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Klasifikasi pada data yang tidak seimbang

Lihat di TensorFlow.org Jalankan di Google Colab Lihat sumber di GitHub Unduh buku catatan

Tutorial ini menunjukkan bagaimana mengklasifikasikan dataset yang sangat tidak seimbang di mana jumlah contoh dalam satu kelas jauh lebih banyak daripada contoh di kelas lain. Anda akan bekerja dengan dataset Deteksi Penipuan Kartu Kredit yang dihosting di Kaggle. Tujuannya adalah untuk mendeteksi 492 transaksi penipuan dari total 284.807 transaksi. Anda akan menggunakan Keras untuk menentukan model dan bobot kelas untuk membantu model belajar dari data yang tidak seimbang. .

Tutorial ini berisi kode lengkap untuk:

  • Muat file CSV menggunakan Pandas.
  • Buat kereta, validasi, dan set tes.
  • Tentukan dan latih model menggunakan Keras (termasuk mengatur bobot kelas).
  • Evaluasi model menggunakan berbagai metrik (termasuk ketepatan dan daya ingat).
  • Cobalah teknik umum untuk menangani data yang tidak seimbang seperti:
    • Pembobotan kelas
    • Oversampling

Mempersiapkan

 import tensorflow as tf
from tensorflow import keras

import os
import tempfile

import matplotlib as mpl
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
import seaborn as sns

import sklearn
from sklearn.metrics import confusion_matrix
from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split
from sklearn.preprocessing import StandardScaler
 
 mpl.rcParams['figure.figsize'] = (12, 10)
colors = plt.rcParams['axes.prop_cycle'].by_key()['color']
 

Pemrosesan dan eksplorasi data

Unduh kumpulan data Penipuan Kartu Kredit Kaggle

Pandas adalah pustaka Python dengan banyak utilitas bermanfaat untuk memuat dan bekerja dengan data terstruktur dan dapat digunakan untuk mengunduh CSV ke dalam kerangka data.

 file = tf.keras.utils
raw_df = pd.read_csv('https://storage.googleapis.com/download.tensorflow.org/data/creditcard.csv')
raw_df.head()
 
 raw_df[['Time', 'V1', 'V2', 'V3', 'V4', 'V5', 'V26', 'V27', 'V28', 'Amount', 'Class']].describe()
 

Periksa ketidakseimbangan label kelas

Mari kita lihat ketidakseimbangan dataset:

 neg, pos = np.bincount(raw_df['Class'])
total = neg + pos
print('Examples:\n    Total: {}\n    Positive: {} ({:.2f}% of total)\n'.format(
    total, pos, 100 * pos / total))
 
Examples:
    Total: 284807
    Positive: 492 (0.17% of total)


Ini menunjukkan sebagian kecil dari sampel positif.

Bersihkan, bagi, dan normalkan data

Data mentah memiliki beberapa masalah. Pertama, kolom Time and Amount terlalu variabel untuk digunakan secara langsung. Jatuhkan kolom Time (karena tidak jelas artinya) dan ambil log kolom Amount untuk mengurangi rentangnya.

 cleaned_df = raw_df.copy()

# You don't want the `Time` column.
cleaned_df.pop('Time')

# The `Amount` column covers a huge range. Convert to log-space.
eps=0.001 # 0 => 0.1¢
cleaned_df['Log Ammount'] = np.log(cleaned_df.pop('Amount')+eps)
 

Pisahkan dataset menjadi kereta, validasi, dan set tes. Set validasi digunakan selama pemasangan model untuk mengevaluasi kerugian dan metrik apa pun, namun model tidak cocok dengan data ini. Set tes benar-benar tidak digunakan selama fase pelatihan dan hanya digunakan pada akhir untuk mengevaluasi seberapa baik model digeneralisasikan ke data baru. Ini sangat penting dengan dataset yang tidak seimbang di mana overfitting merupakan masalah signifikan dari kurangnya data pelatihan.

