עזרה להגן על שונית המחסום הגדולה עם TensorFlow על Kaggle הצטרפו אתגר

איתור מגרשים עם SPICE

הצג באתר TensorFlow.org הפעל בגוגל קולאב הצג ב-GitHub הורד מחברת ראה דגם TF Hub

קולאב זה יראה לך כיצד להשתמש במודל SPICE שהוורד מ- TensorFlow Hub.

sudo apt-get install -q -y timidity libsndfile1
Reading package lists...
Building dependency tree...
Reading state information...
The following packages were automatically installed and are no longer required:
  linux-gcp-5.4-headers-5.4.0-1040 linux-gcp-5.4-headers-5.4.0-1043
  linux-gcp-5.4-headers-5.4.0-1044 linux-gcp-5.4-headers-5.4.0-1049
  linux-headers-5.4.0-1049-gcp linux-image-5.4.0-1049-gcp
  linux-modules-5.4.0-1049-gcp linux-modules-extra-5.4.0-1049-gcp
Use 'sudo apt autoremove' to remove them.
The following additional packages will be installed:
  freepats libaudio2 libflac8 libjack-jackd2-0 libogg0 libsamplerate0
  libvorbis0a libvorbisenc2 timidity-daemon
Suggested packages:
  nas jackd2 fluid-soundfont-gm fluid-soundfont-gs pmidi
The following NEW packages will be installed:
  freepats libaudio2 libflac8 libjack-jackd2-0 libogg0 libsamplerate0
  libsndfile1 libvorbis0a libvorbisenc2 timidity timidity-daemon
0 upgraded, 11 newly installed, 0 to remove and 143 not upgraded.
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Get:9 http://asia-east1.gce.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-updates/main amd64 libsndfile1 amd64 1.0.28-4ubuntu0.18.04.2 [170 kB]
Get:10 http://asia-east1.gce.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic/universe amd64 timidity amd64 2.13.2-41 [585 kB]
Get:11 http://asia-east1.gce.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic/universe amd64 timidity-daemon all 2.13.2-41 [5984 B]
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# All the imports to deal with sound data
pip install pydub numba==0.48 librosa music21
import tensorflow as tf
import tensorflow_hub as hub

import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import librosa
from librosa import display as librosadisplay

import logging
import math
import statistics
import sys

from IPython.display import Audio, Javascript
from scipy.io import wavfile

from base64 import b64decode

import music21
from pydub import AudioSegment

logger = logging.getLogger()
logger.setLevel(logging.ERROR)

print("tensorflow: %s" % tf.__version__)
#print("librosa: %s" % librosa.__version__)
/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/numba/errors.py:137: UserWarning: Insufficiently recent colorama version found. Numba requires colorama >= 0.3.9
  warnings.warn(msg)
tensorflow: 2.7.0
/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/pydub/utils.py:170: RuntimeWarning: Couldn't find ffmpeg or avconv - defaulting to ffmpeg, but may not work
  warn("Couldn't find ffmpeg or avconv - defaulting to ffmpeg, but may not work", RuntimeWarning)

קובץ קלט האודיו

עכשיו החלק הקשה ביותר: הקלט את השירה שלך! :)

אנו מספקים ארבע שיטות להשגת קובץ שמע:

  1. הקלט אודיו ישירות בקולאב
  2. העלה מהמחשב שלך
  3. השתמש בקובץ שנשמר ב-Google Drive
  4. הורד את הקובץ מהאינטרנט

בחר אחת מארבע השיטות שלהלן.

[הפעל את זה] הגדרה של קוד JS להקלטת אודיו ישירות מהדפדפן

בחר כיצד להזין את האודיו שלך

INPUT_SOURCE = 'https://storage.googleapis.com/download.tensorflow.org/data/c-scale-metronome.wav'

print('You selected', INPUT_SOURCE)

