictionary of numpy-arrays containing the input features. "y" is a numpy-array.

Unlike classical neural networks, the learning algorithm requires to scan the training dataset exactly once. Therefore, the dataset should not be repeated. The algorithm also does not benefit from shuffling the dataset.

Input features generally do not need to be normalized (numerical) or indexed (categorical features stored as string). Also, missing values are well supported (i.e. not need to replace missing values).

Pandas Dataframe can be prepared with "dataframe_to_tf_dataset": dataset = pandas.Dataframe(...) model.fit(pd_dataframe_to_tf_dataset(dataset, label="my_label"))

Some of the learning algorithm will support distributed training with the ParameterServerStrategy e.g.:

with tf.distribute.experimental.ParameterServerStrategy(...).scope(): model = DistributedGradientBoostedTreesModel() model.fit(...)

Args
x Training dataset (See details above for the supported formats).
y Label of the training dataset. Only used if "x" does not contains the labels.
callbacks Callbacks triggered during the training.
**kwargs Arguments passed to the core keras model's fit.

Returns
A History object. Its History.history attribute is not yet implemented for decision forests algorithms, and will return empty. All other fields are filled as usual for Keras.Mode.fit().

fit_on_dataset_path

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Trains the model on a dataset stored on disk.

This solution is generally more efficient and easier that loading the dataset with a tf.Dataset both for local and distributed training.

Usage example:

Local training

model = model = keras.GradientBoostedTreesModel() model.fit_on_dataset_path( train_path="/path/to/dataset.csv", label_key="label", dataset_format="csv") model.save("/model/path")

Distributed training

with tf.distribute.experimental.ParameterServerStrategy(...).scope(): model = model = keras.DistributedGradientBoostedTreesModel() model.fit_on_dataset_path( train_path="/path/to/dataset@10", label_key="label", dataset_format="tfrecord+tfe") model.save("/model/path")

Args
train_path Path to the training dataset. Support comma separated files, shard and glob notation.
label_key Name of the label column.
weight_key Name of the weighing column.
ranking_key Name of the ranking column.
valid_path Path to the validation dataset. If not provided, or if the learning algorithm does not support/need a validation dataset, valid_path is ignored.
dataset_format Format of the dataset. Should be one of the registered dataset format (see https://github.com/google/yggdrasil-decision-forests/blob/main/documentation/user_manual.md#dataset-path-and-format for more details). The format "csv" always available but it is generally only suited for small datasets.

Returns
A History object. Its History.history attribute is not yet implemented for decision forests algorithms, and will return empty. All other fields are filled as usual for Keras.Mode.fit().

from_config

Creates a layer from its config.

This method is the reverse of get_config, capable of instantiating the same layer from the config dictionary. It does not handle layer connectivity (handled by Network), nor weights (handled by set_weights).

Args
config A Python dictionary, typically the output of get_config.

Returns
A layer instance.

get_config

Returns the config of the layer.

A layer config is a Python dictionary (serializable) containing the configuration of a layer. The same layer can be reinstantiated later (without its trained weights) from this configuration.

The config of a layer does not include connectivity information, nor the layer class name. These are handled by Network (one layer of abstraction above).

Note that get_config() does not guarantee to return a fresh copy of dict every time it is called. The callers should make a copy of the returned dict if they want to modify it.

Returns
Python dictionary.

get_layer

Retrieves a layer based on either its name (unique) or index.

If name and index are both provided, index will take precedence. Indices are based on order of horizontal graph traversal (bottom-up).

Args
name String, name of layer.
index Integer, index of layer.

Returns
A layer instance.

get_weights

Retrieves the weights of the model.

Returns
A flat list of Numpy arrays.

load_weights

Loads all layer weights, either from a TensorFlow or an HDF5 weight file.

If by_name is False weights are loaded based on the network's topology. This means the architecture should be the same as when the weights were saved. Note that layers that don't have weights are not taken into account in the topological ordering, so adding or removing layers is fine as long as they don't have weights.

If by_name is True, weights are loaded into layers only if they share the same name. This is useful for fine-tuning or transfer-learning models where some of the layers have changed.

Only topological loading (by_name=False) is supported when loading weights from the TensorFlow format. Note that topological loading differs slightly between TensorFlow and HDF5 formats for user-defined classes inheriting from tf.keras.Model: HDF5 loads based on a flattened list of weights, while the TensorFlow format loads based on the object-local names of attributes to which layers are assigned in the Model's constructor.