 # Use a utility from sklearn to split and shuffle our dataset.
train_df, test_df = train_test_split(cleaned_df, test_size=0.2)
train_df, val_df = train_test_split(train_df, test_size=0.2)

# Form np arrays of labels and features.
train_labels = np.array(train_df.pop('Class'))
bool_train_labels = train_labels != 0
val_labels = np.array(val_df.pop('Class'))
test_labels = np.array(test_df.pop('Class'))

train_features = np.array(train_df)
val_features = np.array(val_df)
test_features = np.array(test_df)
 

Menormalkan fitur input menggunakan sklearn StandardScaler. Ini akan menetapkan mean ke 0 dan standar deviasi ke 1.

 scaler = StandardScaler()
train_features = scaler.fit_transform(train_features)

val_features = scaler.transform(val_features)
test_features = scaler.transform(test_features)

train_features = np.clip(train_features, -5, 5)
val_features = np.clip(val_features, -5, 5)
test_features = np.clip(test_features, -5, 5)


print('Training labels shape:', train_labels.shape)
print('Validation labels shape:', val_labels.shape)
print('Test labels shape:', test_labels.shape)

print('Training features shape:', train_features.shape)
print('Validation features shape:', val_features.shape)
print('Test features shape:', test_features.shape)

 
Training labels shape: (182276,)
Validation labels shape: (45569,)
Test labels shape: (56962,)
Training features shape: (182276, 29)
Validation features shape: (45569, 29)
Test features shape: (56962, 29)

Lihatlah distribusi data

Selanjutnya, bandingkan distribusi contoh positif dan negatif pada beberapa fitur. Pertanyaan bagus untuk ditanyakan pada diri sendiri pada saat ini adalah:

  • Apakah distribusi ini masuk akal?
    • Iya. Anda telah menormalkan input dan ini sebagian besar terkonsentrasi di rentang +/- 2 .
  • Bisakah Anda melihat perbedaan antara distribusi?
    • Ya, contoh positif mengandung tingkat nilai ekstrem yang jauh lebih tinggi.
 pos_df = pd.DataFrame(train_features[ bool_train_labels], columns = train_df.columns)
neg_df = pd.DataFrame(train_features[~bool_train_labels], columns = train_df.columns)

sns.jointplot(pos_df['V5'], pos_df['V6'],
              kind='hex', xlim = (-5,5), ylim = (-5,5))
plt.suptitle("Positive distribution")

sns.jointplot(neg_df['V5'], neg_df['V6'],
              kind='hex', xlim = (-5,5), ylim = (-5,5))
_ = plt.suptitle("Negative distribution")
 

png

png

Tentukan model dan metrik

Tetapkan fungsi yang membuat jaringan saraf sederhana dengan lapisan tersembunyi yang terhubung erat, lapisan putus sekolah untuk mengurangi overfitting, dan lapisan keluaran sigmoid yang mengembalikan kemungkinan transaksi penipuan:

 METRICS = [
      keras.metrics.TruePositives(name='tp'),
      keras.metrics.FalsePositives(name='fp'),
      keras.metrics.TrueNegatives(name='tn'),
      keras.metrics.FalseNegatives(name='fn'), 
      keras.metrics.BinaryAccuracy(name='accuracy'),
      keras.metrics.Precision(name='precision'),
      keras.metrics.Recall(name='recall'),
      keras.metrics.AUC(name='auc'),
]

def make_model(metrics = METRICS, output_bias=None):
  if output_bias is not None:
    output_bias = tf.keras.initializers.Constant(output_bias)
  model = keras.Sequential([
      keras.layers.Dense(
          16, activation='relu',
          input_shape=(train_features.shape[-1],)),
      keras.layers.Dropout(0.5),
      keras.layers.Dense(1, activation='sigmoid',
                         bias_initializer=output_bias),
  ])

  model.compile(
      optimizer=keras.optimizers.Adam(lr=1e-3),
      loss=keras.losses.BinaryCrossentropy(),
      metrics=metrics)

  return model
 

Memahami metrik yang bermanfaat

Perhatikan bahwa ada beberapa metrik yang didefinisikan di atas yang dapat dihitung oleh model yang akan membantu ketika mengevaluasi kinerja.

  • Negatif palsu dan positif palsu adalah contoh yang salah diklasifikasikan
  • Benar negatif dan positif sejati adalah contoh yang benar diklasifikasikan
  • Akurasi adalah persentase dari contoh yang diklasifikasikan dengan benar> $ \ frac {\ text {true samples}} {\ text {total samples}} $
  • Presisi adalah persentase prediksi positif yang diklasifikasikan dengan benar> $ \ frac {\ text {true positif}} {\ teks {true positif + false positif}} $
  • Ingat adalah persentase positif sebenarnya yang diklasifikasikan dengan benar> $ \ frac {\ text {true positif}} {\ teks {true positif + false negatif}} $
  • AUC mengacu pada Area Di Bawah Kurva Kurva Karakteristik Operasi Penerima (ROC-AUC). Metrik ini sama dengan probabilitas bahwa penggolong akan memberi peringkat sampel positif acak lebih tinggi dari sampel negatif acak.