if INPUT_SOURCE == 'RECORD':
  uploaded_file_name = record(5)
elif INPUT_SOURCE == 'UPLOAD':
  try:
    from google.colab import files
  except ImportError:
    print("ImportError: files from google.colab seems to not be available")
  else:
    uploaded = files.upload()
    for fn in uploaded.keys():
      print('User uploaded file "{name}" with length {length} bytes'.format(
          name=fn, length=len(uploaded[fn])))
    uploaded_file_name = next(iter(uploaded))
    print('Uploaded file: ' + uploaded_file_name)
elif INPUT_SOURCE.startswith('./drive/'):
  try:
    from google.colab import drive
  except ImportError:
    print("ImportError: files from google.colab seems to not be available")
  else:
    drive.mount('/content/drive')
    # don't forget to change the name of the file you
    # will you here!
    gdrive_audio_file = 'YOUR_MUSIC_FILE.wav'
    uploaded_file_name = INPUT_SOURCE
elif INPUT_SOURCE.startswith('http'):
  !wget --no-check-certificate 'https://storage.googleapis.com/download.tensorflow.org/data/c-scale-metronome.wav' -O c-scale.wav
  uploaded_file_name = 'c-scale.wav'
else:
  print('Unrecognized input format!')
  print('Please select "RECORD", "UPLOAD", or specify a file hosted on Google Drive or a file from the web to download file to download')
You selected https://storage.googleapis.com/download.tensorflow.org/data/c-scale-metronome.wav
--2021-11-05 11:10:55--  https://storage.googleapis.com/download.tensorflow.org/data/c-scale-metronome.wav
Resolving storage.googleapis.com (storage.googleapis.com)... 108.177.97.128, 64.233.189.128, 74.125.203.128, ...
Connecting to storage.googleapis.com (storage.googleapis.com)|108.177.97.128|:443... connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK
Length: 384728 (376K) [audio/wav]
Saving to: ‘c-scale.wav’

c-scale.wav         100%[===================>] 375.71K  --.-KB/s    in 0.006s  

2021-11-05 11:10:56 (65.4 MB/s) - ‘c-scale.wav’ saved [384728/384728]

הכנת נתוני השמע

עכשיו יש לנו את האודיו, בואו נמיר אותו לפורמט הצפוי ואז נקשיב לו!

דגם SPICE צריך כקלט קובץ שמע בקצב דגימה של 16kHz ועם ערוץ אחד בלבד (מונו).

כדי לעזור לך עם החלק הזה, יצרנו פונקציה ( convert_audio_for_model ) להמיר כל קובץ wav יש לך את הפורמט הצפוי של המודל:

# Function that converts the user-created audio to the format that the model 
# expects: bitrate 16kHz and only one channel (mono).

EXPECTED_SAMPLE_RATE = 16000

def convert_audio_for_model(user_file, output_file='converted_audio_file.wav'):
  audio = AudioSegment.from_file(user_file)
  audio = audio.set_frame_rate(EXPECTED_SAMPLE_RATE).set_channels(1)
  audio.export(output_file, format="wav")
  return output_file
# Converting to the expected format for the model
# in all the input 4 input method before, the uploaded file name is at
# the variable uploaded_file_name
converted_audio_file = convert_audio_for_model(uploaded_file_name)
# Loading audio samples from the wav file:
sample_rate, audio_samples = wavfile.read(converted_audio_file, 'rb')

# Show some basic information about the audio.
duration = len(audio_samples)/sample_rate
print(f'Sample rate: {sample_rate} Hz')
print(f'Total duration: {duration:.2f}s')
print(f'Size of the input: {len(audio_samples)}')

# Let's listen to the wav file.
Audio(audio_samples, rate=sample_rate)
Sample rate: 16000 Hz
Total duration: 11.89s
Size of the input: 190316

דבר ראשון, בואו נסתכל על צורת הגל של השירה שלנו.

# We can visualize the audio as a waveform.
_ = plt.plot(audio_samples)

png

הצגת נתון אינפורמטיבי יותר הוא ספקטרוגרמה , אשר תדרי מופעים להציג לאורך זמן.

כאן, אנו משתמשים בסולם תדרים לוגריתמי, כדי להפוך את השירה לברורה יותר.

