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Migrar la capacitación de múltiples GPU de un solo trabajador

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En esta guía, se muestra cómo migrar los flujos de trabajo de múltiples GPU de un solo trabajador de TensorFlow 1 a TensorFlow 2.

Para realizar un entrenamiento sincrónico en varias GPU en una máquina:

Configuración

Comience con importaciones y un conjunto de datos simple con fines de demostración:

import tensorflow as tf
import tensorflow.compat.v1 as tf1
features = [[1., 1.5], [2., 2.5], [3., 3.5]]
labels = [[0.3], [0.5], [0.7]]
eval_features = [[4., 4.5], [5., 5.5], [6., 6.5]]
eval_labels = [[0.8], [0.9], [1.]]

TensorFlow 1: entrenamiento distribuido de un solo trabajador con tf.estimator.Estimator

En este ejemplo, se demuestra el flujo de trabajo canónico de TensorFlow 1 del entrenamiento de múltiples GPU de un solo trabajador. Es necesario establecer la estrategia de distribución ( tf.distribute.MirroredStrategy ) a través de la config de parámetros del tf.estimator.Estimator :

def _input_fn():
  return tf1.data.Dataset.from_tensor_slices((features, labels)).batch(1)

def _eval_input_fn():
  return tf1.data.Dataset.from_tensor_slices(
      (eval_features, eval_labels)).batch(1)

def _model_fn(features, labels, mode):
  logits = tf1.layers.Dense(1)(features)
  loss = tf1.losses.mean_squared_error(labels=labels, predictions=logits)
  optimizer = tf1.train.AdagradOptimizer(0.05)
  train_op = optimizer.minimize(loss, global_step=tf1.train.get_global_step())
  return tf1.estimator.EstimatorSpec(mode, loss=loss, train_op=train_op)

strategy = tf1.distribute.MirroredStrategy()
config = tf1.estimator.RunConfig(
    train_distribute=strategy, eval_distribute=strategy)
estimator = tf1.estimator.Estimator(model_fn=_model_fn, config=config)