Baca lebih lajut:

Model dasar

Bangun model

Sekarang buat dan latih model Anda menggunakan fungsi yang telah ditentukan sebelumnya. Perhatikan bahwa model ini cocok menggunakan ukuran batch yang lebih besar dari standar 2048, ini penting untuk memastikan bahwa setiap batch memiliki peluang yang layak berisi beberapa sampel positif. Jika ukuran batch terlalu kecil, mereka kemungkinan tidak akan memiliki transaksi penipuan untuk dipelajari.

 EPOCHS = 100
BATCH_SIZE = 2048

early_stopping = tf.keras.callbacks.EarlyStopping(
    monitor='val_auc', 
    verbose=1,
    patience=10,
    mode='max',
    restore_best_weights=True)
 
 model = make_model()
model.summary()
 
Model: "sequential"
_________________________________________________________________
Layer (type)                 Output Shape              Param #   
=================================================================
dense (Dense)                (None, 16)                480       
_________________________________________________________________
dropout (Dropout)            (None, 16)                0         
_________________________________________________________________
dense_1 (Dense)              (None, 1)                 17        
=================================================================
Total params: 497
Trainable params: 497
Non-trainable params: 0
_________________________________________________________________

Uji coba model:

 model.predict(train_features[:10])
 
array([[0.5788107 ],
       [0.44979692],
       [0.5427961 ],
       [0.5985188 ],
       [0.7758075 ],
       [0.3417888 ],
       [0.39359283],
       [0.5399953 ],
       [0.3551327 ],
       [0.47230086]], dtype=float32)

Opsional: Tetapkan bias awal yang benar.

Tebakan awal ini tidak bagus. Anda tahu dataset tidak seimbang. Atur bias lapisan keluaran untuk mencerminkan hal itu (Lihat: Resep untuk Pelatihan Jaringan Saraf: "init well" ). Ini dapat membantu dengan konvergensi awal.

Dengan inisialisasi default bias, kerugiannya seharusnya tentang math.log(2) = 0.69314

 results = model.evaluate(train_features, train_labels, batch_size=BATCH_SIZE, verbose=0)
print("Loss: {:0.4f}".format(results[0]))
 
Loss: 0.7817

Bias yang benar untuk ditetapkan dapat diturunkan dari:

$$ p_0 = pos / (pos + neg) = 1 / (1 + e ^ {- b_0}) $$
$$ b_0 = -log_e (1 / p_0 - 1) $$
$$ b_0 = log_e (pos / neg) $$
 initial_bias = np.log([pos/neg])
initial_bias
 
array([-6.35935934])

Tetapkan itu sebagai bias awal, dan model akan memberikan tebakan awal yang jauh lebih masuk akal.

Itu harus dekat: pos/total = 0.0018

 model = make_model(output_bias = initial_bias)
model.predict(train_features[:10])
 
array([[0.00093563],
       [0.00187903],
       [0.00109238],
       [0.00117128],
       [0.00134988],
       [0.00090826],
       [0.00099455],
       [0.00154405],
       [0.00100204],
       [0.0004291 ]], dtype=float32)

Dengan inisialisasi ini kerugian awal harus kira-kira:

$$ - p_0log (p_0) - (1-p_0) log (1-p_0) = 0,01317 $$
 results = model.evaluate(train_features, train_labels, batch_size=BATCH_SIZE, verbose=0)
print("Loss: {:0.4f}".format(results[0]))
 
Loss: 0.0146

Kerugian awal ini adalah sekitar 50 kali lebih sedikit dibandingkan dengan inisialisasi naif.

Dengan cara ini model tidak perlu menghabiskan beberapa zaman pertama hanya belajar bahwa contoh-contoh positif tidak mungkin. Ini juga membuatnya lebih mudah untuk membaca plot kehilangan selama pelatihan.

Periksa bobot awal

Untuk membuat berbagai pelatihan berjalan lebih sebanding, simpan bobot model awal ini dalam file pos pemeriksaan, dan muat ke dalam masing-masing model sebelum pelatihan.

 initial_weights = os.path.join(tempfile.mkdtemp(),'initial_weights')
model.save_weights(initial_weights)
 

Konfirmasikan bahwa perbaikan bias membantu

Sebelum melanjutkan, konfirmasi cepat bahwa inisialisasi bias yang cermat benar-benar membantu.