MAX_ABS_INT16 = 32768.0

def plot_stft(x, sample_rate, show_black_and_white=False):
  x_stft = np.abs(librosa.stft(x, n_fft=2048))
  fig, ax = plt.subplots()
  fig.set_size_inches(20, 10)
  x_stft_db = librosa.amplitude_to_db(x_stft, ref=np.max)
  if(show_black_and_white):
    librosadisplay.specshow(data=x_stft_db, y_axis='log', 
                             sr=sample_rate, cmap='gray_r')
  else:
    librosadisplay.specshow(data=x_stft_db, y_axis='log', sr=sample_rate)

  plt.colorbar(format='%+2.0f dB')

plot_stft(audio_samples / MAX_ABS_INT16 , sample_rate=EXPECTED_SAMPLE_RATE)
plt.show()

png

אנחנו צריכים המרה אחרונה כאן. דגימות האודיו הן בפורמט int16. יש לנרמל אותם לצפים בין -1 ל-1.

audio_samples = audio_samples / float(MAX_ABS_INT16)

ביצוע המודל

עכשיו זה החלק הקל, בואו לטעון את המודל עם TensorFlow Hub, ולהאכיל את השמע אליו. SPICE ייתן לנו שתי תפוקות: גובה הצליל וחוסר הוודאות

TensorFlow Hub היא ספריית הפרסום, הגילוי, וצריך של חלקים לשימוש חוזרים של מודלים ללמידה חישובית. זה מקל על שימוש בלמידת מכונה כדי לפתור את האתגרים שלך.

כדי לטעון את הדגם אתה רק צריך את מודול Hub ואת כתובת ה-URL שמפנה לדגם:

# Loading the SPICE model is easy:
model = hub.load("https://tfhub.dev/google/spice/2")
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'global_step:0' shape=() dtype=int64_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'global_step:0' shape=() dtype=int64_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'encoder/conv2d/kernel:0' shape=(1, 3, 1, 64) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'encoder/conv2d/kernel:0' shape=(1, 3, 1, 64) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'encoder/batch_normalization/gamma:0' shape=(64,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'encoder/batch_normalization/gamma:0' shape=(64,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'encoder/batch_normalization/beta:0' shape=(64,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'encoder/batch_normalization/beta:0' shape=(64,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'encoder/batch_normalization/moving_mean:0' shape=(64,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'encoder/batch_normalization/moving_mean:0' shape=(64,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'global_step:0' shape=() dtype=int64_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'global_step:0' shape=() dtype=int64_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'encoder/conv2d/kernel:0' shape=(1, 3, 1, 64) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'encoder/conv2d/kernel:0' shape=(1, 3, 1, 64) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'encoder/batch_normalization/gamma:0' shape=(64,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'encoder/batch_normalization/gamma:0' shape=(64,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'encoder/batch_normalization/beta:0' shape=(64,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'encoder/batch_normalization/beta:0' shape=(64,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'encoder/batch_normalization/moving_mean:0' shape=(64,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'encoder/batch_normalization/moving_mean:0' shape=(64,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'global_step:0' shape=() dtype=int64_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'global_step:0' shape=() dtype=int64_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'encoder/conv2d/kernel:0' shape=(1, 3, 1, 64) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'encoder/conv2d/kernel:0' shape=(1, 3, 1, 64) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'encoder/batch_normalization/gamma:0' shape=(64,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'encoder/batch_normalization/gamma:0' shape=(64,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'encoder/batch_normalization/beta:0' shape=(64,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'encoder/batch_normalization/beta:0' shape=(64,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'encoder/batch_normalization/moving_mean:0' shape=(64,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'encoder/batch_normalization/moving_mean:0' shape=(64,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'global_step:0' shape=() dtype=int64_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'global_step:0' shape=() dtype=int64_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'encoder/conv2d/kernel:0' shape=(1, 3, 1, 64) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'encoder/conv2d/kernel:0' shape=(1, 3, 1, 64) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'encoder/batch_normalization/gamma:0' shape=(64,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'encoder/batch_normalization/gamma:0' shape=(64,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'encoder/batch_normalization/beta:0' shape=(64,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'encoder/batch_normalization/beta:0' shape=(64,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'encoder/batch_normalization/moving_mean:0' shape=(64,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().
WARNING:tensorflow:Unable to create a python object for variable <tf.Variable 'encoder/batch_normalization/moving_mean:0' shape=(64,) dtype=float32_ref> because it is a reference variable. It may not be visible to training APIs. If this is a problem, consider rebuilding the SavedModel after running tf.compat.v1.enable_resource_variables().