Args
filepath String, path to the weights file to load. For weight files in TensorFlow format, this is the file prefix (the same as was passed to save_weights). This can also be a path to a SavedModel saved from model.save.
by_name Boolean, whether to load weights by name or by topological order. Only topological loading is supported for weight files in TensorFlow format.
skip_mismatch Boolean, whether to skip loading of layers where there is a mismatch in the number of weights, or a mismatch in the shape of the weight (only valid when by_name=True).
options Optional tf.train.CheckpointOptions object that specifies options for loading weights.

Returns
When loading a weight file in TensorFlow format, returns the same status object as tf.train.Checkpoint.restore. When graph building, restore ops are run automatically as soon as the network is built (on first call for user-defined classes inheriting from Model, immediately if it is already built).

When loading weights in HDF5 format, returns None.

Raises
ImportError If h5py is not available and the weight file is in HDF5 format.
ValueError If skip_mismatch is set to True when by_name is False.

make_inspector

View source

Creates an inspector to access the internal model structure.

Usage example:

inspector = model.make_inspector()
print(inspector.num_trees())
print(inspector.variable_importances())

Returns
A model inspector.

make_predict_function

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Prediction of the model (!= evaluation).

make_test_function

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Predictions for evaluation.

make_train_function

Creates a function that executes one step of training.

This method can be overridden to support custom training logic. This method is called by Model.fit and Model.train_on_batch.

Typically, this method directly controls tf.function and tf.distribute.Strategy settings, and delegates the actual training logic to Model.train_step.

This function is cached the first time Model.fit or Model.train_on_batch is called. The cache is cleared whenever Model.compile is called. You can skip the cache and generate again the function with force=True.

Args
force Whether to regenerate the train function and skip the cached function if available.

Returns
Function. The function created by this method should accept a tf.data.Iterator, and return a dict containing values that will be passed to tf.keras.Callbacks.on_train_batch_end, such as {'loss': 0.2, 'accuracy': 0.7}.

predefined_hyperparameters

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Returns a better than default set of hyper-parameters.

They can be used directly with the hyperparameter_template argument of the model constructor.

These hyper-parameters outperforms the default hyper-parameters (either generally or in specific scenarios). Like default hyper-parameters, existing pre-defined hyper-parameters cannot change.

predict

Generates output predictions for the input samples.

Computation is done in batches. This method is designed for performance in large scale inputs. For small amount of inputs that fit in one batch, directly using __call__() is recommended for faster execution, e.g., model(x), or model(x, training=False) if you have layers such as tf.keras.layers.BatchNormalization that behaves differently during inference. Also, note the fact that test loss is not affected by regularization layers like noise and dropout.

Args
x Input samples. It could be:

  • A Numpy array (or array-like), or a list of arrays (in case the model has multiple inputs).
  • A TensorFlow tensor, or a list of tensors (in case the model has multiple inputs).
  • A tf.data dataset.
  • A generator or keras.utils.Sequence instance. A more detailed description of unpacking behavior for iterator types (Dataset, generator, Sequence) is given in the Unpacking behavior for iterator-like inputs section of Model.fit.
batch_size Integer or None. Number of samples per batch. If unspecified, batch_size will default to 32. Do not specify the batch_size if your data is in the form of dataset, generators, or keras.utils.Sequence instances (since they generate batches).
verbose Verbosity mode, 0 or 1.
steps Total number of steps (batches of samples) before declaring the prediction round finished. Ignored with the default value of None. If x is a tf.data dataset and steps is None, predict() will run until the input dataset is exhausted.
callbacks List of keras.callbacks.Callback instances. List of callbacks to apply during prediction. See callbacks.
max_queue_size Integer. Used for generator or keras.utils.Sequence input only. Maximum size for the generator queue. If unspecified, max_queue_size will default to 10.
workers Integer. Used for generator or keras.utils.Sequence input only. Maximum number of processes to spin up when using process-based threading. If unspecified, workers will default to 1.
use_multiprocessing Boolean. Used for generator or keras.utils.Sequence input only. If True, use process-based threading. If unspecified, use_multiprocessing will default to False. Note that because this implementation relies on multiprocessing, you should not pass non-picklable arguments to the generator as they can't be passed easily to children processes.

