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Zapisz i załaduj model za pomocą strategii dystrybucji

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Przegląd

Często zdarza się, że podczas trenowania zapisuje się i ładuje model. Istnieją dwa zestawy interfejsów API do zapisywania i ładowania modelu Keras: API wysokiego poziomu i API niskiego poziomu. Ten samouczek pokazuje, jak używać interfejsów API SavedModel podczas korzystania z tf.distribute.Strategy . Aby uzyskać ogólne informacje na temat SavedModel i serializacji, zapoznaj się z przewodnikiem dotyczącym zapisanych modeli i przewodnika po serializacji modeli Keras . Zacznijmy od prostego przykładu:

Zależności importu:

import tensorflow_datasets as tfds

import tensorflow as tf

Przygotuj dane i model za pomocą tf.distribute.Strategy :

mirrored_strategy = tf.distribute.MirroredStrategy()

def get_data():
  datasets, ds_info = tfds.load(name='mnist', with_info=True, as_supervised=True)
  mnist_train, mnist_test = datasets['train'], datasets['test']

  BUFFER_SIZE = 10000

  BATCH_SIZE_PER_REPLICA = 64
  BATCH_SIZE = BATCH_SIZE_PER_REPLICA * mirrored_strategy.num_replicas_in_sync

  def scale(image, label):
    image = tf.cast(image, tf.float32)
    image /= 255

    return image, label

  train_dataset = mnist_train.map(scale).cache().shuffle(BUFFER_SIZE).batch(BATCH_SIZE)
  eval_dataset = mnist_test.map(scale).batch(BATCH_SIZE)

  return train_dataset, eval_dataset

def get_model():
  with mirrored_strategy.scope():
    model = tf.keras.Sequential([
        tf.keras.layers.Conv2D(32, 3, activation='relu', input_shape=(28, 28, 1)),
        tf.keras.layers.MaxPooling2D(),
        tf.keras.layers.Flatten(),
        tf.keras.layers.Dense(64, activation='relu'),
        tf.keras.layers.Dense(10)
    ])

    model.compile(loss=tf.keras.losses.SparseCategoricalCrossentropy(from_logits=True),
                  optimizer=tf.keras.optimizers.Adam(),
                  metrics=[tf.metrics.SparseCategoricalAccuracy()])
    return model
INFO:tensorflow:Using MirroredStrategy with devices ('/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:GPU:0',)

Trenuj modelkę:

model = get_model()
train_dataset, eval_dataset = get_data()
model.fit(train_dataset, epochs=2)
INFO:tensorflow:Reduce to /job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0 then broadcast to ('/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0',).
INFO:tensorflow:Reduce to /job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0 then broadcast to ('/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0',).
INFO:tensorflow:Reduce to /job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0 then broadcast to ('/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0',).
INFO:tensorflow:Reduce to /job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0 then broadcast to ('/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0',).
INFO:tensorflow:Reduce to /job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0 then broadcast to ('/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0',).
INFO:tensorflow:Reduce to /job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0 then broadcast to ('/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0',).
INFO:tensorflow:Reduce to /job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0 then broadcast to ('/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0',).
INFO:tensorflow:Reduce to /job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0 then broadcast to ('/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0',).
Epoch 1/2
2022-01-26 05:41:11.916000: W tensorflow/core/grappler/optimizers/data/auto_shard.cc:547] The `assert_cardinality` transformation is currently not handled by the auto-shard rewrite and will be removed.
INFO:tensorflow:Reduce to /job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0 then broadcast to ('/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0',).
INFO:tensorflow:Reduce to /job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0 then broadcast to ('/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0',).
INFO:tensorflow:Reduce to /job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0 then broadcast to ('/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0',).
INFO:tensorflow:Reduce to /job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0 then broadcast to ('/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0',).
938/938 [==============================] - 11s 5ms/step - loss: 0.1873 - sparse_categorical_accuracy: 0.9451
Epoch 2/2
938/938 [==============================] - 3s 3ms/step - loss: 0.0641 - sparse_categorical_accuracy: 0.9807
<keras.callbacks.History at 0x7f3b900396d0>

Zapisz i załaduj model

Teraz, gdy masz prosty model do pracy, przyjrzyjmy się interfejsom API zapisywania/ładowania. Dostępne są dwa zestawy interfejsów API:

