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Bermigrasi dari TPUEstimator ke TPUSstrategy

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Lihat di TensorFlow.org Jalankan di Google Colab Lihat sumber di GitHub Unduh buku catatan

Panduan ini menunjukkan cara memigrasikan alur kerja Anda yang berjalan di TPU dari TPUEstimator API TensorFlow 1 ke TPUEstimator API TPUStrategy 2.

Untuk contoh TensorFlow 2 end-to-end, lihat panduan Use TPUs —yaitu, bagian Classification on TPUs —dan tutorial Memecahkan tugas GLUE menggunakan BERT on TPU . Anda juga dapat menemukan panduan pelatihan Terdistribusi yang berguna, yang mencakup semua strategi distribusi TensorFlow, termasuk TPUStrategy .

Mempersiapkan

Mulailah dengan impor dan kumpulan data sederhana untuk tujuan demonstrasi:

import tensorflow as tf
import tensorflow.compat.v1 as tf1
/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.6/site-packages/requests/__init__.py:104: RequestsDependencyWarning: urllib3 (1.26.8) or chardet (2.3.0)/charset_normalizer (2.0.11) doesn't match a supported version!
  RequestsDependencyWarning)
features = [[1., 1.5]]
labels = [[0.3]]
eval_features = [[4., 4.5]]
eval_labels = [[0.8]]

TensorFlow 1: Mendorong model pada TPU dengan TPUEstimator

Bagian panduan ini menunjukkan cara melakukan pelatihan dan evaluasi dengan tf.compat.v1.estimator.tpu.TPUEstimator di TensorFlow 1.

Untuk menggunakan TPUEstimator , pertama-tama tentukan beberapa fungsi: fungsi input untuk data pelatihan, fungsi input evaluasi untuk data evaluasi, dan fungsi model yang memberi tahu TPUEstimator bagaimana operasi pelatihan didefinisikan dengan fitur dan label:

def _input_fn(params):
  dataset = tf1.data.Dataset.from_tensor_slices((features, labels))
  dataset = dataset.repeat()
  return dataset.batch(params['batch_size'], drop_remainder=True)

def _eval_input_fn(params):
  dataset = tf1.data.Dataset.from_tensor_slices((eval_features, eval_labels))
  dataset = dataset.repeat()
  return dataset.batch(params['batch_size'], drop_remainder=True)

def _model_fn(features, labels, mode, params):
  logits = tf1.layers.Dense(1)(features)
  loss = tf1.losses.mean_squared_error(labels=labels, predictions=logits)
  optimizer = tf1.train.AdagradOptimizer(0.05)
  train_op = optimizer.minimize(loss, global_step=tf1.train.get_global_step())
  return tf1.estimator.tpu.TPUEstimatorSpec(mode, loss=loss, train_op=train_op)

Dengan fungsi tersebut didefinisikan, buat tf.distribute.cluster_resolver.TPUClusterResolver yang menyediakan informasi cluster, dan objek tf.compat.v1.estimator.tpu.RunConfig . Seiring dengan fungsi model yang telah Anda tetapkan, Anda sekarang dapat membuat TPUEstimator . Di sini, Anda akan menyederhanakan alur dengan melewatkan penghematan pos pemeriksaan. Kemudian, Anda akan menentukan ukuran batch untuk pelatihan dan evaluasi untuk TPUEstimator .