כשהמודל טעון, הנתונים מוכנים, אנו זקוקים ל-3 שורות כדי לקבל את התוצאה:

# We now feed the audio to the SPICE tf.hub model to obtain pitch and uncertainty outputs as tensors.
model_output = model.signatures["serving_default"](tf.constant(audio_samples, tf.float32))

pitch_outputs = model_output["pitch"]
uncertainty_outputs = model_output["uncertainty"]

# 'Uncertainty' basically means the inverse of confidence.
confidence_outputs = 1.0 - uncertainty_outputs

fig, ax = plt.subplots()
fig.set_size_inches(20, 10)
plt.plot(pitch_outputs, label='pitch')
plt.plot(confidence_outputs, label='confidence')
plt.legend(loc="lower right")
plt.show()

png

הבה נהפוך את התוצאות לקלות יותר להבנה על ידי הסרת כל הערכות הגובה עם ביטחון נמוך (ביטחון < 0.9) ונתווה את הנותרים.

confidence_outputs = list(confidence_outputs)
pitch_outputs = [ float(x) for x in pitch_outputs]

indices = range(len (pitch_outputs))
confident_pitch_outputs = [ (i,p)  
  for i, p, c in zip(indices, pitch_outputs, confidence_outputs) if  c >= 0.9  ]
confident_pitch_outputs_x, confident_pitch_outputs_y = zip(*confident_pitch_outputs)

fig, ax = plt.subplots()
fig.set_size_inches(20, 10)
ax.set_ylim([0, 1])
plt.scatter(confident_pitch_outputs_x, confident_pitch_outputs_y, )
plt.scatter(confident_pitch_outputs_x, confident_pitch_outputs_y, c="r")

plt.show()

png

ערכי הגובה המוחזרים על ידי SPICE הם בטווח שבין 0 ל-1. הבה נמיר אותם לערכי גובה הצליל מוחלטים בהרץ.

def output2hz(pitch_output):
  # Constants taken from https://tfhub.dev/google/spice/2
  PT_OFFSET = 25.58
  PT_SLOPE = 63.07
  FMIN = 10.0;
  BINS_PER_OCTAVE = 12.0;
  cqt_bin = pitch_output * PT_SLOPE + PT_OFFSET;
  return FMIN * 2.0 ** (1.0 * cqt_bin / BINS_PER_OCTAVE)

confident_pitch_values_hz = [ output2hz(p) for p in confident_pitch_outputs_y ]

כעת, בוא נראה עד כמה התחזית טובה: אנו נכסה את הגובה החזוי על הספקטרוגרמה המקורית. כדי להפוך את תחזיות הגובה גלויות יותר, שינינו את הספקטרוגרמה לשחור ולבן.

plot_stft(audio_samples / MAX_ABS_INT16 , 
          sample_rate=EXPECTED_SAMPLE_RATE, show_black_and_white=True)
# Note: conveniently, since the plot is in log scale, the pitch outputs 
# also get converted to the log scale automatically by matplotlib.
plt.scatter(confident_pitch_outputs_x, confident_pitch_values_hz, c="r")

plt.show()

png

המרה לתווים מוזיקליים

עכשיו כשיש לנו את ערכי הגובה, בואו נמיר אותם לתווים! חלק זה מאתגר בפני עצמו. עלינו לקחת בחשבון שני דברים:

  1. השאר (כשאין שירה)
  2. הגודל של כל פתק (קיזוזים)

1: הוספת אפסים לפלט כדי לציין מתי אין שירה

pitch_outputs_and_rests = [
    output2hz(p) if c >= 0.9 else 0
    for i, p, c in zip(indices, pitch_outputs, confidence_outputs)
]

2: הוספת קיזוז הערה

כאשר אדם שר בחופשיות, למנגינה עשויה להיות היסט לערכי הצליל המוחלטים שתווים יכולים לייצג. לפיכך, כדי להמיר תחזיות להערות, צריך לתקן את ההיסט האפשרי הזה. זה מה שהקוד הבא מחשב.

A4 = 440
C0 = A4 * pow(2, -4.75)
note_names = ["C", "C#", "D", "D#", "E", "F", "F#", "G", "G#", "A", "A#", "B"]

def hz2offset(freq):
  # This measures the quantization error for a single note.
  if freq == 0:  # Rests always have zero error.
    return None
  # Quantized note.
  h = round(12 * math.log2(freq / C0))
  return 12 * math.log2(freq / C0) - h


