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This tutorial provides an example of loading data from NumPy arrays into a `tf.data.Dataset`

.

This example loads the MNIST dataset from a `.npz`

file. However, the source of the NumPy arrays is not important.

## Setup

```
import numpy as np
import tensorflow as tf
```

2024-08-16 07:12:21.974154: E external/local_xla/xla/stream_executor/cuda/cuda_fft.cc:485] Unable to register cuFFT factory: Attempting to register factory for plugin cuFFT when one has already been registered 2024-08-16 07:12:21.995236: E external/local_xla/xla/stream_executor/cuda/cuda_dnn.cc:8454] Unable to register cuDNN factory: Attempting to register factory for plugin cuDNN when one has already been registered 2024-08-16 07:12:22.001631: E external/local_xla/xla/stream_executor/cuda/cuda_blas.cc:1452] Unable to register cuBLAS factory: Attempting to register factory for plugin cuBLAS when one has already been registered

### Load from `.npz`

file

```
DATA_URL = 'https://storage.googleapis.com/tensorflow/tf-keras-datasets/mnist.npz'
path = tf.keras.utils.get_file('mnist.npz', DATA_URL)
with np.load(path) as data:
train_examples = data['x_train']
train_labels = data['y_train']
test_examples = data['x_test']
test_labels = data['y_test']
```

## Load NumPy arrays with `tf.data.Dataset`

Assuming you have an array of examples and a corresponding array of labels, pass the two arrays as a tuple into `tf.data.Dataset.from_tensor_slices`

to create a `tf.data.Dataset`

.

```
train_dataset = tf.data.Dataset.from_tensor_slices((train_examples, train_labels))
test_dataset = tf.data.Dataset.from_tensor_slices((test_examples, test_labels))
```