cluster_resolver = tf1.distribute.cluster_resolver.TPUClusterResolver(tpu='')
print("All devices: ", tf1.config.list_logical_devices('TPU'))
All devices:  []
tpu_config = tf1.estimator.tpu.TPUConfig(iterations_per_loop=10)
config = tf1.estimator.tpu.RunConfig(
    cluster=cluster_resolver,
    save_checkpoints_steps=None,
    tpu_config=tpu_config)
estimator = tf1.estimator.tpu.TPUEstimator(
    model_fn=_model_fn,
    config=config,
    train_batch_size=8,
    eval_batch_size=8)
WARNING:tensorflow:Estimator's model_fn (<function _model_fn at 0x7fef73ae76a8>) includes params argument, but params are not passed to Estimator.
WARNING:tensorflow:Using temporary folder as model directory: /tmp/tmp_bkua7zf
INFO:tensorflow:Using config: {'_model_dir': '/tmp/tmp_bkua7zf', '_tf_random_seed': None, '_save_summary_steps': 100, '_save_checkpoints_steps': None, '_save_checkpoints_secs': None, '_session_config': allow_soft_placement: true
cluster_def {
  job {
    name: "worker"
    tasks {
      key: 0
      value: "10.240.1.2:8470"
    }
  }
}
isolate_session_state: true
, '_keep_checkpoint_max': 5, '_keep_checkpoint_every_n_hours': 10000, '_log_step_count_steps': None, '_train_distribute': None, '_device_fn': None, '_protocol': None, '_eval_distribute': None, '_experimental_distribute': None, '_experimental_max_worker_delay_secs': None, '_session_creation_timeout_secs': 7200, '_checkpoint_save_graph_def': True, '_service': None, '_cluster_spec': ClusterSpec({'worker': ['10.240.1.2:8470']}), '_task_type': 'worker', '_task_id': 0, '_global_id_in_cluster': 0, '_master': 'grpc://10.240.1.2:8470', '_evaluation_master': 'grpc://10.240.1.2:8470', '_is_chief': True, '_num_ps_replicas': 0, '_num_worker_replicas': 1, '_tpu_config': TPUConfig(iterations_per_loop=10, num_shards=None, num_cores_per_replica=None, per_host_input_for_training=2, tpu_job_name=None, initial_infeed_sleep_secs=None, input_partition_dims=None, eval_training_input_configuration=2, experimental_host_call_every_n_steps=1, experimental_allow_per_host_v2_parallel_get_next=False, experimental_feed_hook=None), '_cluster': <tensorflow.python.distribute.cluster_resolver.tpu.tpu_cluster_resolver.TPUClusterResolver object at 0x7ff288b6aa20>}
INFO:tensorflow:_TPUContext: eval_on_tpu True

Hubungi TPUEstimator.train untuk mulai melatih model:

estimator.train(_input_fn, steps=1)
INFO:tensorflow:Querying Tensorflow master (grpc://10.240.1.2:8470) for TPU system metadata.
INFO:tensorflow:Found TPU system:
INFO:tensorflow:*** Num TPU Cores: 8
INFO:tensorflow:*** Num TPU Workers: 1
INFO:tensorflow:*** Num TPU Cores Per Worker: 8
INFO:tensorflow:*** Available Device: _DeviceAttributes(/job:worker/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0, CPU, -1, 2562214468325910549)
INFO:tensorflow:*** Available Device: _DeviceAttributes(/job:worker/replica:0/task:0/device:TPU:0, TPU, 17179869184, 7806191887455116208)
INFO:tensorflow:*** Available Device: _DeviceAttributes(/job:worker/replica:0/task:0/device:TPU:1, TPU, 17179869184, 4935096526614797404)
INFO:tensorflow:*** Available Device: _DeviceAttributes(/job:worker/replica:0/task:0/device:TPU:2, TPU, 17179869184, 6208852770722846295)
INFO:tensorflow:*** Available Device: _DeviceAttributes(/job:worker/replica:0/task:0/device:TPU:3, TPU, 17179869184, -4484747666522931072)
INFO:tensorflow:*** Available Device: _DeviceAttributes(/job:worker/replica:0/task:0/device:TPU:4, TPU, 17179869184, -8715412538518264422)
INFO:tensorflow:*** Available Device: _DeviceAttributes(/job:worker/replica:0/task:0/device:TPU:5, TPU, 17179869184, -3521027846460785533)
INFO:tensorflow:*** Available Device: _DeviceAttributes(/job:worker/replica:0/task:0/device:TPU:6, TPU, 17179869184, -6534172152637582552)
INFO:tensorflow:*** Available Device: _DeviceAttributes(/job:worker/replica:0/task:0/device:TPU:7, TPU, 17179869184, 4735861352635655596)
INFO:tensorflow:*** Available Device: _DeviceAttributes(/job:worker/replica:0/task:0/device:TPU_SYSTEM:0, TPU_SYSTEM, 17179869184, -411508280321075475)
INFO:tensorflow:*** Available Device: _DeviceAttributes(/job:worker/replica:0/task:0/device:XLA_CPU:0, XLA_CPU, 17179869184, 2431932884271560631)
WARNING:tensorflow:From /tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.6/site-packages/tensorflow/python/training/training_util.py:236: Variable.initialized_value (from tensorflow.python.ops.variables) is deprecated and will be removed in a future version.
Instructions for updating:
Use Variable.read_value. Variables in 2.X are initialized automatically both in eager and graph (inside tf.defun) contexts.
INFO:tensorflow:Calling model_fn.
WARNING:tensorflow:From /tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.6/site-packages/tensorflow/python/training/adagrad.py:77: calling Constant.__init__ (from tensorflow.python.ops.init_ops) with dtype is deprecated and will be removed in a future version.
Instructions for updating:
Call initializer instance with the dtype argument instead of passing it to the constructor
INFO:tensorflow:Bypassing TPUEstimator hook
INFO:tensorflow:Done calling model_fn.
INFO:tensorflow:TPU job name worker
INFO:tensorflow:Graph was finalized.
INFO:tensorflow:Running local_init_op.
INFO:tensorflow:Done running local_init_op.
WARNING:tensorflow:From /tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.6/site-packages/tensorflow_estimator/python/estimator/tpu/tpu_estimator.py:758: Variable.load (from tensorflow.python.ops.variables) is deprecated and will be removed in a future version.
Instructions for updating:
Prefer Variable.assign which has equivalent behavior in 2.X.
INFO:tensorflow:Initialized dataset iterators in 0 seconds
INFO:tensorflow:Installing graceful shutdown hook.
INFO:tensorflow:Creating heartbeat manager for ['/job:worker/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0']
INFO:tensorflow:Configuring worker heartbeat: shutdown_mode: WAIT_FOR_COORDINATOR

INFO:tensorflow:Init TPU system
INFO:tensorflow:Initialized TPU in 7 seconds
INFO:tensorflow:Starting infeed thread controller.
INFO:tensorflow:Starting outfeed thread controller.
INFO:tensorflow:Enqueue next (1) batch(es) of data to infeed.
INFO:tensorflow:Dequeue next (1) batch(es) of data from outfeed.
INFO:tensorflow:Outfeed finished for iteration (0, 0)
INFO:tensorflow:loss = 4.462118, step = 1
INFO:tensorflow:Stop infeed thread controller
INFO:tensorflow:Shutting down InfeedController thread.
INFO:tensorflow:InfeedController received shutdown signal, stopping.
INFO:tensorflow:Infeed thread finished, shutting down.
INFO:tensorflow:infeed marked as finished
INFO:tensorflow:Stop output thread controller
INFO:tensorflow:Shutting down OutfeedController thread.
INFO:tensorflow:OutfeedController received shutdown signal, stopping.
INFO:tensorflow:Outfeed thread finished, shutting down.
INFO:tensorflow:outfeed marked as finished
INFO:tensorflow:Shutdown TPU system.
INFO:tensorflow:Loss for final step: 4.462118.
INFO:tensorflow:training_loop marked as finished
<tensorflow_estimator.python.estimator.tpu.tpu_estimator.TPUEstimator at 0x7fec59ef9d68>