# The ideal offset is the mean quantization error for all the notes
# (excluding rests):
offsets = [hz2offset(p) for p in pitch_outputs_and_rests if p != 0]
print("offsets: ", offsets)

ideal_offset = statistics.mean(offsets)
print("ideal offset: ", ideal_offset)
offsets:  [0.2851075707500712, 0.3700368844097355, 0.2861639241998972, 0.19609005646164235, 0.17851737247163868, 0.27334483073408933, -0.4475316266590852, -0.24651997073237908, -0.1796558047706398, -0.23060136331860548, -0.3782634107643901, -0.4725100625926686, -0.3457194541269999, -0.2436666886383776, -0.1818906877810207, -0.1348077739650435, -0.24551812662426897, -0.4454903457934165, -0.3126792745167535, -0.12241723670307181, -0.06614479972665066, -0.06702634735648871, -0.1744135098034576, -0.29365551425759406, -0.32520890458170726, -0.056438377636119696, 0.1470525135224534, 0.17167006002122775, 0.16529246704037348, 0.09569531546290477, -0.006323616641203955, -0.11799822075907684, -0.18835098459069144, -0.17934754504506145, -0.17215419157092526, -0.23695828034226452, -0.34594501002376177, -0.39380045278613807, -0.2528674895936689, -0.11009248657768467, -0.07118597401920113, -0.08042248799149121, -0.12799598588293293, -0.16227484329287023, -0.05931985421721464, 0.10667800800259641, 0.21044687793906292, 0.2931939382975841, -0.22329278631751492, -0.12365553720538003, -0.4571117360765271, -0.34864566459005175, -0.35947798653189267, -0.4313175396496476, -0.4818928106004421, 0.44220950977261, 0.45883109973128455, -0.47095522924010425, -0.3674495078498552, -0.3047186536962201, -0.31075979246441676, -0.4501382996017185, 0.3966096259778311, 0.4238116671269694, 0.4982676686471237, -0.45932030423227843, -0.4890504510576079, 0.3836871527260044, 0.4441304941600137, -0.38787359430138935, -0.24855899466817277, -0.20666386647764057, -0.23811575664822726, -0.2760223047310504, -0.3641714288169524, -0.41670903606955534, -0.41009272976462086, -0.3340427999073796, -0.26122959716860805, -0.2232610212141708, -0.19940660549943345, -0.22528914465252825, -0.2780899004513415, -0.2744434134537457, -0.25654931231085953, -0.33068201704567457, -0.4678933079416083, -0.4695135511333177, -0.1648153518015647, -0.24618840082233362, -0.48052406086269883, -0.3771743489677135, -0.32261801643912236, -0.25560347987954657, -0.24629741950576545, -0.14035005553309787, -0.16659160448853783, -0.2442749349648139, -0.236978201704666, -0.20882506652418442, -0.22637331529204374, -0.29836135937516417, -0.39081484182421633, -0.3909877680117404, -0.3650093676025108, -0.2642347521955202, -0.13023199393098395, -0.18214744283501716, -0.3020867909366345, -0.33754229827467697, -0.34391801162306024, -0.31454499496763333, -0.26713502510135356, -0.2910439501578139, -0.11686573876684037, -0.1673094354445226, -0.24345334692542053, -0.30852998240535356, -0.35647376789395935, -0.37154654069487236, -0.3600149954730796, -0.2667062802488047, -0.21902000440899627, -0.2484456507736752, -0.2774107871825038, -0.2941432754570741, -0.31118778272216474, -0.32662896348779213, -0.3053947554403962, -0.2160201109821145, -0.17343703730647775, -0.17792559965198507, -0.19880643679444177, -0.2725068260604502, -0.3152120758468442, -0.28217377586905457, -0.11595223738495974, 0.0541902144377957, 0.11488166735824024, -0.2559698195630773, 0.01930235610660702, -0.002236352401425279, 0.4468796487277231, 0.15514959977323883, 0.4207694853966899, 0.3854474319642236, 0.4373497234409598, -0.4694994504625001, -0.3662719146782649, -0.20354085369650932, -0.015043790774988963, -0.4185651697093675, -0.17896653874461066, -0.032896162706066434, -0.061098168330843805, -0.1953772325689087, -0.2545198683315988, -0.3363741032654488, -0.39191536320988973, -0.36531668408458984, -0.3489657612020167, -0.35455202891175475, -0.38925192399566555, 0.48781635300571935, -0.2820884378129733, -0.241939488189864, -0.24987341685836384, -0.3034880535179809, -0.2910712014014081, -0.2783103765422581, -0.30017802073304267, -0.23735882385318519, -0.15802705569807785, -0.1688725350672513, 0.00533368216211727, -0.2545762573057857, -0.28210347487274845, -0.29791870250051034, -0.3228369901949648, -0.3895802937323367, 0.4323827980583488, 0.17439196334535723, -0.12961039467398905, -0.2236296109730489, -0.04022635205333813, -0.4264043621594098, -0.0019025255615048309, -0.07466309859101727, -0.08665327413623203, -0.08169104440753472, -0.31617519541327965, -0.47420548422877573, 0.1502044753855003, 0.30507923857624064, 0.031032583278971515, -0.17852388186996393, -0.3371347884709195, -0.41780861421172233, -0.2023933346444835, -0.10604901297633518, -0.10771248771493447, -0.16037790997569346, -0.18698410763089868, -0.17355977250879562, -0.008242337244190878, -0.011401999431292609, -0.1876701734835322, -0.3601715640598968, 0.011681766969516616, -0.1931417836124183]
ideal offset:  -0.16889341450193418

