Video Inbetweening using 3D Convolutions

View on TensorFlow.org Run in Google Colab View on GitHub Download notebook See TF Hub model

Yunpeng Li, Dominik Roblek, and Marco Tagliasacchi. From Here to There: Video Inbetweening Using Direct 3D Convolutions, 2019.

https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.10240

Current Hub characteristics:

  • has models for BAIR Robot pushing videos and KTH action video dataset (though this colab uses only BAIR)
  • BAIR dataset already available in Hub. However, KTH videos need to be supplied by the users themselves.
  • only evaluation (video generation) for now
  • batch size and frame size are hard-coded

Setup

Since tfds.load('bair_robot_pushing_small', split='test') would download a 30GB archive that also contains the training data, we download a separated archive that only contains the 190MB test data. The used dataset has been published by this paper and is licensed as Creative Commons BY 4.0.

import tensorflow as tf

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np
import seaborn as sns
import tensorflow_hub as hub
import tensorflow_datasets as tfds

from tensorflow_datasets.core import SplitGenerator
from tensorflow_datasets.video.bair_robot_pushing import BairRobotPushingSmall

import tempfile
import pathlib

TEST_DIR = pathlib.Path(tempfile.mkdtemp()) / "bair_robot_pushing_small/softmotion30_44k/test/"
2024-02-02 13:08:02.086333: E external/local_xla/xla/stream_executor/cuda/cuda_dnn.cc:9261] Unable to register cuDNN factory: Attempting to register factory for plugin cuDNN when one has already been registered
2024-02-02 13:08:02.086379: E external/local_xla/xla/stream_executor/cuda/cuda_fft.cc:607] Unable to register cuFFT factory: Attempting to register factory for plugin cuFFT when one has already been registered
2024-02-02 13:08:02.087885: E external/local_xla/xla/stream_executor/cuda/cuda_blas.cc:1515] Unable to register cuBLAS factory: Attempting to register factory for plugin cuBLAS when one has already been registered
# Download the test split to $TEST_DIR
mkdir -p $TEST_DIR
wget -nv https://storage.googleapis.com/download.tensorflow.org/data/bair_test_traj_0_to_255.tfrecords -O $TEST_DIR/traj_0_to_255.tfrecords
2024-02-02 13:08:08 URL:https://storage.googleapis.com/download.tensorflow.org/data/bair_test_traj_0_to_255.tfrecords [189852160/189852160] -> "/tmpfs/tmp/tmpkrlnzqtl/bair_robot_pushing_small/softmotion30_44k/test/traj_0_to_255.tfrecords" [1]
# Since the dataset builder expects the train and test split to be downloaded,
# patch it so it only expects the test data to be available
builder = BairRobotPushingSmall()
test_generator = SplitGenerator(name='test', gen_kwargs={"filedir": str(TEST_DIR)})
builder._split_generators = lambda _: [test_generator]
builder.download_and_prepare()
WARNING:absl:DEPRECATED! Do not use a DatasetBuilder class directly, but call `tfds.builder_cls('bair_robot_pushing_small')`.

BAIR: Demo based on numpy array inputs

2024-02-02 13:08:09.265931: E external/local_xla/xla/stream_executor/cuda/cuda_driver.cc:274] failed call to cuInit: CUDA_ERROR_NO_DEVICE: no CUDA-capable device is detected
WARNING:absl:`FeatureConnector.dtype` is deprecated. Please change your code to use NumPy with the field `FeatureConnector.np_dtype` or use TensorFlow with the field `FeatureConnector.tf_dtype`.
WARNING:absl:`FeatureConnector.dtype` is deprecated. Please change your code to use NumPy with the field `FeatureConnector.np_dtype` or use TensorFlow with the field `FeatureConnector.tf_dtype`.