train_spec = tf1.estimator.TrainSpec(input_fn=_input_fn)
eval_spec = tf1.estimator.EvalSpec(input_fn=_eval_input_fn)
tf1.estimator.train_and_evaluate(estimator, train_spec, eval_spec)
INFO:tensorflow:Using MirroredStrategy with devices ('/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:GPU:0',)
INFO:tensorflow:Initializing RunConfig with distribution strategies.
INFO:tensorflow:Not using Distribute Coordinator.
WARNING:tensorflow:Using temporary folder as model directory: /tmp/tmp5g_f_ufk
INFO:tensorflow:Using config: {'_model_dir': '/tmp/tmp5g_f_ufk', '_tf_random_seed': None, '_save_summary_steps': 100, '_save_checkpoints_steps': None, '_save_checkpoints_secs': 600, '_session_config': allow_soft_placement: true
graph_options {
  rewrite_options {
    meta_optimizer_iterations: ONE
  }
}
, '_keep_checkpoint_max': 5, '_keep_checkpoint_every_n_hours': 10000, '_log_step_count_steps': 100, '_train_distribute': <tensorflow.python.distribute.mirrored_strategy.MirroredStrategyV1 object at 0x7f6853562450>, '_device_fn': None, '_protocol': None, '_eval_distribute': <tensorflow.python.distribute.mirrored_strategy.MirroredStrategyV1 object at 0x7f6853562450>, '_experimental_distribute': None, '_experimental_max_worker_delay_secs': None, '_session_creation_timeout_secs': 7200, '_checkpoint_save_graph_def': True, '_service': None, '_cluster_spec': ClusterSpec({}), '_task_type': 'worker', '_task_id': 0, '_global_id_in_cluster': 0, '_master': '', '_evaluation_master': '', '_is_chief': True, '_num_ps_replicas': 0, '_num_worker_replicas': 1, '_distribute_coordinator_mode': None}
INFO:tensorflow:Not using Distribute Coordinator.
INFO:tensorflow:Running training and evaluation locally (non-distributed).
INFO:tensorflow:Start train and evaluate loop. The evaluate will happen after every checkpoint. Checkpoint frequency is determined based on RunConfig arguments: save_checkpoints_steps None or save_checkpoints_secs 600.
/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/data/ops/dataset_ops.py:374: UserWarning: To make it possible to preserve tf.data options across serialization boundaries, their implementation has moved to be part of the TensorFlow graph. As a consequence, the options value is in general no longer known at graph construction time. Invoking this method in graph mode retains the legacy behavior of the original implementation, but note that the returned value might not reflect the actual value of the options.
  warnings.warn("To make it possible to preserve tf.data options across "
INFO:tensorflow:Calling model_fn.
WARNING:tensorflow:From /tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow/python/training/adagrad.py:77: calling Constant.__init__ (from tensorflow.python.ops.init_ops) with dtype is deprecated and will be removed in a future version.
Instructions for updating:
Call initializer instance with the dtype argument instead of passing it to the constructor
INFO:tensorflow:Done calling model_fn.
INFO:tensorflow:Create CheckpointSaverHook.
WARNING:tensorflow:From /tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow_estimator/python/estimator/util.py:95: DistributedIteratorV1.initialize (from tensorflow.python.distribute.input_lib) is deprecated and will be removed in a future version.
Instructions for updating:
Use the iterator's `initializer` property instead.
INFO:tensorflow:Graph was finalized.
INFO:tensorflow:Running local_init_op.
INFO:tensorflow:Done running local_init_op.
INFO:tensorflow:Calling checkpoint listeners before saving checkpoint 0...
INFO:tensorflow:Saving checkpoints for 0 into /tmp/tmp5g_f_ufk/model.ckpt.
INFO:tensorflow:Calling checkpoint listeners after saving checkpoint 0...
2021-09-22 20:15:43.228503: W tensorflow/core/grappler/utils/graph_view.cc:836] No registered 'MultiDeviceIteratorFromStringHandle' OpKernel for GPU devices compatible with node { {node MultiDeviceIteratorFromStringHandle} }
    .  Registered:  device='CPU'

2021-09-22 20:15:43.229960: W tensorflow/core/grappler/utils/graph_view.cc:836] No registered 'MultiDeviceIteratorGetNextFromShard' OpKernel for GPU devices compatible with node { {node MultiDeviceIteratorGetNextFromShard} }
    .  Registered:  device='CPU'
INFO:tensorflow:loss = 0.14477473, step = 0
INFO:tensorflow:Calling checkpoint listeners before saving checkpoint 3...
INFO:tensorflow:Saving checkpoints for 3 into /tmp/tmp5g_f_ufk/model.ckpt.
INFO:tensorflow:Calling checkpoint listeners after saving checkpoint 3...
INFO:tensorflow:Calling model_fn.
INFO:tensorflow:Done calling model_fn.
INFO:tensorflow:Reduce to /replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0 then broadcast to ('/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0',).
INFO:tensorflow:Reduce to /replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0 then broadcast to ('/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0',).
INFO:tensorflow:Reduce to /replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0 then broadcast to ('/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0',).
INFO:tensorflow:Reduce to /replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0 then broadcast to ('/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0',).
INFO:tensorflow:Starting evaluation at 2021-09-22T20:15:43
INFO:tensorflow:Graph was finalized.
INFO:tensorflow:Restoring parameters from /tmp/tmp5g_f_ufk/model.ckpt-3
INFO:tensorflow:Running local_init_op.
INFO:tensorflow:Done running local_init_op.
INFO:tensorflow:Inference Time : 0.17626s
INFO:tensorflow:Finished evaluation at 2021-09-22-20:15:44
INFO:tensorflow:Saving dict for global step 3: global_step = 3, loss = 1.1251448
INFO:tensorflow:Saving 'checkpoint_path' summary for global step 3: /tmp/tmp5g_f_ufk/model.ckpt-3
INFO:tensorflow:Loss for final step: 0.45722964.
2021-09-22 20:15:44.095116: W tensorflow/core/grappler/utils/graph_view.cc:836] No registered 'MultiDeviceIteratorFromStringHandle' OpKernel for GPU devices compatible with node { {node MultiDeviceIteratorFromStringHandle} }
    .  Registered:  device='CPU'