See the discussion of Unpacking behavior for iterator-like inputs for Model.fit. Note that Model.predict uses the same interpretation rules as Model.fit and Model.evaluate, so inputs must be unambiguous for all three methods.

Returns
Numpy array(s) of predictions.

Raises
RuntimeError If model.predict is wrapped in a tf.function.
ValueError In case of mismatch between the provided input data and the model's expectations, or in case a stateful model receives a number of samples that is not a multiple of the batch size.

predict_on_batch

Returns predictions for a single batch of samples.

Args
x Input data. It could be:

  • A Numpy array (or array-like), or a list of arrays (in case the model has multiple inputs).
  • A TensorFlow tensor, or a list of tensors (in case the model has multiple inputs).

Returns
Numpy array(s) of predictions.

Raises
RuntimeError If model.predict_on_batch is wrapped in a tf.function.

predict_step

The logic for one inference step.

This method can be overridden to support custom inference logic. This method is called by Model.make_predict_function.

This method should contain the mathematical logic for one step of inference. This typically includes the forward pass.

Configuration details for how this logic is run (e.g. tf.function and tf.distribute.Strategy settings), should be left to Model.make_predict_function, which can also be overridden.

Args
data A nested structure of Tensors.

Returns
The result of one inference step, typically the output of calling the Model on data.

reset_metrics

Resets the state of all the metrics in the model.

Examples:

inputs = tf.keras.layers.Input(shape=(3,))
outputs = tf.keras.layers.Dense(2)(inputs)
model = tf.keras.models.Model(inputs=inputs, outputs=outputs)
model.compile(optimizer="Adam", loss="mse", metrics=["mae"])
x = np.random.random((2, 3))
y = np.random.randint(0, 2, (2, 2))
_ = model.fit(x, y, verbose=0)
assert all(float(m.result()) for m in model.metrics)
model.reset_metrics()
assert all(float(m.result()) == 0 for m in model.metrics)

reset_states

save

View source

Saves the model as a TensorFlow SavedModel.

The exported SavedModel contains a standalone Yggdrasil Decision Forests model in the "assets" sub-directory. The Yggdrasil model can be used directly using the Yggdrasil API. However, this model does not contain the "preprocessing" layer (if any).

Args
filepath Path to the output model.
overwrite If true, override an already existing model. If false, raise an error if a model already exist.
**kwargs Arguments passed to the core keras model's save.

save_spec

Returns the tf.TensorSpec of call inputs as a tuple (args, kwargs).

This value is automatically defined after calling the model for the first time. Afterwards, you can use it when exporting the model for serving:

model = tf.keras.Model(...)

@tf.function
def serve(*args, **kwargs):
  outputs = model(*args, **kwargs)
  # Apply postprocessing steps, or add additional outputs.
  ...
  return outputs

# arg_specs is `[tf.TensorSpec(...), ...]`. kwarg_specs, in this example, is
# an empty dict since functional models do not use keyword arguments.
arg_specs, kwarg_specs = model.save_spec()

model.save(path, signatures={
  'serving_default': serve.get_concrete_function(*arg_specs, **kwarg_specs)
})

Args
dynamic_batch Whether to set the batch sizes of all the returned tf.TensorSpec to None. (Note that when defining functional or Sequential models with tf.keras.Input([...], batch_size=X), the batch size will always be preserved). Defaults to True.

Returns
If the model inputs are defined, returns a tuple (args, kwargs). All elements in args and kwargs are tf.TensorSpec. If the model inputs are not defined, returns None. The model inputs are automatically set when calling the model, model.fit, model.evaluate or model.predict.

save_weights

Saves all layer weights.

Either saves in HDF5 or in TensorFlow format based on the save_format argument.

When saving in HDF5 format, the weight file has:

  • layer_names (attribute), a list of strings (ordered names of model layers).
  • For every layer, a group named layer.name
    • For every such layer group, a group attribute weight_names, a list of strings (ordered names of weights tensor of the layer).
    • For every weight in the layer, a dataset storing the weight value, named after the weight tensor.

When saving in TensorFlow format, all objects referenced by the network are saved in the same format as tf.train.Checkpoint, including any Layer instances or Optimizer instances assigned to object attributes. For networks constructed from inputs and outputs using tf.keras.Model(inputs, outputs), Layer instances used by the network are tracked/saved automatically. For user-defined classes which inherit from tf.keras.Model, Layer instances must be assigned to object attributes, typically in the constructor. See the documentation of tf.train.Checkpoint and tf.keras.Model for details.