Test videos shape [batch_size, start/end frame, height, width, num_channels]:  (16, 2, 64, 64, 3)

png

Load Hub Module

hub_handle = 'https://tfhub.dev/google/tweening_conv3d_bair/1'
module = hub.load(hub_handle).signatures['default']
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'video_discriminator/conv_0/weights:0' shape=(4, 4, 4, 3, 64) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'video_discriminator/conv_0/weights:0' shape=(4, 4, 4, 3, 64) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'video_discriminator/conv_0/LayerNorm/beta:0' shape=(64,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'video_discriminator/conv_0/LayerNorm/beta:0' shape=(64,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'video_discriminator/conv_0/LayerNorm/gamma:0' shape=(64,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'video_discriminator/conv_0/LayerNorm/gamma:0' shape=(64,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'video_discriminator/conv_1/weights:0' shape=(4, 4, 4, 64, 128) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'video_discriminator/conv_1/weights:0' shape=(4, 4, 4, 64, 128) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'video_discriminator/conv_1/LayerNorm/beta:0' shape=(128,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'video_discriminator/conv_1/LayerNorm/beta:0' shape=(128,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'video_discriminator/conv_0/weights:0' shape=(4, 4, 4, 3, 64) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'video_discriminator/conv_0/weights:0' shape=(4, 4, 4, 3, 64) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'video_discriminator/conv_0/LayerNorm/beta:0' shape=(64,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'video_discriminator/conv_0/LayerNorm/beta:0' shape=(64,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'video_discriminator/conv_0/LayerNorm/gamma:0' shape=(64,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'video_discriminator/conv_0/LayerNorm/gamma:0' shape=(64,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'video_discriminator/conv_1/weights:0' shape=(4, 4, 4, 64, 128) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'video_discriminator/conv_1/weights:0' shape=(4, 4, 4, 64, 128) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'video_discriminator/conv_1/LayerNorm/beta:0' shape=(128,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'video_discriminator/conv_1/LayerNorm/beta:0' shape=(128,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'video_discriminator/conv_0/weights:0' shape=(4, 4, 4, 3, 64) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'video_discriminator/conv_0/weights:0' shape=(4, 4, 4, 3, 64) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'video_discriminator/conv_0/LayerNorm/beta:0' shape=(64,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'video_discriminator/conv_0/LayerNorm/beta:0' shape=(64,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'video_discriminator/conv_0/LayerNorm/gamma:0' shape=(64,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'video_discriminator/conv_0/LayerNorm/gamma:0' shape=(64,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'video_discriminator/conv_1/weights:0' shape=(4, 4, 4, 64, 128) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'video_discriminator/conv_1/weights:0' shape=(4, 4, 4, 64, 128) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'video_discriminator/conv_1/LayerNorm/beta:0' shape=(128,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'video_discriminator/conv_1/LayerNorm/beta:0' shape=(128,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'video_discriminator/conv_0/weights:0' shape=(4, 4, 4, 3, 64) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'video_discriminator/conv_0/weights:0' shape=(4, 4, 4, 3, 64) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'video_discriminator/conv_0/LayerNorm/beta:0' shape=(64,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'video_discriminator/conv_0/LayerNorm/beta:0' shape=(64,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'video_discriminator/conv_0/LayerNorm/gamma:0' shape=(64,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'video_discriminator/conv_0/LayerNorm/gamma:0' shape=(64,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'video_discriminator/conv_1/weights:0' shape=(4, 4, 4, 64, 128) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'video_discriminator/conv_1/weights:0' shape=(4, 4, 4, 64, 128) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'video_discriminator/conv_1/LayerNorm/beta:0' shape=(128,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'video_discriminator/conv_1/LayerNorm/beta:0' shape=(128,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().

Generate and show the videos

filled_frames = module(input_frames)['default'] / 255.0
# Show sequences of generated video frames.

# Concatenate start/end frames and the generated filled frames for the new videos.
generated_videos = np.concatenate([input_frames[:, :1] / 255.0, filled_frames, input_frames[:, 1:] / 255.0], axis=1)

for video_id in range(4):
  fig = plt.figure(figsize=(10 * 2, 2))
  for frame_id in range(1, 16):
    ax = fig.add_axes([frame_id * 1 / 16., 0, (frame_id + 1) * 1 / 16., 1],
                      xmargin=0, ymargin=0)
    ax.imshow(generated_videos[video_id, frame_id])
    ax.axis('off')

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