API Keras

Oto przykład zapisywania i ładowania modelu za pomocą API Keras:

keras_model_path = "/tmp/keras_save"
model.save(keras_model_path)
2022-01-26 05:41:26.593570: W tensorflow/python/util/util.cc:368] Sets are not currently considered sequences, but this may change in the future, so consider avoiding using them.
INFO:tensorflow:Assets written to: /tmp/keras_save/assets
INFO:tensorflow:Assets written to: /tmp/keras_save/assets

Przywróć model bez tf.distribute.Strategy :

restored_keras_model = tf.keras.models.load_model(keras_model_path)
restored_keras_model.fit(train_dataset, epochs=2)
Epoch 1/2
938/938 [==============================] - 3s 3ms/step - loss: 0.0476 - sparse_categorical_accuracy: 0.9859
Epoch 2/2
938/938 [==============================] - 3s 3ms/step - loss: 0.0334 - sparse_categorical_accuracy: 0.9895
<keras.callbacks.History at 0x7f3b187b7150>

Po przywróceniu modelu możesz kontynuować jego trenowanie, nawet bez konieczności ponownego wywoływania compile() , ponieważ jest ona już skompilowana przed zapisaniem. Model jest zapisywany w standardowym proto formacie SavedModel firmy SavedModel . Aby uzyskać więcej informacji, zapoznaj się z przewodnikiem po formacie saved_model .

Teraz załaduj model i wytrenuj go za pomocą tf.distribute.Strategy :

another_strategy = tf.distribute.OneDeviceStrategy("/cpu:0")
with another_strategy.scope():
  restored_keras_model_ds = tf.keras.models.load_model(keras_model_path)
  restored_keras_model_ds.fit(train_dataset, epochs=2)
Epoch 1/2
2022-01-26 05:41:33.036733: W tensorflow/core/grappler/optimizers/data/auto_shard.cc:547] The `assert_cardinality` transformation is currently not handled by the auto-shard rewrite and will be removed.
2022-01-26 05:41:33.083001: W tensorflow/core/framework/dataset.cc:768] Input of GeneratorDatasetOp::Dataset will not be optimized because the dataset does not implement the AsGraphDefInternal() method needed to apply optimizations.
938/938 [==============================] - 10s 10ms/step - loss: 0.0474 - sparse_categorical_accuracy: 0.9860
Epoch 2/2
938/938 [==============================] - 10s 10ms/step - loss: 0.0327 - sparse_categorical_accuracy: 0.9903

Jak widać, ładowanie działa zgodnie z oczekiwaniami z tf.distribute.Strategy . Zastosowana tutaj strategia nie musi być tą samą strategią, którą zastosowano przed zapisaniem.

Interfejsy API tf.saved_model

Przyjrzyjmy się teraz API niższego poziomu. Zapisywanie modelu jest podobne do API keras:

model = get_model()  # get a fresh model
saved_model_path = "/tmp/tf_save"
tf.saved_model.save(model, saved_model_path)
INFO:tensorflow:Assets written to: /tmp/tf_save/assets
INFO:tensorflow:Assets written to: /tmp/tf_save/assets

Ładowanie można wykonać za pomocą tf.saved_model.load() . Jednak ponieważ jest to API, które znajduje się na niższym poziomie (a zatem ma szerszy zakres przypadków użycia), nie zwraca modelu Keras. Zamiast tego zwraca obiekt zawierający funkcje, których można użyć do wnioskowania. Na przykład:

DEFAULT_FUNCTION_KEY = "serving_default"
loaded = tf.saved_model.load(saved_model_path)
inference_func = loaded.signatures[DEFAULT_FUNCTION_KEY]