WARNING: All log messages before absl::InitializeLog() is called are written to STDERR I0000 00:00:1723792344.761843 218282 cuda_executor.cc:1015] successful NUMA node read from SysFS had negative value (-1), but there must be at least one NUMA node, so returning NUMA node zero. See more at https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/v6.0/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-bus-pci#L344-L355 I0000 00:00:1723792344.765682 218282 cuda_executor.cc:1015] successful NUMA node read from SysFS had negative value (-1), but there must be at least one NUMA node, so returning NUMA node zero. See more at https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/v6.0/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-bus-pci#L344-L355 I0000 00:00:1723792344.769267 218282 cuda_executor.cc:1015] successful NUMA node read from SysFS had negative value (-1), but there must be at least one NUMA node, so returning NUMA node zero. See more at https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/v6.0/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-bus-pci#L344-L355 I0000 00:00:1723792344.773074 218282 cuda_executor.cc:1015] successful NUMA node read from SysFS had negative value (-1), but there must be at least one NUMA node, so returning NUMA node zero. See more at https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/v6.0/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-bus-pci#L344-L355 I0000 00:00:1723792344.784715 218282 cuda_executor.cc:1015] successful NUMA node read from SysFS had negative value (-1), but there must be at least one NUMA node, so returning NUMA node zero. See more at https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/v6.0/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-bus-pci#L344-L355 I0000 00:00:1723792344.788331 218282 cuda_executor.cc:1015] successful NUMA node read from SysFS had negative value (-1), but there must be at least one NUMA node, so returning NUMA node zero. See more at https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/v6.0/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-bus-pci#L344-L355 I0000 00:00:1723792344.791637 218282 cuda_executor.cc:1015] successful NUMA node read from SysFS had negative value (-1), but there must be at least one NUMA node, so returning NUMA node zero. See more at https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/v6.0/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-bus-pci#L344-L355 I0000 00:00:1723792344.795157 218282 cuda_executor.cc:1015] successful NUMA node read from SysFS had negative value (-1), but there must be at least one NUMA node, so returning NUMA node zero. See more at https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/v6.0/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-bus-pci#L344-L355 I0000 00:00:1723792344.798500 218282 cuda_executor.cc:1015] successful NUMA node read from SysFS had negative value (-1), but there must be at least one NUMA node, so returning NUMA node zero. See more at https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/v6.0/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-bus-pci#L344-L355 I0000 00:00:1723792344.803804 218282 cuda_executor.cc:1015] successful NUMA node read from SysFS had negative value (-1), but there must be at least one NUMA node, so returning NUMA node zero. See more at https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/v6.0/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-bus-pci#L344-L355 I0000 00:00:1723792344.807211 218282 cuda_executor.cc:1015] successful NUMA node read from SysFS had negative value (-1), but there must be at least one NUMA node, so returning NUMA node zero. See more at https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/v6.0/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-bus-pci#L344-L355 I0000 00:00:1723792344.810641 218282 cuda_executor.cc:1015] successful NUMA node read from SysFS had negative value (-1), but there must be at least one NUMA node, so returning NUMA node zero. See more at https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/v6.0/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-bus-pci#L344-L355 I0000 00:00:1723792346.045678 218282 cuda_executor.cc:1015] successful NUMA node read from SysFS had negative value (-1), but there must be at least one NUMA node, so returning NUMA node zero. See more at https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/v6.0/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-bus-pci#L344-L355 I0000 00:00:1723792346.047838 218282 cuda_executor.cc:1015] successful NUMA node read from SysFS had negative value (-1), but there must be at least one NUMA node, so returning NUMA node zero. See more at https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/v6.0/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-bus-pci#L344-L355 I0000 00:00:1723792346.049827 218282 cuda_executor.cc:1015] successful NUMA node read from SysFS had negative value (-1), but there must be at least one NUMA node, so returning NUMA node zero. See more at https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/v6.0/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-bus-pci#L344-L355 I0000 00:00:1723792346.051841 218282 cuda_executor.cc:1015] successful NUMA node read from SysFS had negative value (-1), but there must be at least one NUMA node, so returning NUMA node zero. See more at https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/v6.0/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-bus-pci#L344-L355 I0000 00:00:1723792346.053879 218282 cuda_executor.cc:1015] successful NUMA node read from SysFS had negative value (-1), but there must be at least one NUMA node, so returning NUMA node zero. See more at https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/v6.0/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-bus-pci#L344-L355 I0000 00:00:1723792346.055889 218282 cuda_executor.cc:1015] successful NUMA node read from SysFS had negative value (-1), but there must be at least one NUMA node, so returning NUMA node zero. See more at https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/v6.0/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-bus-pci#L344-L355 I0000 00:00:1723792346.057771 218282 cuda_executor.cc:1015] successful NUMA node read from SysFS had negative value (-1), but there must be at least one NUMA node, so returning NUMA node zero. See more at https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/v6.0/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-bus-pci#L344-L355 I0000 00:00:1723792346.059692 218282 cuda_executor.cc:1015] successful NUMA node read from SysFS had negative value (-1), but there must be at least one NUMA node, so returning NUMA node zero. See more at https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/v6.0/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-bus-pci#L344-L355 I0000 00:00:1723792346.061606 218282 cuda_executor.cc:1015] successful NUMA node read from SysFS had negative value (-1), but there must be at least one NUMA node, so returning NUMA node zero. See more at https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/v6.0/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-bus-pci#L344-L355 I0000 00:00:1723792346.063603 218282 cuda_executor.cc:1015] successful NUMA node read from SysFS had negative value (-1), but there must be at least one NUMA node, so returning NUMA node zero. See more at https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/v6.0/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-bus-pci#L344-L355 I0000 00:00:1723792346.065480 218282 cuda_executor.cc:1015] successful NUMA node read from SysFS had negative value (-1), but there must be at least one NUMA node, so returning NUMA node zero. See more at https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/v6.0/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-bus-pci#L344-L355 I0000 00:00:1723792346.067391 218282 cuda_executor.cc:1015] successful NUMA node read from SysFS had negative value (-1), but there must be at least one NUMA node, so returning NUMA node zero. See more at https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/v6.0/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-bus-pci#L344-L355 I0000 00:00:1723792346.106544 218282 cuda_executor.cc:1015] successful NUMA node read from SysFS had negative value (-1), but there must be at least one NUMA node, so returning NUMA node zero. See more at https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/v6.0/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-bus-pci#L344-L355 I0000 00:00:1723792346.108605 218282 cuda_executor.cc:1015] successful NUMA node read from SysFS had negative value (-1), but there must be at least one NUMA node, so returning NUMA node zero. See more at https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/v6.0/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-bus-pci#L344-L355 I0000 00:00:1723792346.110532 218282 cuda_executor.cc:1015] successful NUMA node read from SysFS had negative value (-1), but there must be at least one NUMA node, so returning NUMA node zero. See more at https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/v6.0/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-bus-pci#L344-L355 I0000 00:00:1723792346.112482 218282 cuda_executor.cc:1015] successful NUMA node read from SysFS had negative value (-1), but there must be at least one NUMA node, so returning NUMA node zero. See more at https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/v6.0/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-bus-pci#L344-L355 I0000 00:00:1723792346.114415 218282 cuda_executor.cc:1015] successful NUMA node read from SysFS had negative value (-1), but there must be at least one NUMA node, so returning NUMA node zero. See more at https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/v6.0/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-bus-pci#L344-L355 I0000 00:00:1723792346.116423 218282 cuda_executor.cc:1015] successful NUMA node read from SysFS had negative value (-1), but there must be at least one NUMA node, so returning NUMA node zero. See more at https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/v6.0/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-bus-pci#L344-L355 I0000 00:00:1723792346.118319 218282 cuda_executor.cc:1015] successful NUMA node read from SysFS had negative value (-1), but there must be at least one NUMA node, so returning NUMA node zero. See more at https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/v6.0/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-bus-pci#L344-L355 I0000 00:00:1723792346.120261 218282 cuda_executor.cc:1015] successful NUMA node read from SysFS had negative value (-1), but there must be at least one NUMA node, so returning NUMA node zero. See more at https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/v6.0/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-bus-pci#L344-L355 I0000 00:00:1723792346.122194 218282 cuda_executor.cc:1015] successful NUMA node read from SysFS had negative value (-1), but there must be at least one NUMA node, so returning NUMA node zero. See more at https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/v6.0/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-bus-pci#L344-L355 I0000 00:00:1723792346.124702 218282 cuda_executor.cc:1015] successful NUMA node read from SysFS had negative value (-1), but there must be at least one NUMA node, so returning NUMA node zero. See more at https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/v6.0/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-bus-pci#L344-L355 I0000 00:00:1723792346.127107 218282 cuda_executor.cc:1015] successful NUMA node read from SysFS had negative value (-1), but there must be at least one NUMA node, so returning NUMA node zero. See more at https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/v6.0/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-bus-pci#L344-L355 I0000 00:00:1723792346.129574 218282 cuda_executor.cc:1015] successful NUMA node read from SysFS had negative value (-1), but there must be at least one NUMA node, so returning NUMA node zero. See more at https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/v6.0/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-bus-pci#L344-L355