Latih model selama 20 zaman, dengan dan tanpa inisialisasi yang cermat ini, dan bandingkan kerugiannya:

 model = make_model()
model.load_weights(initial_weights)
model.layers[-1].bias.assign([0.0])
zero_bias_history = model.fit(
    train_features,
    train_labels,
    batch_size=BATCH_SIZE,
    epochs=20,
    validation_data=(val_features, val_labels), 
    verbose=0)
 
 model = make_model()
model.load_weights(initial_weights)
careful_bias_history = model.fit(
    train_features,
    train_labels,
    batch_size=BATCH_SIZE,
    epochs=20,
    validation_data=(val_features, val_labels), 
    verbose=0)
 
 def plot_loss(history, label, n):
  # Use a log scale to show the wide range of values.
  plt.semilogy(history.epoch,  history.history['loss'],
               color=colors[n], label='Train '+label)
  plt.semilogy(history.epoch,  history.history['val_loss'],
          color=colors[n], label='Val '+label,
          linestyle="--")
  plt.xlabel('Epoch')
  plt.ylabel('Loss')
  
  plt.legend()
 
 plot_loss(zero_bias_history, "Zero Bias", 0)
plot_loss(careful_bias_history, "Careful Bias", 1)
 

png

Gambar di atas memperjelas: Dalam hal kehilangan validasi, pada masalah ini, inisialisasi yang cermat ini memberikan keuntungan yang jelas.

Latih modelnya

 model = make_model()
model.load_weights(initial_weights)
baseline_history = model.fit(
    train_features,
    train_labels,
    batch_size=BATCH_SIZE,
    epochs=EPOCHS,
    callbacks = [early_stopping],
    validation_data=(val_features, val_labels))
 