Załadowany obiekt może zawierać wiele funkcji, z których każda jest powiązana z kluczem. "serving_default" jest domyślnym kluczem funkcji wnioskowania z zapisanym modelem Keras. Aby przeprowadzić wnioskowanie za pomocą tej funkcji:

predict_dataset = eval_dataset.map(lambda image, label: image)
for batch in predict_dataset.take(1):
  print(inference_func(batch))
{'dense_3': <tf.Tensor: shape=(64, 10), dtype=float32, numpy=
array([[-1.18789300e-01, -1.78404614e-01,  4.92432676e-02,
        -9.37875658e-02,  1.14302970e-01, -8.99422392e-02,
         9.47709680e-02, -7.75382966e-02,  4.04430032e-02,
         2.41404288e-02],
       [-2.35370561e-01, -3.39397341e-02,  2.73427293e-02,
        -1.08200148e-01,  5.10682352e-02,  1.36142194e-01,
         9.28785652e-02, -5.35808355e-02,  2.56292164e-01,
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       [-1.91031799e-01, -7.72745535e-02, -7.23153427e-02,
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         2.07733169e-01, -3.15396488e-03,  4.95976806e-02,
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       [-9.82482210e-02, -6.13910556e-02,  1.00815810e-01,
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         9.76646394e-02, -3.29037756e-02, -1.77134499e-02,
         1.62288889e-01],
       [-6.78652674e-02, -1.08500615e-01,  5.66991530e-02,
        -9.52370912e-02,  5.28126955e-02,  1.05176866e-02,
         1.73085481e-01, -1.37753151e-02,  1.95556954e-02,
         1.38068855e-01],
       [-2.02808753e-01, -3.39423120e-02,  1.82233751e-03,
        -5.71424365e-02,  3.40205729e-02,  8.74454305e-02,
         8.47227685e-03, -2.52498202e-02,  4.66104299e-02,
         1.10718749e-01],
       [-9.52449068e-02, -3.35062481e-02, -1.00178778e-01,
        -9.72513855e-02, -3.58061343e-02,  3.04423086e-02,
         5.70362583e-02, -4.03833576e-02, -4.28436548e-02,
         9.73245874e-02],
       [-2.06081957e-01, -1.71493232e-01,  2.52560824e-02,
        -1.55212343e-01, -4.33478206e-02,  2.34177694e-01,
         8.46128762e-02,  1.75322518e-02,  2.04347119e-01,
         1.54971585e-01],
       [-1.95310384e-01,  1.30968075e-02, -9.68117267e-03,
        -7.31432810e-02,  1.02618083e-01,  1.59629256e-01,
         1.66028887e-01, -7.12903216e-03,  1.78021699e-01,
        -2.17130631e-02],
       [-1.59163624e-01, -1.77137554e-05,  1.75410658e-02,
        -9.08103511e-02,  7.25786015e-02,  9.21041369e-02,
         1.24915361e-01, -6.55939505e-02, -1.13440230e-02,
         1.03661232e-01],
       [-1.93366870e-01, -4.36344892e-02,  1.37750164e-01,
        -1.91939399e-01, -1.50268525e-03,  8.03942382e-02,
         2.15812266e-01,  5.38492575e-02,  1.36685073e-01,
         2.22119391e-01],
       [-1.65946245e-01,  7.89588690e-03, -1.65037125e-01,
        -1.23690292e-01, -8.57629776e-02, -2.55736727e-02,
         1.67541012e-01, -6.63827211e-02,  2.98694819e-02,