## Use the datasets

### Shuffle and batch the datasets

```
BATCH_SIZE = 64
SHUFFLE_BUFFER_SIZE = 100
train_dataset = train_dataset.shuffle(SHUFFLE_BUFFER_SIZE).batch(BATCH_SIZE)
test_dataset = test_dataset.batch(BATCH_SIZE)
```

### Build and train a model

```
model = tf.keras.Sequential([
tf.keras.layers.Flatten(input_shape=(28, 28)),
tf.keras.layers.Dense(128, activation='relu'),
tf.keras.layers.Dense(10)
])
model.compile(optimizer=tf.keras.optimizers.RMSprop(),
loss=tf.keras.losses.SparseCategoricalCrossentropy(from_logits=True),
metrics=['sparse_categorical_accuracy'])
```

/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/keras/src/layers/reshaping/flatten.py:37: UserWarning: Do not pass an `input_shape`/`input_dim` argument to a layer. When using Sequential models, prefer using an `Input(shape)` object as the first layer in the model instead. super().__init__(**kwargs)

```
model.fit(train_dataset, epochs=10)
```

Epoch 1/10 WARNING: All log messages before absl::InitializeLog() is called are written to STDERR I0000 00:00:1723792347.744996 218446 service.cc:146] XLA service 0x7fc6d4006580 initialized for platform CUDA (this does not guarantee that XLA will be used). Devices: I0000 00:00:1723792347.745025 218446 service.cc:154] StreamExecutor device (0): Tesla T4, Compute Capability 7.5 I0000 00:00:1723792347.745029 218446 service.cc:154] StreamExecutor device (1): Tesla T4, Compute Capability 7.5 I0000 00:00:1723792347.745032 218446 service.cc:154] StreamExecutor device (2): Tesla T4, Compute Capability 7.5 I0000 00:00:1723792347.745034 218446 service.cc:154] StreamExecutor device (3): Tesla T4, Compute Capability 7.5 137/938 ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━ 0s 1ms/step - loss: 31.0152 - sparse_categorical_accuracy: 0.6601 I0000 00:00:1723792348.358660 218446 device_compiler.h:188] Compiled cluster using XLA! This line is logged at most once for the lifetime of the process. 938/938 ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━ 3s 2ms/step - loss: 9.5899 - sparse_categorical_accuracy: 0.8185 Epoch 2/10 938/938 ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━ 1s 1ms/step - loss: 0.5738 - sparse_categorical_accuracy: 0.9181 Epoch 3/10 938/938 ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━ 1s 1ms/step - loss: 0.4030 - sparse_categorical_accuracy: 0.9411 Epoch 4/10 938/938 ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━ 1s 1ms/step - loss: 0.3283 - sparse_categorical_accuracy: 0.9544 Epoch 5/10 938/938 ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━ 1s 1ms/step - loss: 0.2884 - sparse_categorical_accuracy: 0.9586 Epoch 6/10 938/938 ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━ 1s 1ms/step - loss: 0.2497 - sparse_categorical_accuracy: 0.9629 Epoch 7/10 938/938 ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━ 1s 1ms/step - loss: 0.2203 - sparse_categorical_accuracy: 0.9676 Epoch 8/10 938/938 ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━ 1s 1ms/step - loss: 0.2093 - sparse_categorical_accuracy: 0.9687 Epoch 9/10 938/938 ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━ 1s 1ms/step - loss: 0.1908 - sparse_categorical_accuracy: 0.9728 Epoch 10/10 938/938 ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━ 1s 1ms/step - loss: 0.1858 - sparse_categorical_accuracy: 0.9735 <keras.src.callbacks.history.History at 0x7fc88f71bf10>

```
model.evaluate(test_dataset)
```

157/157 ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━ 1s 3ms/step - loss: 0.7347 - sparse_categorical_accuracy: 0.9500 [0.5697250366210938, 0.9577999711036682]