כעת נוכל להשתמש בכמה היוריסטיות כדי לנסות ולהעריך את הרצף הסביר ביותר של התווים שהושרו. ההיסט האידיאלי שחושב למעלה הוא מרכיב אחד - אבל אנחנו צריכים גם לדעת את המהירות (כמה תחזיות עושות, נניח, שמינית?), ואת ההיסט בזמן כדי להתחיל לכימות. כדי לשמור על פשטות, פשוט ננסה מהירויות שונות וקיזוז זמן ונמדוד את שגיאת הקוונטיזציה, תוך שימוש בסופו של דבר בערכים שממזערים את השגיאה הזו.

def quantize_predictions(group, ideal_offset):
  # Group values are either 0, or a pitch in Hz.
  non_zero_values = [v for v in group if v != 0]
  zero_values_count = len(group) - len(non_zero_values)

  # Create a rest if 80% is silent, otherwise create a note.
  if zero_values_count > 0.8 * len(group):
    # Interpret as a rest. Count each dropped note as an error, weighted a bit
    # worse than a badly sung note (which would 'cost' 0.5).
    return 0.51 * len(non_zero_values), "Rest"
  else:
    # Interpret as note, estimating as mean of non-rest predictions.
    h = round(
        statistics.mean([
            12 * math.log2(freq / C0) - ideal_offset for freq in non_zero_values
        ]))
    octave = h // 12
    n = h % 12
    note = note_names[n] + str(octave)
    # Quantization error is the total difference from the quantized note.
    error = sum([
        abs(12 * math.log2(freq / C0) - ideal_offset - h)
        for freq in non_zero_values
    ])
    return error, note


def get_quantization_and_error(pitch_outputs_and_rests, predictions_per_eighth,
                               prediction_start_offset, ideal_offset):
  # Apply the start offset - we can just add the offset as rests.
  pitch_outputs_and_rests = [0] * prediction_start_offset + \
                            pitch_outputs_and_rests
  # Collect the predictions for each note (or rest).
  groups = [
      pitch_outputs_and_rests[i:i + predictions_per_eighth]
      for i in range(0, len(pitch_outputs_and_rests), predictions_per_eighth)
  ]

  quantization_error = 0

  notes_and_rests = []
  for group in groups:
    error, note_or_rest = quantize_predictions(group, ideal_offset)
    quantization_error += error
    notes_and_rests.append(note_or_rest)

  return quantization_error, notes_and_rests


best_error = float("inf")
best_notes_and_rests = None
best_predictions_per_note = None

for predictions_per_note in range(20, 65, 1):
  for prediction_start_offset in range(predictions_per_note):

    error, notes_and_rests = get_quantization_and_error(
        pitch_outputs_and_rests, predictions_per_note,
        prediction_start_offset, ideal_offset)

    if error < best_error:      
      best_error = error
      best_notes_and_rests = notes_and_rests
      best_predictions_per_note = predictions_per_note

# At this point, best_notes_and_rests contains the best quantization.
# Since we don't need to have rests at the beginning, let's remove these:
while best_notes_and_rests[0] == 'Rest':
  best_notes_and_rests = best_notes_and_rests[1:]
# Also remove silence at the end.
while best_notes_and_rests[-1] == 'Rest':
  best_notes_and_rests = best_notes_and_rests[:-1]

עכשיו בואו נכתוב את התווים הקוונטיים כתווים לתווים!