Kemudian, panggil TPUEstimator.evaluate untuk mengevaluasi model menggunakan data evaluasi:

estimator.evaluate(_eval_input_fn, steps=1)
INFO:tensorflow:Could not find trained model in model_dir: /tmp/tmp_bkua7zf, running initialization to evaluate.
INFO:tensorflow:Calling model_fn.
WARNING:tensorflow:From /tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.6/site-packages/tensorflow_estimator/python/estimator/tpu/tpu_estimator.py:3406: div (from tensorflow.python.ops.math_ops) is deprecated and will be removed in a future version.
Instructions for updating:
Deprecated in favor of operator or tf.math.divide.
INFO:tensorflow:Done calling model_fn.
INFO:tensorflow:Starting evaluation at 2022-02-05T13:15:25
INFO:tensorflow:TPU job name worker
INFO:tensorflow:Graph was finalized.
INFO:tensorflow:Running local_init_op.
INFO:tensorflow:Done running local_init_op.
INFO:tensorflow:Init TPU system
INFO:tensorflow:Initialized TPU in 10 seconds
INFO:tensorflow:Starting infeed thread controller.
INFO:tensorflow:Starting outfeed thread controller.
INFO:tensorflow:Initialized dataset iterators in 0 seconds
INFO:tensorflow:Enqueue next (1) batch(es) of data to infeed.
INFO:tensorflow:Dequeue next (1) batch(es) of data from outfeed.
INFO:tensorflow:Outfeed finished for iteration (0, 0)
INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [1/1]
INFO:tensorflow:Stop infeed thread controller
INFO:tensorflow:Shutting down InfeedController thread.
INFO:tensorflow:InfeedController received shutdown signal, stopping.
INFO:tensorflow:Infeed thread finished, shutting down.
INFO:tensorflow:infeed marked as finished
INFO:tensorflow:Stop output thread controller
INFO:tensorflow:Shutting down OutfeedController thread.
INFO:tensorflow:OutfeedController received shutdown signal, stopping.
INFO:tensorflow:Outfeed thread finished, shutting down.
INFO:tensorflow:outfeed marked as finished
INFO:tensorflow:Shutdown TPU system.
INFO:tensorflow:Inference Time : 10.80091s
INFO:tensorflow:Finished evaluation at 2022-02-05-13:15:36
INFO:tensorflow:Saving dict for global step 1: global_step = 1, loss = 116.58184
INFO:tensorflow:evaluation_loop marked as finished
{'loss': 116.58184, 'global_step': 1}

TensorFlow 2: Mendorong model di TPU dengan Keras Model.fit dan TPUstrategy

Di TensorFlow 2, untuk melatih pekerja TPU, gunakan tf.distribute.TPUStrategy bersama dengan Keras API untuk definisi model dan pelatihan/evaluasi. (Lihat panduan Menggunakan TPU untuk contoh pelatihan lainnya dengan Keras Model.fit dan loop pelatihan khusus (dengan tf.function dan tf.GradientTape ).)

Karena Anda perlu melakukan beberapa pekerjaan inisialisasi untuk terhubung ke kluster jarak jauh dan menginisialisasi pekerja TPU, mulailah dengan membuat TPUClusterResolver untuk memberikan informasi kluster dan terhubung ke kluster. (Pelajari lebih lanjut di bagian inisialisasi TPU dari panduan Menggunakan TPU .)

cluster_resolver = tf.distribute.cluster_resolver.TPUClusterResolver(tpu='')
tf.config.experimental_connect_to_cluster(cluster_resolver)
tf.tpu.experimental.initialize_tpu_system(cluster_resolver)
print("All devices: ", tf.config.list_logical_devices('TPU'))
INFO:tensorflow:Clearing out eager caches
INFO:tensorflow:Clearing out eager caches
INFO:tensorflow:Initializing the TPU system: grpc://10.240.1.2:8470
INFO:tensorflow:Initializing the TPU system: grpc://10.240.1.2:8470
INFO:tensorflow:Finished initializing TPU system.
INFO:tensorflow:Finished initializing TPU system.
All devices:  [LogicalDevice(name='/job:worker/replica:0/task:0/device:TPU:0', device_type='TPU'), LogicalDevice(name='/job:worker/replica:0/task:0/device:TPU:1', device_type='TPU'), LogicalDevice(name='/job:worker/replica:0/task:0/device:TPU:2', device_type='TPU'), LogicalDevice(name='/job:worker/replica:0/task:0/device:TPU:3', device_type='TPU'), LogicalDevice(name='/job:worker/replica:0/task:0/device:TPU:4', device_type='TPU'), LogicalDevice(name='/job:worker/replica:0/task:0/device:TPU:5', device_type='TPU'), LogicalDevice(name='/job:worker/replica:0/task:0/device:TPU:6', device_type='TPU'), LogicalDevice(name='/job:worker/replica:0/task:0/device:TPU:7', device_type='TPU')]

Selanjutnya, setelah data Anda disiapkan, Anda akan membuat TPUStrategy , menentukan model, metrik, dan pengoptimal di bawah cakupan strategi ini.