Epoch 1/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 13ms/step - loss: 0.0112 - tp: 100.0000 - fp: 25.0000 - tn: 227419.0000 - fn: 301.0000 - accuracy: 0.9986 - precision: 0.8000 - recall: 0.2494 - auc: 0.7615 - val_loss: 0.0067 - val_tp: 15.0000 - val_fp: 2.0000 - val_tn: 45480.0000 - val_fn: 72.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9984 - val_precision: 0.8824 - val_recall: 0.1724 - val_auc: 0.9077
Epoch 2/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0075 - tp: 108.0000 - fp: 24.0000 - tn: 181938.0000 - fn: 206.0000 - accuracy: 0.9987 - precision: 0.8182 - recall: 0.3439 - auc: 0.8491 - val_loss: 0.0046 - val_tp: 45.0000 - val_fp: 6.0000 - val_tn: 45476.0000 - val_fn: 42.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9989 - val_precision: 0.8824 - val_recall: 0.5172 - val_auc: 0.9308
Epoch 3/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0065 - tp: 138.0000 - fp: 27.0000 - tn: 181935.0000 - fn: 176.0000 - accuracy: 0.9989 - precision: 0.8364 - recall: 0.4395 - auc: 0.8567 - val_loss: 0.0040 - val_tp: 54.0000 - val_fp: 7.0000 - val_tn: 45475.0000 - val_fn: 33.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9991 - val_precision: 0.8852 - val_recall: 0.6207 - val_auc: 0.9365
Epoch 4/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0060 - tp: 154.0000 - fp: 33.0000 - tn: 181929.0000 - fn: 160.0000 - accuracy: 0.9989 - precision: 0.8235 - recall: 0.4904 - auc: 0.8848 - val_loss: 0.0037 - val_tp: 61.0000 - val_fp: 8.0000 - val_tn: 45474.0000 - val_fn: 26.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9993 - val_precision: 0.8841 - val_recall: 0.7011 - val_auc: 0.9422
Epoch 5/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0057 - tp: 157.0000 - fp: 36.0000 - tn: 181926.0000 - fn: 157.0000 - accuracy: 0.9989 - precision: 0.8135 - recall: 0.5000 - auc: 0.8982 - val_loss: 0.0035 - val_tp: 62.0000 - val_fp: 8.0000 - val_tn: 45474.0000 - val_fn: 25.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9993 - val_precision: 0.8857 - val_recall: 0.7126 - val_auc: 0.9422
Epoch 6/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0057 - tp: 152.0000 - fp: 32.0000 - tn: 181930.0000 - fn: 162.0000 - accuracy: 0.9989 - precision: 0.8261 - recall: 0.4841 - auc: 0.8934 - val_loss: 0.0033 - val_tp: 65.0000 - val_fp: 8.0000 - val_tn: 45474.0000 - val_fn: 22.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9993 - val_precision: 0.8904 - val_recall: 0.7471 - val_auc: 0.9479
Epoch 7/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0052 - tp: 174.0000 - fp: 30.0000 - tn: 181932.0000 - fn: 140.0000 - accuracy: 0.9991 - precision: 0.8529 - recall: 0.5541 - auc: 0.8983 - val_loss: 0.0032 - val_tp: 66.0000 - val_fp: 8.0000 - val_tn: 45474.0000 - val_fn: 21.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9994 - val_precision: 0.8919 - val_recall: 0.7586 - val_auc: 0.9479
Epoch 8/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0054 - tp: 161.0000 - fp: 32.0000 - tn: 181930.0000 - fn: 153.0000 - accuracy: 0.9990 - precision: 0.8342 - recall: 0.5127 - auc: 0.8983 - val_loss: 0.0031 - val_tp: 66.0000 - val_fp: 8.0000 - val_tn: 45474.0000 - val_fn: 21.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9994 - val_precision: 0.8919 - val_recall: 0.7586 - val_auc: 0.9479
Epoch 9/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0050 - tp: 167.0000 - fp: 37.0000 - tn: 181925.0000 - fn: 147.0000 - accuracy: 0.9990 - precision: 0.8186 - recall: 0.5318 - auc: 0.9064 - val_loss: 0.0030 - val_tp: 65.0000 - val_fp: 8.0000 - val_tn: 45474.0000 - val_fn: 22.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9993 - val_precision: 0.8904 - val_recall: 0.7471 - val_auc: 0.9479
Epoch 10/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0053 - tp: 156.0000 - fp: 34.0000 - tn: 181928.0000 - fn: 158.0000 - accuracy: 0.9989 - precision: 0.8211 - recall: 0.4968 - auc: 0.9046 - val_loss: 0.0029 - val_tp: 67.0000 - val_fp: 8.0000 - val_tn: 45474.0000 - val_fn: 20.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9994 - val_precision: 0.8933 - val_recall: 0.7701 - val_auc: 0.9479
Epoch 11/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0048 - tp: 165.0000 - fp: 32.0000 - tn: 181930.0000 - fn: 149.0000 - accuracy: 0.9990 - precision: 0.8376 - recall: 0.5255 - auc: 0.9063 - val_loss: 0.0029 - val_tp: 68.0000 - val_fp: 8.0000 - val_tn: 45474.0000 - val_fn: 19.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9994 - val_precision: 0.8947 - val_recall: 0.7816 - val_auc: 0.9479