         1.71927184e-01],
       [-1.56264767e-01, -1.72245800e-02, -4.98924702e-02,
        -2.98387632e-02,  2.80477256e-02,  4.94132042e-02,
         4.89805043e-02,  1.96998678e-02, -4.14144360e-02,
        -5.05549274e-02],
       [-1.46449029e-01, -1.12528354e-01, -4.66653258e-02,
        -3.78398523e-02,  7.60737807e-03, -2.70657167e-02,
         1.11277811e-01,  6.37479573e-02, -2.39458829e-02,
         1.22067556e-01],
       [-1.92323536e-01, -1.43002480e-01,  5.29062748e-03,
        -1.70663983e-01,  8.39572400e-03,  6.37906119e-02,
         1.24084033e-01,  6.02792688e-02,  7.18353763e-02,
         5.03963791e-03],
       [-1.70977920e-01,  1.04207098e-02,  1.18544906e-01,
        -4.29532528e-02, -3.53983864e-02,  1.80302024e-01,
         8.08775946e-02,  3.19045782e-02,  2.52931342e-02,
         1.29424319e-01],
       [-2.13301033e-01, -6.96119964e-02,  2.32847631e-02,
        -7.73920864e-02,  1.10387571e-01,  1.13307782e-01,
         1.41805351e-01, -5.19381016e-02,  1.15313083e-01,
         1.40049949e-01],
       [-1.71651557e-01, -5.98860830e-02, -3.92800570e-03,
        -1.04376137e-01,  7.78115019e-02,  6.84583709e-02,
         2.51923770e-01, -1.05199262e-01,  1.64517179e-01,
         2.18875334e-01],
       [-2.60777414e-01, -8.93031508e-02,  1.27723843e-01,
        -1.97950065e-01,  1.19145498e-01,  7.30907321e-02,
         2.23771721e-01, -6.83849230e-02,  3.68930906e-01,
         1.86811388e-01],
       [-2.38028213e-01,  1.11199915e-03,  2.25015372e-01,
         8.22724327e-02, -1.14511400e-01,  1.57513067e-01,
         5.22858277e-02,  2.13724375e-03,  3.15639377e-02,
         2.08704025e-01],
       [-1.46687120e-01, -1.10313833e-01, -1.16352811e-02,
        -1.44550815e-01,  2.09794566e-02,  1.47883072e-02,
         3.96856442e-02, -2.15019658e-03, -4.90810722e-02,
         1.34708211e-01],
       [-2.02591017e-01, -2.29728431e-01,  6.73423260e-02,
        -1.24901496e-01, -1.38434023e-02,  8.64367038e-02,
         1.22342721e-01,  1.67826824e-02,  1.65354639e-01,
         1.83434993e-01],
       [-2.25799978e-01, -1.02682747e-01,  9.48531851e-02,
        -9.38871950e-02,  1.03806734e-01,  2.04695478e-01,
         8.09893832e-02, -1.45416632e-02,  1.33486420e-01,
        -6.27665371e-02],
       [-1.19375348e-01,  2.23235339e-02,  1.04302749e-01,
        -1.11149743e-01,  6.12434298e-02,  6.89433664e-02,
         2.08741099e-01, -3.81497070e-02, -1.42122135e-02,
         7.65201449e-03]], dtype=float32)>}
2022-01-26 05:41:53.590742: W tensorflow/core/kernels/data/cache_dataset_ops.cc:768] The calling iterator did not fully read the dataset being cached. In order to avoid unexpected truncation of the dataset, the partially cached contents of the dataset  will be discarded. This can happen if you have an input pipeline similar to `dataset.cache().take(k).repeat()`. You should use `dataset.take(k).cache().repeat()` instead.