Untuk mencapai kecepatan pelatihan yang sebanding dengan TPUStrategy , Anda harus memastikan untuk memilih nomor untuk steps_per_execution di Model.compile karena nomor tersebut menentukan jumlah batch yang akan dijalankan selama setiap panggilan tf.function , dan sangat penting untuk kinerja. Argumen ini mirip dengan iterations_per_loop yang digunakan dalam TPUEstimator . Jika Anda menggunakan loop pelatihan khusus, Anda harus memastikan beberapa langkah dijalankan dalam fungsi pelatihan tf.function -ed. Buka bagian Meningkatkan kinerja dengan beberapa langkah di dalam tf.function pada panduan Menggunakan TPU untuk informasi selengkapnya.

tf.distribute.TPUStrategy dapat mendukung bentuk dinamis yang dibatasi, dalam hal ini batas atas dari komputasi bentuk dinamis dapat disimpulkan. Tetapi bentuk dinamis dapat memperkenalkan beberapa overhead kinerja dibandingkan dengan bentuk statis. Jadi, umumnya disarankan untuk membuat bentuk input Anda statis jika memungkinkan, terutama dalam pelatihan. Salah satu operasi umum yang mengembalikan bentuk dinamis adalah tf.data.Dataset.batch(batch_size) , karena jumlah sampel yang tersisa dalam aliran mungkin kurang dari ukuran batch. Oleh karena itu, saat melatih TPU, Anda harus menggunakan tf.data.Dataset.batch(..., drop_remainder=True) untuk performa pelatihan terbaik.

dataset = tf.data.Dataset.from_tensor_slices(
    (features, labels)).shuffle(10).repeat().batch(
        8, drop_remainder=True).prefetch(2)
eval_dataset = tf.data.Dataset.from_tensor_slices(
    (eval_features, eval_labels)).batch(1, drop_remainder=True)

