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End to end example for BigQuery TensorFlow reader

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Aperçu

Ce tutoriel montre comment utiliser le lecteur BigQuery TensorFlow pour entraîner le réseau neuronal à l'aide de l'API séquentielle Keras.

Base de données

Ce didacticiel utilise l'ensemble de données sur les revenus du recensement des États-Unis fourni par le référentiel UC Irvine Machine Learning . Cet ensemble de données contient des informations sur les personnes issues d'une base de données du recensement de 1994, notamment l'âge, le niveau de scolarité, l'état matrimonial, la profession et le fait de savoir si elles gagnent plus de 50 000 $ par année.

Installer

Configurez votre projet GCP

Les étapes suivantes sont requises, quel que soit l'environnement de votre ordinateur portable.

  1. Sélectionnez ou créez un projet GCP.
  2. Assurez-vous que la facturation est activée pour votre projet.
  3. Activer l'API BigQuery Storage
  4. Entrez votre ID de projet dans la cellule ci-dessous. Exécutez ensuite la cellule pour vous assurer que le SDK Cloud utilise le bon projet pour toutes les commandes de ce notebook.

Installez les packages requis et redémarrez le runtime

try:
  # Use the Colab's preinstalled TensorFlow 2.x
  %tensorflow_version 2.x 
except:
  pass
pip install fastavro
pip install tensorflow-io==0.9.0
pip install google-cloud-bigquery-storage

Authentifier

from google.colab import auth
auth.authenticate_user()
print('Authenticated')

Définissez votre ID DE PROJET

PROJECT_ID = "<YOUR PROJECT>" 
! gcloud config set project $PROJECT_ID
%env GCLOUD_PROJECT=$PROJECT_ID

Importer des bibliothèques Python, définir des constantes

from __future__ import absolute_import, division, print_function, unicode_literals

import os
from six.moves import urllib
import tempfile

import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
import tensorflow as tf

from google.cloud import bigquery
from google.api_core.exceptions import GoogleAPIError

LOCATION = 'us'

# Storage directory
DATA_DIR = os.path.join(tempfile.gettempdir(), 'census_data')

# Download options.
DATA_URL = 'https://storage.googleapis.com/cloud-samples-data/ml-engine/census/data'
TRAINING_FILE = 'adult.data.csv'
EVAL_FILE = 'adult.test.csv'
TRAINING_URL = '%s/%s' % (DATA_URL, TRAINING_FILE)
EVAL_URL = '%s/%s' % (DATA_URL, EVAL_FILE)

DATASET_ID = 'census_dataset'
TRAINING_TABLE_ID = 'census_training_table'
EVAL_TABLE_ID = 'census_eval_table'

CSV_SCHEMA = [
      bigquery.SchemaField("age", "FLOAT64"),
      bigquery.SchemaField("workclass", "STRING"),
      bigquery.SchemaField("fnlwgt", "FLOAT64"),
      bigquery.SchemaField("education", "STRING"),
      bigquery.SchemaField("education_num", "FLOAT64"),
      bigquery.SchemaField("marital_status", "STRING"),
      bigquery.SchemaField("occupation", "STRING"),
      bigquery.SchemaField("relationship", "STRING"),
      bigquery.SchemaField("race", "STRING"),
      bigquery.SchemaField("gender", "STRING"),
      bigquery.SchemaField("capital_gain", "FLOAT64"),
      bigquery.SchemaField("capital_loss", "FLOAT64"),
      bigquery.SchemaField("hours_per_week", "FLOAT64"),
      bigquery.SchemaField("native_country", "STRING"),
      bigquery.SchemaField("income_bracket", "STRING"),
  ]

UNUSED_COLUMNS = ["fnlwgt", "education_num"]

Importer les données de recensement dans BigQuery

Définir des méthodes d'assistance pour charger des données dans BigQuery

def create_bigquery_dataset_if_necessary(dataset_id):
  # Construct a full Dataset object to send to the API.
  client = bigquery.Client(project=PROJECT_ID)
  dataset = bigquery.Dataset(bigquery.dataset.DatasetReference(PROJECT_ID, dataset_id))
  dataset.location = LOCATION

  try:
    dataset = client.create_dataset(dataset)  # API request
    return True
  except GoogleAPIError as err:
    if err.code != 409: # http_client.CONFLICT
      raise
  return False