Epoch 12/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0051 - tp: 165.0000 - fp: 35.0000 - tn: 181927.0000 - fn: 149.0000 - accuracy: 0.9990 - precision: 0.8250 - recall: 0.5255 - auc: 0.9110 - val_loss: 0.0028 - val_tp: 67.0000 - val_fp: 8.0000 - val_tn: 45474.0000 - val_fn: 20.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9994 - val_precision: 0.8933 - val_recall: 0.7701 - val_auc: 0.9480
Epoch 13/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0050 - tp: 157.0000 - fp: 29.0000 - tn: 181933.0000 - fn: 157.0000 - accuracy: 0.9990 - precision: 0.8441 - recall: 0.5000 - auc: 0.9031 - val_loss: 0.0028 - val_tp: 69.0000 - val_fp: 8.0000 - val_tn: 45474.0000 - val_fn: 18.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9994 - val_precision: 0.8961 - val_recall: 0.7931 - val_auc: 0.9479
Epoch 14/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0053 - tp: 160.0000 - fp: 35.0000 - tn: 181927.0000 - fn: 154.0000 - accuracy: 0.9990 - precision: 0.8205 - recall: 0.5096 - auc: 0.8934 - val_loss: 0.0027 - val_tp: 69.0000 - val_fp: 8.0000 - val_tn: 45474.0000 - val_fn: 18.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9994 - val_precision: 0.8961 - val_recall: 0.7931 - val_auc: 0.9479
Epoch 15/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0049 - tp: 168.0000 - fp: 36.0000 - tn: 181926.0000 - fn: 146.0000 - accuracy: 0.9990 - precision: 0.8235 - recall: 0.5350 - auc: 0.9031 - val_loss: 0.0027 - val_tp: 68.0000 - val_fp: 8.0000 - val_tn: 45474.0000 - val_fn: 19.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9994 - val_precision: 0.8947 - val_recall: 0.7816 - val_auc: 0.9479
Epoch 16/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 7ms/step - loss: 0.0046 - tp: 169.0000 - fp: 30.0000 - tn: 181932.0000 - fn: 145.0000 - accuracy: 0.9990 - precision: 0.8492 - recall: 0.5382 - auc: 0.9143 - val_loss: 0.0027 - val_tp: 68.0000 - val_fp: 8.0000 - val_tn: 45474.0000 - val_fn: 19.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9994 - val_precision: 0.8947 - val_recall: 0.7816 - val_auc: 0.9537
Epoch 17/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0045 - tp: 181.0000 - fp: 32.0000 - tn: 181930.0000 - fn: 133.0000 - accuracy: 0.9991 - precision: 0.8498 - recall: 0.5764 - auc: 0.9144 - val_loss: 0.0027 - val_tp: 70.0000 - val_fp: 8.0000 - val_tn: 45474.0000 - val_fn: 17.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9995 - val_precision: 0.8974 - val_recall: 0.8046 - val_auc: 0.9537
Epoch 18/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0045 - tp: 181.0000 - fp: 29.0000 - tn: 181933.0000 - fn: 133.0000 - accuracy: 0.9991 - precision: 0.8619 - recall: 0.5764 - auc: 0.9112 - val_loss: 0.0026 - val_tp: 69.0000 - val_fp: 8.0000 - val_tn: 45474.0000 - val_fn: 18.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9994 - val_precision: 0.8961 - val_recall: 0.7931 - val_auc: 0.9537
Epoch 19/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0046 - tp: 172.0000 - fp: 32.0000 - tn: 181930.0000 - fn: 142.0000 - accuracy: 0.9990 - precision: 0.8431 - recall: 0.5478 - auc: 0.9096 - val_loss: 0.0026 - val_tp: 68.0000 - val_fp: 8.0000 - val_tn: 45474.0000 - val_fn: 19.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9994 - val_precision: 0.8947 - val_recall: 0.7816 - val_auc: 0.9537
Epoch 20/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0045 - tp: 177.0000 - fp: 35.0000 - tn: 181927.0000 - fn: 137.0000 - accuracy: 0.9991 - precision: 0.8349 - recall: 0.5637 - auc: 0.9128 - val_loss: 0.0026 - val_tp: 71.0000 - val_fp: 8.0000 - val_tn: 45474.0000 - val_fn: 16.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9995 - val_precision: 0.8987 - val_recall: 0.8161 - val_auc: 0.9537
Epoch 21/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 7ms/step - loss: 0.0045 - tp: 176.0000 - fp: 32.0000 - tn: 181930.0000 - fn: 138.0000 - accuracy: 0.9991 - precision: 0.8462 - recall: 0.5605 - auc: 0.9096 - val_loss: 0.0026 - val_tp: 66.0000 - val_fp: 6.0000 - val_tn: 45476.0000 - val_fn: 21.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9994 - val_precision: 0.9167 - val_recall: 0.7586 - val_auc: 0.9537
Epoch 22/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0047 - tp: 163.0000 - fp: 33.0000 - tn: 181929.0000 - fn: 151.0000 - accuracy: 0.9990 - precision: 0.8316 - recall: 0.5191 - auc: 0.9096 - val_loss: 0.0026 - val_tp: 71.0000 - val_fp: 8.0000 - val_tn: 45474.0000 - val_fn: 16.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9995 - val_precision: 0.8987 - val_recall: 0.8161 - val_auc: 0.9537