Możesz także ładować i wnioskować w sposób rozproszony:

another_strategy = tf.distribute.MirroredStrategy()
with another_strategy.scope():
  loaded = tf.saved_model.load(saved_model_path)
  inference_func = loaded.signatures[DEFAULT_FUNCTION_KEY]

  dist_predict_dataset = another_strategy.experimental_distribute_dataset(
      predict_dataset)

  # Calling the function in a distributed manner
  for batch in dist_predict_dataset:
    another_strategy.run(inference_func,args=(batch,))
INFO:tensorflow:Using MirroredStrategy with devices ('/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:GPU:0',)
INFO:tensorflow:Using MirroredStrategy with devices ('/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:GPU:0',)
2022-01-26 05:41:53.931428: W tensorflow/core/grappler/optimizers/data/auto_shard.cc:547] The `assert_cardinality` transformation is currently not handled by the auto-shard rewrite and will be removed.
WARNING:tensorflow:Using MirroredStrategy eagerly has significant overhead currently. We will be working on improving this in the future, but for now please wrap `call_for_each_replica` or `experimental_run` or `run` inside a tf.function to get the best performance.
WARNING:tensorflow:Using MirroredStrategy eagerly has significant overhead currently. We will be working on improving this in the future, but for now please wrap `call_for_each_replica` or `experimental_run` or `run` inside a tf.function to get the best performance.
WARNING:tensorflow:Using MirroredStrategy eagerly has significant overhead currently. We will be working on improving this in the future, but for now please wrap `call_for_each_replica` or `experimental_run` or `run` inside a tf.function to get the best performance.
WARNING:tensorflow:Using MirroredStrategy eagerly has significant overhead currently. We will be working on improving this in the future, but for now please wrap `call_for_each_replica` or `experimental_run` or `run` inside a tf.function to get the best performance.
WARNING:tensorflow:Using MirroredStrategy eagerly has significant overhead currently. We will be working on improving this in the future, but for now please wrap `call_for_each_replica` or `experimental_run` or `run` inside a tf.function to get the best performance.
WARNING:tensorflow:Using MirroredStrategy eagerly has significant overhead currently. We will be working on improving this in the future, but for now please wrap `call_for_each_replica` or `experimental_run` or `run` inside a tf.function to get the best performance.
WARNING:tensorflow:Using MirroredStrategy eagerly has significant overhead currently. We will be working on improving this in the future, but for now please wrap `call_for_each_replica` or `experimental_run` or `run` inside a tf.function to get the best performance.
WARNING:tensorflow:Using MirroredStrategy eagerly has significant overhead currently. We will be working on improving this in the future, but for now please wrap `call_for_each_replica` or `experimental_run` or `run` inside a tf.function to get the best performance.
WARNING:tensorflow:Using MirroredStrategy eagerly has significant overhead currently. We will be working on improving this in the future, but for now please wrap `call_for_each_replica` or `experimental_run` or `run` inside a tf.function to get the best performance.
WARNING:tensorflow:Using MirroredStrategy eagerly has significant overhead currently. We will be working on improving this in the future, but for now please wrap `call_for_each_replica` or `experimental_run` or `run` inside a tf.function to get the best performance.

Wywołanie przywróconej funkcji to tylko przekazanie do przodu zapisanego modelu (predykcja). A jeśli chcesz kontynuować trening obciążonej funkcji? A może osadzić załadowaną funkcję w większym modelu? Aby to osiągnąć, częstą praktyką jest zawijanie tego załadowanego obiektu w warstwę Keras. Na szczęście TF Hub ma do tego celu hub.KerasLayer , pokazany tutaj:

import tensorflow_hub as hub

def build_model(loaded):
  x = tf.keras.layers.Input(shape=(28, 28, 1), name='input_x')
  # Wrap what's loaded to a KerasLayer
  keras_layer = hub.KerasLayer(loaded, trainable=True)(x)
  model = tf.keras.Model(x, keras_layer)
  return model

another_strategy = tf.distribute.MirroredStrategy()
with another_strategy.scope():
  loaded = tf.saved_model.load(saved_model_path)
  model = build_model(loaded)

  model.compile(loss=tf.keras.losses.SparseCategoricalCrossentropy(from_logits=True),
                optimizer=tf.keras.optimizers.Adam(),
                metrics=[tf.metrics.SparseCategoricalAccuracy()])
  model.fit(train_dataset, epochs=2)
INFO:tensorflow:Using MirroredStrategy with devices ('/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:GPU:0',)
INFO:tensorflow:Using MirroredStrategy with devices ('/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:GPU:0',)
Epoch 1/2
2022-01-26 05:41:55.594317: W tensorflow/core/grappler/optimizers/data/auto_shard.cc:547] The `assert_cardinality` transformation is currently not handled by the auto-shard rewrite and will be removed.
938/938 [==============================] - 6s 3ms/step - loss: 0.1910 - sparse_categorical_accuracy: 0.9442
Epoch 2/2
938/938 [==============================] - 3s 4ms/step - loss: 0.0633 - sparse_categorical_accuracy: 0.9813

Jak widać, hub.KerasLayer zawija wynik załadowany z powrotem z tf.saved_model.load() do warstwy Keras, której można użyć do zbudowania innego modelu. Jest to bardzo przydatne w przypadku uczenia się transferowego.

Którego interfejsu API powinienem użyć?

Aby zaoszczędzić, jeśli pracujesz z modelem Keras, prawie zawsze zaleca się korzystanie z interfejsu API model.save() Keras. Jeśli to, co oszczędzasz, nie jest modelem Keras, jedynym wyborem będzie API niższego poziomu.

Do ładowania, jakiego interfejsu API używasz, zależy od tego, co chcesz uzyskać z interfejsu API ładowania. Jeśli nie możesz (lub nie chcesz) uzyskać modelu Keras, użyj tf.saved_model.load() . W przeciwnym razie użyj tf.keras.models.load_model() . Pamiętaj, że możesz odzyskać model Keras tylko wtedy, gdy zapisałeś model Keras.