def load_data_into_bigquery(url, table_id):
  create_bigquery_dataset_if_necessary(DATASET_ID)
  client = bigquery.Client(project=PROJECT_ID)
  dataset_ref = client.dataset(DATASET_ID)
  table_ref = dataset_ref.table(table_id)
  job_config = bigquery.LoadJobConfig()
  job_config.write_disposition = bigquery.WriteDisposition.WRITE_TRUNCATE
  job_config.source_format = bigquery.SourceFormat.CSV
  job_config.schema = CSV_SCHEMA

  load_job = client.load_table_from_uri(
      url, table_ref, job_config=job_config
  )
  print("Starting job {}".format(load_job.job_id))

  load_job.result()  # Waits for table load to complete.
  print("Job finished.")

  destination_table = client.get_table(table_ref)
  print("Loaded {} rows.".format(destination_table.num_rows))

Chargez les données de recensement dans BigQuery.

load_data_into_bigquery(TRAINING_URL, TRAINING_TABLE_ID)
load_data_into_bigquery(EVAL_URL, EVAL_TABLE_ID)
Starting job 2ceffef8-e6e4-44bb-9e86-3d97b0501187
Job finished.
Loaded 32561 rows.
Starting job bf66f1b3-2506-408b-9009-c19f4ae9f58a
Job finished.
Loaded 16278 rows.

Confirmez que les données ont été importées

TODO: remplacez <YOUR PROJECT> par votre PROJECT_ID

%%bigquery --use_bqstorage_api
SELECT * FROM `<YOUR PROJECT>.census_dataset.census_training_table` LIMIT 5

Charger les données de recensement dans TensorFlow DataSet à l'aide du lecteur BigQuery

Lisez et transformez les données Cesnus de BigQuery en TensorFlow DataSet

from tensorflow.python.framework import ops
from tensorflow.python.framework import dtypes
from tensorflow_io.bigquery import BigQueryClient
from tensorflow_io.bigquery import BigQueryReadSession
  
def transofrom_row(row_dict):
  # Trim all string tensors
  trimmed_dict = { column:
                  (tf.strings.strip(tensor) if tensor.dtype == 'string' else tensor) 
                  for (column,tensor) in row_dict.items()
                  }
  # Extract feature column
  income_bracket = trimmed_dict.pop('income_bracket')
  # Convert feature column to 0.0/1.0
  income_bracket_float = tf.cond(tf.equal(tf.strings.strip(income_bracket), '>50K'), 
                 lambda: tf.constant(1.0), 
                 lambda: tf.constant(0.0))
  return (trimmed_dict, income_bracket_float)

def read_bigquery(table_name):
  tensorflow_io_bigquery_client = BigQueryClient()
  read_session = tensorflow_io_bigquery_client.read_session(
      "projects/" + PROJECT_ID,
      PROJECT_ID, table_name, DATASET_ID,
      list(field.name for field in CSV_SCHEMA 
           if not field.name in UNUSED_COLUMNS),
      list(dtypes.double if field.field_type == 'FLOAT64' 
           else dtypes.string for field in CSV_SCHEMA
           if not field.name in UNUSED_COLUMNS),
      requested_streams=2)
  
  dataset = read_session.parallel_read_rows()
  transformed_ds = dataset.map (transofrom_row)
  return transformed_ds

BATCH_SIZE = 32

training_ds = read_bigquery(TRAINING_TABLE_ID).shuffle(10000).batch(BATCH_SIZE)
eval_ds = read_bigquery(EVAL_TABLE_ID).batch(BATCH_SIZE)

Définir des colonnes d'objets

def get_categorical_feature_values(column):
  query = 'SELECT DISTINCT TRIM({}) FROM `{}`.{}.{}'.format(column, PROJECT_ID, DATASET_ID, TRAINING_TABLE_ID)
  client = bigquery.Client(project=PROJECT_ID)
  dataset_ref = client.dataset(DATASET_ID)
  job_config = bigquery.QueryJobConfig()
  query_job = client.query(query, job_config=job_config)
  result = query_job.to_dataframe()
  return result.values[:,0]
from tensorflow import feature_column

feature_columns = []

# numeric cols
for header in ['capital_gain', 'capital_loss', 'hours_per_week']:
  feature_columns.append(feature_column.numeric_column(header))

# categorical cols
for header in ['workclass', 'marital_status', 'occupation', 'relationship',
               'race', 'native_country', 'education']:
  categorical_feature = feature_column.categorical_column_with_vocabulary_list(
        header, get_categorical_feature_values(header))
  categorical_feature_one_hot = feature_column.indicator_column(categorical_feature)
  feature_columns.append(categorical_feature_one_hot)

