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Ejemplo de extremo a extremo para el lector de BigQuery TensorFlow

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Descripción general

Este tutorial muestra cómo utilizar lector de BigQuery TensorFlow para la formación de redes neuronales mediante la API secuencial Keras.

Conjunto de datos

En este tutorial se utiliza el censo de Estados Unidos Ingresos conjunto de datos proporcionado por la Universidad de California en Irvine Machine Learning Repositorio . Este conjunto de datos contiene información sobre personas de una base de datos del censo de 1994, incluida la edad, la educación, el estado civil, la ocupación y si ganan más de $ 50,000 al año.

Configuración

Configura tu proyecto de GCP

Se requieren los siguientes pasos, independientemente del entorno de su computadora portátil.

  1. Seleccione o cree un proyecto de GCP.
  2. Asegúrese de que la facturación esté habilitada para su proyecto.
  3. Habilita la API de BigQuery Storage
  4. Ingrese su ID de proyecto en la celda a continuación. Luego, ejecute la celda para asegurarse de que el SDK de Cloud use el proyecto correcto para todos los comandos en este cuaderno.

Instale los paquetes necesarios y reinicie el tiempo de ejecución

try:
  # Use the Colab's preinstalled TensorFlow 2.x
  %tensorflow_version 2.x 
except:
  pass
pip install fastavro
pip install tensorflow-io==0.9.0
pip install google-cloud-bigquery-storage

Autenticar

from google.colab import auth
auth.authenticate_user()
print('Authenticated')

Establezca su ID de PROYECTO

PROJECT_ID = "<YOUR PROJECT>"
! gcloud config set project $PROJECT_ID
%env GCLOUD_PROJECT=$PROJECT_ID

Importar bibliotecas de Python, definir constantes

from __future__ import absolute_import, division, print_function, unicode_literals

import os
from six.moves import urllib
import tempfile

import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
import tensorflow as tf

from google.cloud import bigquery
from google.api_core.exceptions import GoogleAPIError

LOCATION = 'us'

# Storage directory
DATA_DIR = os.path.join(tempfile.gettempdir(), 'census_data')

# Download options.
DATA_URL = 'https://storage.googleapis.com/cloud-samples-data/ml-engine/census/data'
TRAINING_FILE = 'adult.data.csv'
EVAL_FILE = 'adult.test.csv'
TRAINING_URL = '%s/%s' % (DATA_URL, TRAINING_FILE)
EVAL_URL = '%s/%s' % (DATA_URL, EVAL_FILE)

DATASET_ID = 'census_dataset'
TRAINING_TABLE_ID = 'census_training_table'
EVAL_TABLE_ID = 'census_eval_table'

CSV_SCHEMA = [
      bigquery.SchemaField("age", "FLOAT64"),
      bigquery.SchemaField("workclass", "STRING"),
      bigquery.SchemaField("fnlwgt", "FLOAT64"),
      bigquery.SchemaField("education", "STRING"),
      bigquery.SchemaField("education_num", "FLOAT64"),
      bigquery.SchemaField("marital_status", "STRING"),
      bigquery.SchemaField("occupation", "STRING"),
      bigquery.SchemaField("relationship", "STRING"),
      bigquery.SchemaField("race", "STRING"),
      bigquery.SchemaField("gender", "STRING"),
      bigquery.SchemaField("capital_gain", "FLOAT64"),
      bigquery.SchemaField("capital_loss", "FLOAT64"),
      bigquery.SchemaField("hours_per_week", "FLOAT64"),
      bigquery.SchemaField("native_country", "STRING"),
      bigquery.SchemaField("income_bracket", "STRING"),
  ]

UNUSED_COLUMNS = ["fnlwgt", "education_num"]

Importar datos del censo a BigQuery

Definir métodos auxiliares para cargar datos en BigQuery

def create_bigquery_dataset_if_necessary(dataset_id):
  # Construct a full Dataset object to send to the API.
  client = bigquery.Client(project=PROJECT_ID)
  dataset = bigquery.Dataset(bigquery.dataset.DatasetReference(PROJECT_ID, dataset_id))
  dataset.location = LOCATION