While the formats are the same, do not mix save_weights and tf.train.Checkpoint. Checkpoints saved by Model.save_weights should be loaded using Model.load_weights. Checkpoints saved using tf.train.Checkpoint.save should be restored using the corresponding tf.train.Checkpoint.restore. Prefer tf.train.Checkpoint over save_weights for training checkpoints.

The TensorFlow format matches objects and variables by starting at a root object, self for save_weights, and greedily matching attribute names. For Model.save this is the Model, and for Checkpoint.save this is the Checkpoint even if the Checkpoint has a model attached. This means saving a tf.keras.Model using save_weights and loading into a tf.train.Checkpoint with a Model attached (or vice versa) will not match the Model's variables. See the guide to training checkpoints for details on the TensorFlow format.

Args
filepath String or PathLike, path to the file to save the weights to. When saving in TensorFlow format, this is the prefix used for checkpoint files (multiple files are generated). Note that the '.h5' suffix causes weights to be saved in HDF5 format.
overwrite Whether to silently overwrite any existing file at the target location, or provide the user with a manual prompt.
save_format Either 'tf' or 'h5'. A filepath ending in '.h5' or '.keras' will default to HDF5 if save_format is None. Otherwise None defaults to 'tf'.
options Optional tf.train.CheckpointOptions object that specifies options for saving weights.

Raises
ImportError If h5py is not available when attempting to save in HDF5 format.

set_weights

Sets the weights of the layer, from NumPy arrays.

The weights of a layer represent the state of the layer. This function sets the weight values from numpy arrays. The weight values should be passed in the order they are created by the layer. Note that the layer's weights must be instantiated before calling this function, by calling the layer.

For example, a Dense layer returns a list of two values: the kernel matrix and the bias vector. These can be used to set the weights of another Dense layer:

layer_a = tf.keras.layers.Dense(1,
  kernel_initializer=tf.constant_initializer(1.))
a_out = layer_a(tf.convert_to_tensor([[1., 2., 3.]]))
layer_a.get_weights()
[array([[1.],
       [1.],
       [1.]], dtype=float32), array([0.], dtype=float32)]
layer_b = tf.keras.layers.Dense(1,
  kernel_initializer=tf.constant_initializer(2.))
b_out = layer_b(tf.convert_to_tensor([[10., 20., 30.]]))
layer_b.get_weights()
[array([[2.],
       [2.],
       [2.]], dtype=float32), array([0.], dtype=float32)]
layer_b.set_weights(layer_a.get_weights())
layer_b.get_weights()
[array([[1.],
       [1.],
       [1.]], dtype=float32), array([0.], dtype=float32)]

Args
weights a list of NumPy arrays. The number of arrays and their shape must match number of the dimensions of the weights of the layer (i.e. it should match the output of get_weights).

Raises
ValueError If the provided weights list does not match the layer's specifications.

summary

View source

Shows information about the model.

test_on_batch

Test the model on a single batch of samples.

Args
x Input data. It could be:

  • A Numpy array (or array-like), or a list of arrays (in case the model has multiple inputs).
  • A TensorFlow tensor, or a list of tensors (in case the model has multiple inputs).
  • A dict mapping input names to the corresponding array/tensors, if the model has named inputs.
y Target data. Like the input data x, it could be either Numpy array(s) or TensorFlow tensor(s). It should be consistent with x (you cannot have Numpy inputs and tensor targets, or inversely).
sample_weight Optional array of the same length as x, containing weights to apply to the model's loss for each sample. In the case of temporal data, you can pass a 2D array with shape (samples, sequence_length), to apply a different weight to every timestep of every sample.
reset_metrics If True, the metrics returned will be only for this batch. If False, the metrics will be statefully accumulated across batches.
return_dict If True, loss and metric results are returned as a dict, with each key being the name of the metric. If False, they are returned as a list.

Returns
Scalar test loss (if the model has a single output and no metrics) or list of scalars (if the model has multiple outputs and/or metrics). The attribute model.metrics_names will give you the display labels for the scalar outputs.

Raises
RuntimeError If model.test_on_batch is wrapped in a tf.function.

test_step

The logic for one evaluation step.

This method can be overridden to support custom evaluation logic. This method is called by Model.make_test_function.

This function should contain the mathematical logic for one step of evaluation. This typically includes the forward pass, loss calculation, and metrics updates.

Configuration details for how this logic is run (e.g. tf.function and tf.distribute.Strategy settings), should be left to Model.make_test_function, which can also be overridden.

Args
data A nested structure of Tensors.

Returns
A dict containing values that will be passed to tf.keras.callbacks.CallbackList.on_train_batch_end. Typically, the values of the Model's metrics are returned.

to_json

Returns a JSON string containing the network configuration.

To load a network from a JSON save file, use keras.models.model_from_json(json_string, custom_objects={}).

Args
**kwargs Additional keyword arguments to be passed to json.dumps().

Returns
A JSON string.

to_yaml

Returns a yaml string containing the network configuration.

To load a network from a yaml save file, use keras.models.model_from_yaml(yaml_string, custom_objects={}).

custom_objects should be a dictionary mapping the names of custom losses / layers / etc to the corresponding functions / classes.

Args
**kwargs Additional keyword arguments to be passed to yaml.dump().

Returns
A YAML string.

Raises
RuntimeError announces that the method poses a security risk

train_on_batch

Runs a single gradient update on a single batch of data.

Args
x Input data. It could be:

  • A Numpy array (or array-like), or a list of arrays (in case the model has multiple inputs).
  • A TensorFlow tensor, or a list of tensors (in case the model has multiple inputs).
  • A dict mapping input names to the corresponding array/tensors, if the model has named inputs.
y Target data. Like the input data x, it could be either Numpy array(s) or TensorFlow tensor(s). It should be consistent with x (you cannot have Numpy inputs and tensor targets, or inversely).
sample_weight Optional array of the same length as x, containing weights to apply to the model's loss for each sample. In the case of temporal data, you can pass a 2D array with shape (samples, sequence_length), to apply a different weight to every timestep of every sample.
class_weight Optional dictionary mapping class indices (integers) to a weight (float) to apply to the model's loss for the samples from this class during training. This can be useful to tell the model to "pay more attention" to samples from an under-represented class.
reset_metrics If True, the metrics returned will be only for this batch. If False, the metrics will be statefully accumulated across batches.
return_dict If True, loss and metric results are returned as a dict, with each key being the name of the metric. If False, they are returned as a list.

Returns
Scalar training loss (if the model has a single output and no metrics) or list of scalars (if the model has multiple outputs and/or metrics). The attribute model.metrics_names will give you the display labels for the scalar outputs.

Raises
RuntimeError If model.train_on_batch is wrapped in a tf.function.

train_step

View source

Collects training examples.

with_name_scope

Decorator to automatically enter the module name scope.

class MyModule(tf.Module):
  @tf.Module.with_name_scope
  def __call__(self, x):
    if not hasattr(self, 'w'):
      self.w = tf.Variable(tf.random.normal([x.shape[1], 3]))
    return tf.matmul(x, self.w)

Using the above module would produce tf.Variables and tf.Tensors whose names included the module name:

mod = MyModule()
mod(tf.ones([1, 2]))
<tf.Tensor: shape=(1, 3), dtype=float32, numpy=..., dtype=float32)>
mod.w
<tf.Variable 'my_module/Variable:0' shape=(2, 3) dtype=float32,
numpy=..., dtype=float32)>

Args
method The method to wrap.

Returns
The original method wrapped such that it enters the module's name scope.

yggdrasil_model_path_tensor

View source

Gets the path to yggdrasil model, if available.

The effective path can be obtained with:

yggdrasil_model_path_tensor().numpy().decode("utf-8")

Returns
Path to the Yggdrasil model.

__call__

Wraps call, applying pre- and post-processing steps.

Args
*args Positional arguments to be passed to self.call.
**kwargs Keyword arguments to be passed to self.call.

Returns
Output tensor(s).

Note:

  • The following optional keyword arguments are reserved for specific uses:
    • training: Boolean scalar tensor of Python boolean indicating whether the call is meant for training or inference.
    • mask: Boolean input mask.
  • If the layer's call method takes a mask argument (as some Keras layers do), its default value will be set to the mask generated for inputs by the previous layer (if input did come from a layer that generated a corresponding mask, i.e. if it came from a Keras layer with masking support.
  • If the layer is not built, the method will call build.

Raises
ValueError if the layer's call method returns None (an invalid value).
RuntimeError if super().__init__() was not called in the constructor.