strategy = tf.distribute.TPUStrategy(cluster_resolver)
with strategy.scope():
  model = tf.keras.models.Sequential([tf.keras.layers.Dense(1)])
  optimizer = tf.keras.optimizers.Adagrad(learning_rate=0.05)
  model.compile(optimizer, "mse", steps_per_execution=10)
INFO:tensorflow:Found TPU system:
INFO:tensorflow:Found TPU system:
INFO:tensorflow:*** Num TPU Cores: 8
INFO:tensorflow:*** Num TPU Cores: 8
INFO:tensorflow:*** Num TPU Workers: 1
INFO:tensorflow:*** Num TPU Workers: 1
INFO:tensorflow:*** Num TPU Cores Per Worker: 8
INFO:tensorflow:*** Num TPU Cores Per Worker: 8
INFO:tensorflow:*** Available Device: _DeviceAttributes(/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0, CPU, 0, 0)
INFO:tensorflow:*** Available Device: _DeviceAttributes(/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0, CPU, 0, 0)
INFO:tensorflow:*** Available Device: _DeviceAttributes(/job:worker/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0, CPU, 0, 0)
INFO:tensorflow:*** Available Device: _DeviceAttributes(/job:worker/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0, CPU, 0, 0)
INFO:tensorflow:*** Available Device: _DeviceAttributes(/job:worker/replica:0/task:0/device:TPU:0, TPU, 0, 0)
INFO:tensorflow:*** Available Device: _DeviceAttributes(/job:worker/replica:0/task:0/device:TPU:0, TPU, 0, 0)
INFO:tensorflow:*** Available Device: _DeviceAttributes(/job:worker/replica:0/task:0/device:TPU:1, TPU, 0, 0)
INFO:tensorflow:*** Available Device: _DeviceAttributes(/job:worker/replica:0/task:0/device:TPU:1, TPU, 0, 0)
INFO:tensorflow:*** Available Device: _DeviceAttributes(/job:worker/replica:0/task:0/device:TPU:2, TPU, 0, 0)
INFO:tensorflow:*** Available Device: _DeviceAttributes(/job:worker/replica:0/task:0/device:TPU:2, TPU, 0, 0)
INFO:tensorflow:*** Available Device: _DeviceAttributes(/job:worker/replica:0/task:0/device:TPU:3, TPU, 0, 0)
INFO:tensorflow:*** Available Device: _DeviceAttributes(/job:worker/replica:0/task:0/device:TPU:3, TPU, 0, 0)
INFO:tensorflow:*** Available Device: _DeviceAttributes(/job:worker/replica:0/task:0/device:TPU:4, TPU, 0, 0)
INFO:tensorflow:*** Available Device: _DeviceAttributes(/job:worker/replica:0/task:0/device:TPU:4, TPU, 0, 0)
INFO:tensorflow:*** Available Device: _DeviceAttributes(/job:worker/replica:0/task:0/device:TPU:5, TPU, 0, 0)
INFO:tensorflow:*** Available Device: _DeviceAttributes(/job:worker/replica:0/task:0/device:TPU:5, TPU, 0, 0)
INFO:tensorflow:*** Available Device: _DeviceAttributes(/job:worker/replica:0/task:0/device:TPU:6, TPU, 0, 0)
INFO:tensorflow:*** Available Device: _DeviceAttributes(/job:worker/replica:0/task:0/device:TPU:6, TPU, 0, 0)
INFO:tensorflow:*** Available Device: _DeviceAttributes(/job:worker/replica:0/task:0/device:TPU:7, TPU, 0, 0)
INFO:tensorflow:*** Available Device: _DeviceAttributes(/job:worker/replica:0/task:0/device:TPU:7, TPU, 0, 0)
INFO:tensorflow:*** Available Device: _DeviceAttributes(/job:worker/replica:0/task:0/device:TPU_SYSTEM:0, TPU_SYSTEM, 0, 0)
INFO:tensorflow:*** Available Device: _DeviceAttributes(/job:worker/replica:0/task:0/device:TPU_SYSTEM:0, TPU_SYSTEM, 0, 0)
INFO:tensorflow:*** Available Device: _DeviceAttributes(/job:worker/replica:0/task:0/device:XLA_CPU:0, XLA_CPU, 0, 0)
INFO:tensorflow:*** Available Device: _DeviceAttributes(/job:worker/replica:0/task:0/device:XLA_CPU:0, XLA_CPU, 0, 0)

Dengan itu, Anda siap melatih model dengan set data pelatihan:

model.fit(dataset, epochs=5, steps_per_epoch=10)
Epoch 1/5
10/10 [==============================] - 2s 151ms/step - loss: 0.0840
Epoch 2/5
10/10 [==============================] - 0s 3ms/step - loss: 9.6915e-04
Epoch 3/5
10/10 [==============================] - 0s 3ms/step - loss: 1.5100e-05
Epoch 4/5
10/10 [==============================] - 0s 3ms/step - loss: 2.3593e-07
Epoch 5/5
10/10 [==============================] - 0s 3ms/step - loss: 3.7059e-09
<keras.callbacks.History at 0x7fec58275438>

Terakhir, evaluasi model menggunakan dataset evaluasi:

model.evaluate(eval_dataset, return_dict=True)
1/1 [==============================] - 2s 2s/step - loss: 0.6127
{'loss': 0.6127181053161621}

Langkah selanjutnya

Untuk mempelajari lebih lanjut tentang TPUStrategy di TensorFlow 2, pertimbangkan referensi berikut:

Untuk mempelajari lebih lanjut tentang menyesuaikan pelatihan Anda, lihat:

TPU—ASIC khusus Google untuk machine learning—tersedia melalui Google Colab , TPU Research Cloud , dan Cloud TPU .