כדי לעשות זאת נשתמש שתי ספריות: music21 ו Display מוסיקה פתוחות גיליון

# Creating the sheet music score.
sc = music21.stream.Score()
# Adjust the speed to match the actual singing.
bpm = 60 * 60 / best_predictions_per_note
print ('bpm: ', bpm)
a = music21.tempo.MetronomeMark(number=bpm)
sc.insert(0,a)

for snote in best_notes_and_rests:   
    d = 'half'
    if snote == 'Rest':      
      sc.append(music21.note.Rest(type=d))
    else:
      sc.append(music21.note.Note(snote, type=d))
bpm:  78.26086956521739

[הפעל את פונקציית העזרה הזו] כדי להשתמש בתצוגת גיליונות פתוחים (קוד JS) כדי להציג תווים

from IPython.core.display import display, HTML, Javascript
import json, random

def showScore(score):
    xml = open(score.write('musicxml')).read()
    showMusicXML(xml)

def showMusicXML(xml):
    DIV_ID = "OSMD_div"
    display(HTML('<div id="'+DIV_ID+'">loading OpenSheetMusicDisplay</div>'))
    script = """
    var div_id = { {DIV_ID} };
    function loadOSMD() { 
        return new Promise(function(resolve, reject){
            if (window.opensheetmusicdisplay) {
                return resolve(window.opensheetmusicdisplay)
            }
            // OSMD script has a 'define' call which conflicts with requirejs
            var _define = window.define // save the define object 
            window.define = undefined // now the loaded script will ignore requirejs
            var s = document.createElement( 'script' );
            s.setAttribute( 'src', "https://cdn.jsdelivr.net/npm/opensheetmusicdisplay@0.7.6/build/opensheetmusicdisplay.min.js" );
            //s.setAttribute( 'src', "/custom/opensheetmusicdisplay.js" );
            s.onload=function(){
                window.define = _define
                resolve(opensheetmusicdisplay);
            };
            document.body.appendChild( s ); // browser will try to load the new script tag
        }) 
    }
    loadOSMD().then((OSMD)=>{
        window.openSheetMusicDisplay = new OSMD.OpenSheetMusicDisplay(div_id, {
          drawingParameters: "compacttight"
        });
        openSheetMusicDisplay
            .load({ {data} })
            .then(
              function() {
                openSheetMusicDisplay.render();
              }
            );
    })
    """.replace('{ {DIV_ID} }',DIV_ID).replace('{ {data} }',json.dumps(xml))
    display(Javascript(script))
    return
# rendering the music score
showScore(sc)
print(best_notes_and_rests)
/tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.7/site-packages/music21/musicxml/m21ToXml.py:465: MusicXMLWarning: <music21.stream.Score 0x7f276c652190> is not well-formed; see isWellFormedNotation()
  category=MusicXMLWarning)
<IPython.core.display.Javascript object>
['C3', 'D3', 'E3', 'F3', 'G3', 'A3', 'B3', 'C4']

בואו נמיר את תווי המוזיקה לקובץ MIDI ונאזין לו.

כדי ליצור קובץ זה, נוכל להשתמש בזרם שיצרנו קודם.

# Saving the recognized musical notes as a MIDI file
converted_audio_file_as_midi = converted_audio_file[:-4] + '.mid'
fp = sc.write('midi', fp=converted_audio_file_as_midi)
wav_from_created_midi = converted_audio_file_as_midi.replace(' ', '_') + "_midioutput.wav"
print(wav_from_created_midi)
converted_audio_file.mid_midioutput.wav

כדי להאזין לו ב-colab, אנחנו צריכים להמיר אותו בחזרה ל-wav. דרך קלה לעשות זאת היא שימוש ב-Timidity.

timidity $converted_audio_file_as_midi -Ow -o $wav_from_created_midi
Playing converted_audio_file.mid
MIDI file: converted_audio_file.mid
Format: 1  Tracks: 2  Divisions: 1024
Track name: 
Playing time: ~16 seconds
Notes cut: 0
Notes lost totally: 0

ולבסוף, האזינו לאודיו, שנוצר מהתווים, שנוצרו באמצעות MIDI מהגובה החזוי, לפי הדגם!

Audio(wav_from_created_midi)