2021-09-22 20:15:44.096454: W tensorflow/core/grappler/utils/graph_view.cc:836] No registered 'MultiDeviceIteratorGetNextFromShard' OpKernel for GPU devices compatible with node { {node MultiDeviceIteratorGetNextFromShard} }
    .  Registered:  device='CPU'
({'loss': 1.1251448, 'global_step': 3}, [])

TensorFlow 2: entrenamiento de un solo trabajador con Keras

Al migrar a TensorFlow 2, puede utilizar las API Keras con tf.distribute.MirroredStrategy .

Si utiliza los tf.keras APIs para la construcción de modelos y Keras Model.fit para la formación, la diferencia principal es una instancia del modelo Keras, un optimizador, y la métrica en el contexto de Strategy.scope , en lugar de definir una config para tf.estimator.Estimator .

Si es necesario utilizar un bucle de formación personalizada, revisar el uso de tf.distribute.Strategy con bucles de formación personalizada guía.

dataset = tf.data.Dataset.from_tensor_slices((features, labels)).batch(1)
eval_dataset = tf.data.Dataset.from_tensor_slices(
      (eval_features, eval_labels)).batch(1)
strategy = tf.distribute.MirroredStrategy()
with strategy.scope():
  model = tf.keras.models.Sequential([tf.keras.layers.Dense(1)])
  optimizer = tf.keras.optimizers.Adagrad(learning_rate=0.05)

model.compile(optimizer=optimizer, loss='mse')
model.fit(dataset)
model.evaluate(eval_dataset, return_dict=True)
INFO:tensorflow:Using MirroredStrategy with devices ('/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:GPU:0',)
INFO:tensorflow:Reduce to /job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0 then broadcast to ('/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0',).
INFO:tensorflow:Reduce to /job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0 then broadcast to ('/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0',).
INFO:tensorflow:Reduce to /job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0 then broadcast to ('/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0',).
INFO:tensorflow:Reduce to /job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0 then broadcast to ('/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0',).
2021-09-22 20:15:44.265351: W tensorflow/core/grappler/optimizers/data/auto_shard.cc:695] AUTO sharding policy will apply DATA sharding policy as it failed to apply FILE sharding policy because of the following reason: Found an unshardable source dataset: name: "TensorSliceDataset/_2"
op: "TensorSliceDataset"
input: "Placeholder/_0"
input: "Placeholder/_1"
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INFO:tensorflow:Reduce to /job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0 then broadcast to ('/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0',).
INFO:tensorflow:Reduce to /job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0 then broadcast to ('/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0',).
3/3 [==============================] - 2s 3ms/step - loss: 0.2363
2021-09-22 20:15:46.836745: W tensorflow/core/grappler/optimizers/data/auto_shard.cc:695] AUTO sharding policy will apply DATA sharding policy as it failed to apply FILE sharding policy because of the following reason: Found an unshardable source dataset: name: "TensorSliceDataset/_2"
op: "TensorSliceDataset"
input: "Placeholder/_0"
input: "Placeholder/_1"
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3/3 [==============================] - 1s 3ms/step - loss: 0.0079
{'loss': 0.007883546873927116}

Próximos pasos

Para obtener más información acerca de la formación distribuida con tf.distribute.MirroredStrategy en TensorFlow 2, echa un vistazo a la siguiente documentación: