케라스 모델로 추정기 생성하기

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개요

텐서플로는 tf.keras 모델을 텐서플로 추정기(estimator)로 손쉽게 변환하는 기능을 지원하고 있습니다. 본 튜토리얼에서는 이 변환 과정의 전반적인 예시를 소개합니다.

설정

import tensorflow as tf

import numpy as np
import tensorflow_datasets as tfds

간단한 케라스 모델 만들기

케라스에서는 여러 겹의 층을 쌓아 모델을 만들 수 있습니다. 일반적으로 모델은 층의 그래프로 구성됩니다. 이 중 가장 흔한 형태는 적층형 구조를 갖고 있는 tf.keras.Sequential 모델입니다.

간단한 완전히 연결 네트워크(다층 퍼셉트론)를 만들어봅시다:

model = tf.keras.models.Sequential([
    tf.keras.layers.Dense(16, activation='relu', input_shape=(4,)),
    tf.keras.layers.Dropout(0.2),
    tf.keras.layers.Dense(3)
])

모델을 컴파일한 후, 모델 구조를 요약해 출력할 수 있습니다.

model.compile(loss=tf.keras.losses.SparseCategoricalCrossentropy(from_logits=True),
              optimizer='adam')
model.summary()
Model: "sequential"
_________________________________________________________________
Layer (type)                 Output Shape              Param #   
=================================================================
dense (Dense)                (None, 16)                80        
_________________________________________________________________
dropout (Dropout)            (None, 16)                0         
_________________________________________________________________
dense_1 (Dense)              (None, 3)                 51        
=================================================================
Total params: 131
Trainable params: 131
Non-trainable params: 0
_________________________________________________________________

입력 함수 만들기

데이터셋 API를 사용해 대규모 데이터셋을 다루거나 여러 장치에서 훈련할 수 있습니다.

텐서플로 추정기는 입력 파이프라인(input pipeline)이 언제 어떻게 생성되었는지 제어해야 합니다. 이를 위해서는 "입력 함수", 즉 input_fn이 필요합니다. 추정기는 이 함수를 별도의 매개변수 설정 없이 호출하게 됩니다. 이때 input_fntf.data.Dataset 객체를 반환해야 합니다.

def input_fn():
  split = tfds.Split.TRAIN
  dataset = tfds.load('iris', split=split, as_supervised=True)
  dataset = dataset.map(lambda features, labels: ({'dense_input':features}, labels))
  dataset = dataset.batch(32).repeat()
  return dataset

input_fn이 잘 구현되었는지 확인해봅니다.

for features_batch, labels_batch in input_fn().take(1):
  print(features_batch)
  print(labels_batch)
Downloading and preparing dataset iris/2.0.0 (download: 4.44 KiB, generated: Unknown size, total: 4.44 KiB) to /home/kbuilder/tensorflow_datasets/iris/2.0.0...
Shuffling and writing examples to /home/kbuilder/tensorflow_datasets/iris/2.0.0.incompleteDN5LGP/iris-train.tfrecord
Dataset iris downloaded and prepared to /home/kbuilder/tensorflow_datasets/iris/2.0.0. Subsequent calls will reuse this data.
{'dense_input': <tf.Tensor: shape=(32, 4), dtype=float32, numpy=
array([[5.1, 3.4, 1.5, 0.2],
       [7.7, 3. , 6.1, 2.3],
       [5.7, 2.8, 4.5, 1.3],
       [6.8, 3.2, 5.9, 2.3],
       [5.2, 3.4, 1.4, 0.2],
       [5.6, 2.9, 3.6, 1.3],
       [5.5, 2.6, 4.4, 1.2],
       [5.5, 2.4, 3.7, 1. ],
       [4.6, 3.4, 1.4, 0.3],
       [7.7, 2.8, 6.7, 2. ],
       [7. , 3.2, 4.7, 1.4],
       [4.6, 3.2, 1.4, 0.2],
       [6.5, 3. , 5.2, 2. ],
       [5.5, 4.2, 1.4, 0.2],
       [5.4, 3.9, 1.3, 0.4],
       [5. , 3.5, 1.3, 0.3],
       [5.1, 3.8, 1.5, 0.3],
       [4.8, 3. , 1.4, 0.1],
       [6.5, 3. , 5.8, 2.2],
       [7.6, 3. , 6.6, 2.1],
       [6.7, 3.3, 5.7, 2.1],
       [7.9, 3.8, 6.4, 2. ],
       [6.7, 3. , 5.2, 2.3],
       [5.8, 4. , 1.2, 0.2],
       [6.3, 2.5, 5. , 1.9],
       [5. , 3. , 1.6, 0.2],
       [6.9, 3.1, 5.1, 2.3],
       [6.1, 3. , 4.6, 1.4],
       [5.8, 2.7, 4.1, 1. ],
       [5.2, 2.7, 3.9, 1.4],
       [6.7, 3. , 5. , 1.7],
       [5.7, 2.6, 3.5, 1. ]], dtype=float32)>}
tf.Tensor([0 2 1 2 0 1 1 1 0 2 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 2 2 0 2 0 2 1 1 1 1 1], shape=(32,), dtype=int64)

tf.keras.model을 추정기로 변환하기

tf.keras.modeltf.keras.estimator.model_to_estimator 함수를 이용해 tf.estimator.Estimator 객체로 변환함으로써 tf.estimator API를 통해 훈련할 수 있습니다.

import tempfile
model_dir = tempfile.mkdtemp()
keras_estimator = tf.keras.estimator.model_to_estimator(
    keras_model=model, model_dir=model_dir)
INFO:tensorflow:Using default config.

INFO:tensorflow:Using default config.

INFO:tensorflow:Using the Keras model provided.

INFO:tensorflow:Using the Keras model provided.

Warning:tensorflow:From /tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.6/site-packages/tensorflow_estimator/python/estimator/keras.py:220: set_learning_phase (from tensorflow.python.keras.backend) is deprecated and will be removed after 2020-10-11.
Instructions for updating:
Simply pass a True/False value to the `training` argument of the `__call__` method of your layer or model.

Warning:tensorflow:From /tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.6/site-packages/tensorflow_estimator/python/estimator/keras.py:220: set_learning_phase (from tensorflow.python.keras.backend) is deprecated and will be removed after 2020-10-11.
Instructions for updating:
Simply pass a True/False value to the `training` argument of the `__call__` method of your layer or model.

INFO:tensorflow:Using config: {'_model_dir': '/tmp/tmpygermkok', '_tf_random_seed': None, '_save_summary_steps': 100, '_save_checkpoints_steps': None, '_save_checkpoints_secs': 600, '_session_config': allow_soft_placement: true
graph_options {
  rewrite_options {
    meta_optimizer_iterations: ONE
  }
}
, '_keep_checkpoint_max': 5, '_keep_checkpoint_every_n_hours': 10000, '_log_step_count_steps': 100, '_train_distribute': None, '_device_fn': None, '_protocol': None, '_eval_distribute': None, '_experimental_distribute': None, '_experimental_max_worker_delay_secs': None, '_session_creation_timeout_secs': 7200, '_service': None, '_cluster_spec': ClusterSpec({}), '_task_type': 'worker', '_task_id': 0, '_global_id_in_cluster': 0, '_master': '', '_evaluation_master': '', '_is_chief': True, '_num_ps_replicas': 0, '_num_worker_replicas': 1}

INFO:tensorflow:Using config: {'_model_dir': '/tmp/tmpygermkok', '_tf_random_seed': None, '_save_summary_steps': 100, '_save_checkpoints_steps': None, '_save_checkpoints_secs': 600, '_session_config': allow_soft_placement: true
graph_options {
  rewrite_options {
    meta_optimizer_iterations: ONE
  }
}
, '_keep_checkpoint_max': 5, '_keep_checkpoint_every_n_hours': 10000, '_log_step_count_steps': 100, '_train_distribute': None, '_device_fn': None, '_protocol': None, '_eval_distribute': None, '_experimental_distribute': None, '_experimental_max_worker_delay_secs': None, '_session_creation_timeout_secs': 7200, '_service': None, '_cluster_spec': ClusterSpec({}), '_task_type': 'worker', '_task_id': 0, '_global_id_in_cluster': 0, '_master': '', '_evaluation_master': '', '_is_chief': True, '_num_ps_replicas': 0, '_num_worker_replicas': 1}

추정기를 훈련한 후 평가합니다.

keras_estimator.train(input_fn=input_fn, steps=500)
eval_result = keras_estimator.evaluate(input_fn=input_fn, steps=10)
print('평가 결과: {}'.format(eval_result))
WARNING:tensorflow:From /tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.6/site-packages/tensorflow/python/training/training_util.py:236: Variable.initialized_value (from tensorflow.python.ops.variables) is deprecated and will be removed in a future version.
Instructions for updating:
Use Variable.read_value. Variables in 2.X are initialized automatically both in eager and graph (inside tf.defun) contexts.

Warning:tensorflow:From /tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.6/site-packages/tensorflow/python/training/training_util.py:236: Variable.initialized_value (from tensorflow.python.ops.variables) is deprecated and will be removed in a future version.
Instructions for updating:
Use Variable.read_value. Variables in 2.X are initialized automatically both in eager and graph (inside tf.defun) contexts.

INFO:tensorflow:Calling model_fn.

INFO:tensorflow:Calling model_fn.

INFO:tensorflow:Done calling model_fn.

INFO:tensorflow:Done calling model_fn.

INFO:tensorflow:Warm-starting with WarmStartSettings: WarmStartSettings(ckpt_to_initialize_from='/tmp/tmpygermkok/keras/keras_model.ckpt', vars_to_warm_start='.*', var_name_to_vocab_info={}, var_name_to_prev_var_name={})

INFO:tensorflow:Warm-starting with WarmStartSettings: WarmStartSettings(ckpt_to_initialize_from='/tmp/tmpygermkok/keras/keras_model.ckpt', vars_to_warm_start='.*', var_name_to_vocab_info={}, var_name_to_prev_var_name={})

INFO:tensorflow:Warm-starting from: /tmp/tmpygermkok/keras/keras_model.ckpt

INFO:tensorflow:Warm-starting from: /tmp/tmpygermkok/keras/keras_model.ckpt

INFO:tensorflow:Warm-starting variables only in TRAINABLE_VARIABLES.

INFO:tensorflow:Warm-starting variables only in TRAINABLE_VARIABLES.

INFO:tensorflow:Warm-started 4 variables.

INFO:tensorflow:Warm-started 4 variables.

INFO:tensorflow:Create CheckpointSaverHook.

INFO:tensorflow:Create CheckpointSaverHook.

INFO:tensorflow:Graph was finalized.

INFO:tensorflow:Graph was finalized.

INFO:tensorflow:Running local_init_op.

INFO:tensorflow:Running local_init_op.

INFO:tensorflow:Done running local_init_op.

INFO:tensorflow:Done running local_init_op.

INFO:tensorflow:Calling checkpoint listeners before saving checkpoint 0...

INFO:tensorflow:Calling checkpoint listeners before saving checkpoint 0...

INFO:tensorflow:Saving checkpoints for 0 into /tmp/tmpygermkok/model.ckpt.

INFO:tensorflow:Saving checkpoints for 0 into /tmp/tmpygermkok/model.ckpt.

INFO:tensorflow:Calling checkpoint listeners after saving checkpoint 0...

INFO:tensorflow:Calling checkpoint listeners after saving checkpoint 0...

INFO:tensorflow:loss = 1.4267418, step = 0

INFO:tensorflow:loss = 1.4267418, step = 0

INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 437.436

INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 437.436

INFO:tensorflow:loss = 0.8789613, step = 100 (0.230 sec)

INFO:tensorflow:loss = 0.8789613, step = 100 (0.230 sec)

INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 517.647

INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 517.647

INFO:tensorflow:loss = 0.61390436, step = 200 (0.193 sec)

INFO:tensorflow:loss = 0.61390436, step = 200 (0.193 sec)

INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 505.087

INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 505.087

INFO:tensorflow:loss = 0.49246883, step = 300 (0.198 sec)

INFO:tensorflow:loss = 0.49246883, step = 300 (0.198 sec)

INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 518.881

INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 518.881

INFO:tensorflow:loss = 0.43789977, step = 400 (0.193 sec)

INFO:tensorflow:loss = 0.43789977, step = 400 (0.193 sec)

INFO:tensorflow:Calling checkpoint listeners before saving checkpoint 500...

INFO:tensorflow:Calling checkpoint listeners before saving checkpoint 500...

INFO:tensorflow:Saving checkpoints for 500 into /tmp/tmpygermkok/model.ckpt.

INFO:tensorflow:Saving checkpoints for 500 into /tmp/tmpygermkok/model.ckpt.

INFO:tensorflow:Calling checkpoint listeners after saving checkpoint 500...

INFO:tensorflow:Calling checkpoint listeners after saving checkpoint 500...

INFO:tensorflow:Loss for final step: 0.48130426.

INFO:tensorflow:Loss for final step: 0.48130426.

INFO:tensorflow:Calling model_fn.

INFO:tensorflow:Calling model_fn.

Warning:tensorflow:From /tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.6/site-packages/tensorflow/python/keras/engine/training_v1.py:2048: Model.state_updates (from tensorflow.python.keras.engine.training) is deprecated and will be removed in a future version.
Instructions for updating:
This property should not be used in TensorFlow 2.0, as updates are applied automatically.

Warning:tensorflow:From /tmpfs/src/tf_docs_env/lib/python3.6/site-packages/tensorflow/python/keras/engine/training_v1.py:2048: Model.state_updates (from tensorflow.python.keras.engine.training) is deprecated and will be removed in a future version.
Instructions for updating:
This property should not be used in TensorFlow 2.0, as updates are applied automatically.

INFO:tensorflow:Done calling model_fn.

INFO:tensorflow:Done calling model_fn.

INFO:tensorflow:Starting evaluation at 2020-08-01T01:20:13Z

INFO:tensorflow:Starting evaluation at 2020-08-01T01:20:13Z

INFO:tensorflow:Graph was finalized.

INFO:tensorflow:Graph was finalized.

INFO:tensorflow:Restoring parameters from /tmp/tmpygermkok/model.ckpt-500

INFO:tensorflow:Restoring parameters from /tmp/tmpygermkok/model.ckpt-500

INFO:tensorflow:Running local_init_op.

INFO:tensorflow:Running local_init_op.

INFO:tensorflow:Done running local_init_op.

INFO:tensorflow:Done running local_init_op.

INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [1/10]

INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [1/10]

INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [2/10]

INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [2/10]

INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [3/10]

INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [3/10]

INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [4/10]

INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [4/10]

INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [5/10]

INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [5/10]

INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [6/10]

INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [6/10]

INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [7/10]

INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [7/10]

INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [8/10]

INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [8/10]

INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [9/10]

INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [9/10]

INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [10/10]

INFO:tensorflow:Evaluation [10/10]

INFO:tensorflow:Inference Time : 0.17373s

INFO:tensorflow:Inference Time : 0.17373s

INFO:tensorflow:Finished evaluation at 2020-08-01-01:20:13

INFO:tensorflow:Finished evaluation at 2020-08-01-01:20:13

INFO:tensorflow:Saving dict for global step 500: global_step = 500, loss = 0.32979757

INFO:tensorflow:Saving dict for global step 500: global_step = 500, loss = 0.32979757

INFO:tensorflow:Saving 'checkpoint_path' summary for global step 500: /tmp/tmpygermkok/model.ckpt-500

INFO:tensorflow:Saving 'checkpoint_path' summary for global step 500: /tmp/tmpygermkok/model.ckpt-500

평가 결과: {'loss': 0.32979757, 'global_step': 500}