How to match images using DELF and TensorFlow Hub

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TensorFlow Hub (TF-Hub) is a platform to share machine learning expertise packaged in reusable resources, notably pre-trained modules.

In this colab, we will use a module that packages the DELF neural network and logic for processing images to identify keypoints and their descriptors. The weights of the neural network were trained on images of landmarks as described in this paper.

Setup

pip install -q scikit-image
from absl import logging

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np
from PIL import Image, ImageOps
from scipy.spatial import cKDTree
from skimage.feature import plot_matches
from skimage.measure import ransac
from skimage.transform import AffineTransform
from six import BytesIO

import tensorflow as tf

import tensorflow_hub as hub
from six.moves.urllib.request import urlopen

The data

In the next cell, we specify the URLs of two images we would like to process with DELF in order to match and compare them.


images = "Bridge of Sighs" 
if images == "Bridge of Sighs":
  # from: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bridge_of_Sighs,_Oxford.jpg
  # by: N.H. Fischer
  IMAGE_1_URL = 'https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/28/Bridge_of_Sighs%2C_Oxford.jpg'
  # from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Bridge_of_Sighs_and_Sheldonian_Theatre,_Oxford.jpg
  # by: Matthew Hoser
  IMAGE_2_URL = 'https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c3/The_Bridge_of_Sighs_and_Sheldonian_Theatre%2C_Oxford.jpg'
elif images == "Golden Gate":
  IMAGE_1_URL = 'https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1e/Golden_gate2.jpg'
  IMAGE_2_URL = 'https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3e/GoldenGateBridge.jpg'
elif images == "Acropolis":
  IMAGE_1_URL = 'https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/ce/2006_01_21_Ath%C3%A8nes_Parth%C3%A9non.JPG'
  IMAGE_2_URL = 'https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5c/ACROPOLIS_1969_-_panoramio_-_jean_melis.jpg'
else:
  IMAGE_1_URL = 'https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d8/Eiffel_Tower%2C_November_15%2C_2011.jpg'
  IMAGE_2_URL = 'https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a8/Eiffel_Tower_from_immediately_beside_it%2C_Paris_May_2008.jpg'

Download, resize, save and display the images.

def download_and_resize(name, url, new_width=256, new_height=256):
  path = tf.keras.utils.get_file(url.split('/')[-1], url)
  image = Image.open(path)
  image = ImageOps.fit(image, (new_width, new_height), Image.ANTIALIAS)
  return image
image1 = download_and_resize('image_1.jpg', IMAGE_1_URL)
image2 = download_and_resize('image_2.jpg', IMAGE_2_URL)

plt.subplot(1,2,1)
plt.imshow(image1)
plt.subplot(1,2,2)
plt.imshow(image2)
Downloading data from https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/28/Bridge_of_Sighs%2C_Oxford.jpg
7020544/7013850 [==============================] - 1s 0us/step
Downloading data from https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c3/The_Bridge_of_Sighs_and_Sheldonian_Theatre%2C_Oxford.jpg
14172160/14164194 [==============================] - 2s 0us/step

<matplotlib.image.AxesImage at 0x7f41168603c8>

png

Apply the DELF module to the data

The DELF module takes an image as input and will describe noteworthy points with vectors. The following cell contains the core of this colab's logic.

delf = hub.load('https://tfhub.dev/google/delf/1').signatures['default']
WARNING:tensorflow:From /tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.6/site-packages/tensorflow/python/ops/resource_variable_ops.py:1817: calling BaseResourceVariable.__init__ (from tensorflow.python.ops.resource_variable_ops) with constraint is deprecated and will be removed in a future version.
Instructions for updating:
If using Keras pass *_constraint arguments to layers.

Warning:tensorflow:From /tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.6/site-packages/tensorflow/python/ops/resource_variable_ops.py:1817: calling BaseResourceVariable.__init__ (from tensorflow.python.ops.resource_variable_ops) with constraint is deprecated and will be removed in a future version.
Instructions for updating:
If using Keras pass *_constraint arguments to layers.

def run_delf(image):
  np_image = np.array(image)
  float_image = tf.image.convert_image_dtype(np_image, tf.float32)

  return delf(
      image=float_image,
      score_threshold=tf.constant(100.0),
      image_scales=tf.constant([0.25, 0.3536, 0.5, 0.7071, 1.0, 1.4142, 2.0]),
      max_feature_num=tf.constant(1000))
result1 = run_delf(image1)
result2 = run_delf(image2)

Use the locations and description vectors to match the images


def match_images(image1, image2, result1, result2):
  distance_threshold = 0.8

  # Read features.
  num_features_1 = result1['locations'].shape[0]
  print("Loaded image 1's %d features" % num_features_1)
  
  num_features_2 = result2['locations'].shape[0]
  print("Loaded image 2's %d features" % num_features_2)

  # Find nearest-neighbor matches using a KD tree.
  d1_tree = cKDTree(result1['descriptors'])
  _, indices = d1_tree.query(
      result2['descriptors'],
      distance_upper_bound=distance_threshold)

  # Select feature locations for putative matches.
  locations_2_to_use = np.array([
      result2['locations'][i,]
      for i in range(num_features_2)
      if indices[i] != num_features_1
  ])
  locations_1_to_use = np.array([
      result1['locations'][indices[i],]
      for i in range(num_features_2)
      if indices[i] != num_features_1
  ])

  # Perform geometric verification using RANSAC.
  _, inliers = ransac(
      (locations_1_to_use, locations_2_to_use),
      AffineTransform,
      min_samples=3,
      residual_threshold=20,
      max_trials=1000)

  print('Found %d inliers' % sum(inliers))

  # Visualize correspondences.
  _, ax = plt.subplots()
  inlier_idxs = np.nonzero(inliers)[0]
  plot_matches(
      ax,
      image1,
      image2,
      locations_1_to_use,
      locations_2_to_use,
      np.column_stack((inlier_idxs, inlier_idxs)),
      matches_color='b')
  ax.axis('off')
  ax.set_title('DELF correspondences')



match_images(image1, image2, result1, result2)
Loaded image 1's 233 features
Loaded image 2's 262 features
Found 51 inliers

png