  try:
    dataset = client.create_dataset(dataset)  # API request
    return True
  except GoogleAPIError as err:
    if err.code != 409: # http_client.CONFLICT
      raise
  return False
def load_data_into_bigquery(url, table_id):
  create_bigquery_dataset_if_necessary(DATASET_ID)
  client = bigquery.Client(project=PROJECT_ID)
  dataset_ref = client.dataset(DATASET_ID)
  table_ref = dataset_ref.table(table_id)
  job_config = bigquery.LoadJobConfig()
  job_config.write_disposition = bigquery.WriteDisposition.WRITE_TRUNCATE
  job_config.source_format = bigquery.SourceFormat.CSV
  job_config.schema = CSV_SCHEMA

  load_job = client.load_table_from_uri(
      url, table_ref, job_config=job_config
  )
  print("Starting job {}".format(load_job.job_id))

  load_job.result()  # Waits for table load to complete.
  print("Job finished.")

  destination_table = client.get_table(table_ref)
  print("Loaded {} rows.".format(destination_table.num_rows))

Cargar datos del censo en BigQuery.

load_data_into_bigquery(TRAINING_URL, TRAINING_TABLE_ID)
load_data_into_bigquery(EVAL_URL, EVAL_TABLE_ID)
Starting job 2ceffef8-e6e4-44bb-9e86-3d97b0501187
Job finished.
Loaded 32561 rows.
Starting job bf66f1b3-2506-408b-9009-c19f4ae9f58a
Job finished.
Loaded 16278 rows.

Confirme que los datos fueron importados

TODO: reemplace <SU PROYECTO> con su PROJECT_ID

%%bigquery --use_bqstorage_api
SELECT * FROM `<YOUR PROJECT>.census_dataset.census_training_table` LIMIT 5

Cargar datos del censo en TensorFlow DataSet con el lector de BigQuery

Leer y transformar datos de cesnus de BigQuery en TensorFlow DataSet

from tensorflow.python.framework import ops
from tensorflow.python.framework import dtypes
from tensorflow_io.bigquery import BigQueryClient
from tensorflow_io.bigquery import BigQueryReadSession

def transform_row(row_dict):
  # Trim all string tensors
  trimmed_dict = { column:
                  (tf.strings.strip(tensor) if tensor.dtype == 'string' else tensor) 
                  for (column,tensor) in row_dict.items()
                  }
  # Extract feature column
  income_bracket = trimmed_dict.pop('income_bracket')
  # Convert feature column to 0.0/1.0
  income_bracket_float = tf.cond(tf.equal(tf.strings.strip(income_bracket), '>50K'), 
                 lambda: tf.constant(1.0), 
                 lambda: tf.constant(0.0))
  return (trimmed_dict, income_bracket_float)

def read_bigquery(table_name):
  tensorflow_io_bigquery_client = BigQueryClient()
  read_session = tensorflow_io_bigquery_client.read_session(
      "projects/" + PROJECT_ID,
      PROJECT_ID, table_name, DATASET_ID,
      list(field.name for field in CSV_SCHEMA 
           if not field.name in UNUSED_COLUMNS),
      list(dtypes.double if field.field_type == 'FLOAT64' 
           else dtypes.string for field in CSV_SCHEMA
           if not field.name in UNUSED_COLUMNS),
      requested_streams=2)

  dataset = read_session.parallel_read_rows()
  transformed_ds = dataset.map(transform_row)
  return transformed_ds
BATCH_SIZE = 32

training_ds = read_bigquery(TRAINING_TABLE_ID).shuffle(10000).batch(BATCH_SIZE)
eval_ds = read_bigquery(EVAL_TABLE_ID).batch(BATCH_SIZE)

Definir columnas de características

def get_categorical_feature_values(column):
  query = 'SELECT DISTINCT TRIM({}) FROM `{}`.{}.{}'.format(column, PROJECT_ID, DATASET_ID, TRAINING_TABLE_ID)
  client = bigquery.Client(project=PROJECT_ID)
  dataset_ref = client.dataset(DATASET_ID)
  job_config = bigquery.QueryJobConfig()
  query_job = client.query(query, job_config=job_config)
  result = query_job.to_dataframe()
  return result.values[:,0]
from tensorflow import feature_column

feature_columns = []

# numeric cols
for header in ['capital_gain', 'capital_loss', 'hours_per_week']:
  feature_columns.append(feature_column.numeric_column(header))

# categorical cols
for header in ['workclass', 'marital_status', 'occupation', 'relationship',
               'race', 'native_country', 'education']:
  categorical_feature = feature_column.categorical_column_with_vocabulary_list(
        header, get_categorical_feature_values(header))
  categorical_feature_one_hot = feature_column.indicator_column(categorical_feature)
  feature_columns.append(categorical_feature_one_hot)