# bucketized cols
age = feature_column.numeric_column('age')
age_buckets = feature_column.bucketized_column(age, boundaries=[18, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65])
feature_columns.append(age_buckets)

feature_layer = tf.keras.layers.DenseFeatures(feature_columns)

Construire et former un modèle

Construire un modèle

Dense = tf.keras.layers.Dense
model = tf.keras.Sequential(
  [
    feature_layer,
      Dense(100, activation=tf.nn.relu, kernel_initializer='uniform'),
      Dense(75, activation=tf.nn.relu),
      Dense(50, activation=tf.nn.relu),
      Dense(25, activation=tf.nn.relu),
      Dense(1, activation=tf.nn.sigmoid)
  ])

# Compile Keras model
model.compile(
    loss='binary_crossentropy', 
    metrics=['accuracy'])

Modèle de train

model.fit(training_ds, epochs=5)
WARNING:tensorflow:Layer sequential is casting an input tensor from dtype float64 to the layer's dtype of float32, which is new behavior in TensorFlow 2.  The layer has dtype float32 because it's dtype defaults to floatx.

If you intended to run this layer in float32, you can safely ignore this warning. If in doubt, this warning is likely only an issue if you are porting a TensorFlow 1.X model to TensorFlow 2.

To change all layers to have dtype float64 by default, call `tf.keras.backend.set_floatx('float64')`. To change just this layer, pass dtype='float64' to the layer constructor. If you are the author of this layer, you can disable autocasting by passing autocast=False to the base Layer constructor.

Warning:tensorflow:From /usr/local/lib/python3.6/dist-packages/tensorflow_core/python/feature_column/feature_column_v2.py:4276: IndicatorColumn._variable_shape (from tensorflow.python.feature_column.feature_column_v2) is deprecated and will be removed in a future version.
Instructions for updating:
The old _FeatureColumn APIs are being deprecated. Please use the new FeatureColumn APIs instead.
WARNING:tensorflow:From /usr/local/lib/python3.6/dist-packages/tensorflow_core/python/feature_column/feature_column_v2.py:4331: VocabularyListCategoricalColumn._num_buckets (from tensorflow.python.feature_column.feature_column_v2) is deprecated and will be removed in a future version.
Instructions for updating:
The old _FeatureColumn APIs are being deprecated. Please use the new FeatureColumn APIs instead.
Epoch 1/5
1018/1018 [==============================] - 17s 17ms/step - loss: 0.5985 - accuracy: 0.8105
Epoch 2/5
1018/1018 [==============================] - 10s 10ms/step - loss: 0.3670 - accuracy: 0.8324
Epoch 3/5
1018/1018 [==============================] - 11s 10ms/step - loss: 0.3487 - accuracy: 0.8393
Epoch 4/5
1018/1018 [==============================] - 11s 10ms/step - loss: 0.3398 - accuracy: 0.8435
Epoch 5/5
1018/1018 [==============================] - 11s 11ms/step - loss: 0.3377 - accuracy: 0.8455

<tensorflow.python.keras.callbacks.History at 0x7f978f5b91d0>

Évaluer le modèle

Évaluer le modèle

loss, accuracy = model.evaluate(eval_ds)
print("Accuracy", accuracy)
509/509 [==============================] - 8s 15ms/step - loss: 0.3338 - accuracy: 0.8398
Accuracy 0.8398452

Évaluez quelques échantillons aléatoires

sample_x = {
    'age' : np.array([56, 36]), 
    'workclass': np.array(['Local-gov', 'Private']), 
    'education': np.array(['Bachelors', 'Bachelors']), 
    'marital_status': np.array(['Married-civ-spouse', 'Married-civ-spouse']), 
    'occupation': np.array(['Tech-support', 'Other-service']), 
    'relationship': np.array(['Husband', 'Husband']), 
    'race': np.array(['White', 'Black']), 
    'gender': np.array(['Male', 'Male']), 
    'capital_gain': np.array([0, 7298]), 
    'capital_loss': np.array([0, 0]), 
    'hours_per_week': np.array([40, 36]), 
    'native_country': np.array(['United-States', 'United-States'])
  }

model.predict(sample_x)
array([[0.5541261],
       [0.6209938]], dtype=float32)

Ressources