Możliwe jest mieszanie i dopasowywanie interfejsów API. Możesz zapisać model Keras za pomocą model.save i załadować model inny niż Keras za pomocą interfejsu API niskiego poziomu, tf.saved_model.load .

model = get_model()

# Saving the model using Keras's save() API
model.save(keras_model_path) 

another_strategy = tf.distribute.MirroredStrategy()
# Loading the model using lower level API
with another_strategy.scope():
  loaded = tf.saved_model.load(keras_model_path)
INFO:tensorflow:Assets written to: /tmp/keras_save/assets
INFO:tensorflow:Assets written to: /tmp/keras_save/assets
INFO:tensorflow:Using MirroredStrategy with devices ('/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:GPU:0',)
INFO:tensorflow:Using MirroredStrategy with devices ('/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:GPU:0',)

Zapisywanie/ładowanie z urządzenia lokalnego

Podczas zapisywania i ładowania z lokalnego urządzenia io podczas pracy zdalnej, na przykład przy użyciu TPU w chmurze, należy użyć opcji experimental_io_device , aby ustawić urządzenie io na localhost.

model = get_model()

# Saving the model to a path on localhost.
saved_model_path = "/tmp/tf_save"
save_options = tf.saved_model.SaveOptions(experimental_io_device='/job:localhost')
model.save(saved_model_path, options=save_options)

# Loading the model from a path on localhost.
another_strategy = tf.distribute.MirroredStrategy()
with another_strategy.scope():
  load_options = tf.saved_model.LoadOptions(experimental_io_device='/job:localhost')
  loaded = tf.keras.models.load_model(saved_model_path, options=load_options)
INFO:tensorflow:Assets written to: /tmp/tf_save/assets
INFO:tensorflow:Assets written to: /tmp/tf_save/assets
INFO:tensorflow:Using MirroredStrategy with devices ('/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:GPU:0',)
INFO:tensorflow:Using MirroredStrategy with devices ('/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:GPU:0',)

Zastrzeżenia

Szczególnym przypadkiem jest model Keras, który nie ma dobrze zdefiniowanych danych wejściowych. Na przykład model Sequential można utworzyć bez żadnych kształtów wejściowych ( Sequential([Dense(3), ...] ). Modele z podklasami również nie mają dobrze zdefiniowanych danych wejściowych po zainicjowaniu. W takim przypadku należy trzymać się interfejsy API niższego poziomu zarówno podczas zapisywania, jak i ładowania, w przeciwnym razie pojawi się błąd.

Aby sprawdzić, czy Twój model ma dobrze zdefiniowane dane wejściowe, po prostu sprawdź, czy model.inputs ma wartość None . Jeśli to nie jest None , wszyscy jesteście dobrzy. Kształty wejściowe są automatycznie definiowane, gdy model jest używany w .fit , .evaluate , .predict , lub podczas wywoływania modelu ( model(inputs) ).

Oto przykład:

class SubclassedModel(tf.keras.Model):

  output_name = 'output_layer'

  def __init__(self):
    super(SubclassedModel, self).__init__()
    self._dense_layer = tf.keras.layers.Dense(
        5, dtype=tf.dtypes.float32, name=self.output_name)

  def call(self, inputs):
    return self._dense_layer(inputs)

my_model = SubclassedModel()
# my_model.save(keras_model_path)  # ERROR! 
tf.saved_model.save(my_model, saved_model_path)
WARNING:tensorflow:Skipping full serialization of Keras layer <__main__.SubclassedModel object at 0x7f3ad00f3510>, because it is not built.
WARNING:tensorflow:Skipping full serialization of Keras layer <__main__.SubclassedModel object at 0x7f3ad00f3510>, because it is not built.
WARNING:tensorflow:Skipping full serialization of Keras layer <keras.layers.core.dense.Dense object at 0x7f3ad00f3e90>, because it is not built.
WARNING:tensorflow:Skipping full serialization of Keras layer <keras.layers.core.dense.Dense object at 0x7f3ad00f3e90>, because it is not built.
INFO:tensorflow:Assets written to: /tmp/tf_save/assets
INFO:tensorflow:Assets written to: /tmp/tf_save/assets