# bucketized cols
age = feature_column.numeric_column('age')
age_buckets = feature_column.bucketized_column(age, boundaries=[18, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65])
feature_columns.append(age_buckets)

feature_layer = tf.keras.layers.DenseFeatures(feature_columns)

Construir y entrenar modelo

Modelo de construcción

Dense = tf.keras.layers.Dense
model = tf.keras.Sequential(
  [
    feature_layer,
      Dense(100, activation=tf.nn.relu, kernel_initializer='uniform'),
      Dense(75, activation=tf.nn.relu),
      Dense(50, activation=tf.nn.relu),
      Dense(25, activation=tf.nn.relu),
      Dense(1, activation=tf.nn.sigmoid)
  ])

# Compile Keras model
model.compile(
    loss='binary_crossentropy', 
    metrics=['accuracy'])

Modelo de tren

model.fit(training_ds, epochs=5)
WARNING:tensorflow:Layer sequential is casting an input tensor from dtype float64 to the layer's dtype of float32, which is new behavior in TensorFlow 2.  The layer has dtype float32 because it's dtype defaults to floatx.

If you intended to run this layer in float32, you can safely ignore this warning. If in doubt, this warning is likely only an issue if you are porting a TensorFlow 1.X model to TensorFlow 2.

To change all layers to have dtype float64 by default, call `tf.keras.backend.set_floatx('float64')`. To change just this layer, pass dtype='float64' to the layer constructor. If you are the author of this layer, you can disable autocasting by passing autocast=False to the base Layer constructor.

WARNING:tensorflow:From /usr/local/lib/python3.6/dist-packages/tensorflow_core/python/feature_column/feature_column_v2.py:4276: IndicatorColumn._variable_shape (from tensorflow.python.feature_column.feature_column_v2) is deprecated and will be removed in a future version.
Instructions for updating:
The old _FeatureColumn APIs are being deprecated. Please use the new FeatureColumn APIs instead.
WARNING:tensorflow:From /usr/local/lib/python3.6/dist-packages/tensorflow_core/python/feature_column/feature_column_v2.py:4331: VocabularyListCategoricalColumn._num_buckets (from tensorflow.python.feature_column.feature_column_v2) is deprecated and will be removed in a future version.
Instructions for updating:
The old _FeatureColumn APIs are being deprecated. Please use the new FeatureColumn APIs instead.
Epoch 1/5
1018/1018 [==============================] - 17s 17ms/step - loss: 0.5985 - accuracy: 0.8105
Epoch 2/5
1018/1018 [==============================] - 10s 10ms/step - loss: 0.3670 - accuracy: 0.8324
Epoch 3/5
1018/1018 [==============================] - 11s 10ms/step - loss: 0.3487 - accuracy: 0.8393
Epoch 4/5
1018/1018 [==============================] - 11s 10ms/step - loss: 0.3398 - accuracy: 0.8435
Epoch 5/5
1018/1018 [==============================] - 11s 11ms/step - loss: 0.3377 - accuracy: 0.8455
<tensorflow.python.keras.callbacks.History at 0x7f978f5b91d0>

Evaluar modelo

Evaluar modelo

loss, accuracy = model.evaluate(eval_ds)
print("Accuracy", accuracy)
509/509 [==============================] - 8s 15ms/step - loss: 0.3338 - accuracy: 0.8398
Accuracy 0.8398452

Evaluar un par de muestras aleatorias

sample_x = {
    'age' : np.array([56, 36]), 
    'workclass': np.array(['Local-gov', 'Private']), 
    'education': np.array(['Bachelors', 'Bachelors']), 
    'marital_status': np.array(['Married-civ-spouse', 'Married-civ-spouse']), 
    'occupation': np.array(['Tech-support', 'Other-service']), 
    'relationship': np.array(['Husband', 'Husband']), 
    'race': np.array(['White', 'Black']), 
    'gender': np.array(['Male', 'Male']), 
    'capital_gain': np.array([0, 7298]), 
    'capital_loss': np.array([0, 0]), 
    'hours_per_week': np.array([40, 36]), 
    'native_country': np.array(['United-States', 'United-States'])
  }

model.predict(sample_x)
array([[0.5541261],
       [0.6209938]], dtype=float32)

Recursos