Epoch 23/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0046 - tp: 183.0000 - fp: 38.0000 - tn: 181924.0000 - fn: 131.0000 - accuracy: 0.9991 - precision: 0.8281 - recall: 0.5828 - auc: 0.9113 - val_loss: 0.0026 - val_tp: 66.0000 - val_fp: 7.0000 - val_tn: 45475.0000 - val_fn: 21.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9994 - val_precision: 0.9041 - val_recall: 0.7586 - val_auc: 0.9537
Epoch 24/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0045 - tp: 168.0000 - fp: 32.0000 - tn: 181930.0000 - fn: 146.0000 - accuracy: 0.9990 - precision: 0.8400 - recall: 0.5350 - auc: 0.9128 - val_loss: 0.0026 - val_tp: 71.0000 - val_fp: 8.0000 - val_tn: 45474.0000 - val_fn: 16.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9995 - val_precision: 0.8987 - val_recall: 0.8161 - val_auc: 0.9537
Epoch 25/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0042 - tp: 179.0000 - fp: 32.0000 - tn: 181930.0000 - fn: 135.0000 - accuracy: 0.9991 - precision: 0.8483 - recall: 0.5701 - auc: 0.9161 - val_loss: 0.0026 - val_tp: 71.0000 - val_fp: 8.0000 - val_tn: 45474.0000 - val_fn: 16.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9995 - val_precision: 0.8987 - val_recall: 0.8161 - val_auc: 0.9537
Epoch 26/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0045 - tp: 173.0000 - fp: 38.0000 - tn: 181924.0000 - fn: 141.0000 - accuracy: 0.9990 - precision: 0.8199 - recall: 0.5510 - auc: 0.9208 - val_loss: 0.0026 - val_tp: 71.0000 - val_fp: 8.0000 - val_tn: 45474.0000 - val_fn: 16.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9995 - val_precision: 0.8987 - val_recall: 0.8161 - val_auc: 0.9537
Epoch 27/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0045 - tp: 172.0000 - fp: 32.0000 - tn: 181930.0000 - fn: 142.0000 - accuracy: 0.9990 - precision: 0.8431 - recall: 0.5478 - auc: 0.9081 - val_loss: 0.0026 - val_tp: 71.0000 - val_fp: 8.0000 - val_tn: 45474.0000 - val_fn: 16.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9995 - val_precision: 0.8987 - val_recall: 0.8161 - val_auc: 0.9537
Epoch 28/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0044 - tp: 181.0000 - fp: 39.0000 - tn: 181923.0000 - fn: 133.0000 - accuracy: 0.9991 - precision: 0.8227 - recall: 0.5764 - auc: 0.9193 - val_loss: 0.0025 - val_tp: 68.0000 - val_fp: 6.0000 - val_tn: 45476.0000 - val_fn: 19.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9995 - val_precision: 0.9189 - val_recall: 0.7816 - val_auc: 0.9537
Epoch 29/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0042 - tp: 177.0000 - fp: 38.0000 - tn: 181924.0000 - fn: 137.0000 - accuracy: 0.9990 - precision: 0.8233 - recall: 0.5637 - auc: 0.9305 - val_loss: 0.0025 - val_tp: 67.0000 - val_fp: 7.0000 - val_tn: 45475.0000 - val_fn: 20.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9994 - val_precision: 0.9054 - val_recall: 0.7701 - val_auc: 0.9538
Epoch 30/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0045 - tp: 168.0000 - fp: 31.0000 - tn: 181931.0000 - fn: 146.0000 - accuracy: 0.9990 - precision: 0.8442 - recall: 0.5350 - auc: 0.9161 - val_loss: 0.0025 - val_tp: 69.0000 - val_fp: 6.0000 - val_tn: 45476.0000 - val_fn: 18.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9995 - val_precision: 0.9200 - val_recall: 0.7931 - val_auc: 0.9537
Epoch 31/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0045 - tp: 172.0000 - fp: 35.0000 - tn: 181927.0000 - fn: 142.0000 - accuracy: 0.9990 - precision: 0.8309 - recall: 0.5478 - auc: 0.9176 - val_loss: 0.0025 - val_tp: 71.0000 - val_fp: 8.0000 - val_tn: 45474.0000 - val_fn: 16.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9995 - val_precision: 0.8987 - val_recall: 0.8161 - val_auc: 0.9538
Epoch 32/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0040 - tp: 188.0000 - fp: 33.0000 - tn: 181929.0000 - fn: 126.0000 - accuracy: 0.9991 - precision: 0.8507 - recall: 0.5987 - auc: 0.9162 - val_loss: 0.0025 - val_tp: 70.0000 - val_fp: 7.0000 - val_tn: 45475.0000 - val_fn: 17.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9995 - val_precision: 0.9091 - val_recall: 0.8046 - val_auc: 0.9538
Epoch 33/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0041 - tp: 184.0000 - fp: 27.0000 - tn: 181935.0000 - fn: 130.0000 - accuracy: 0.9991 - precision: 0.8720 - recall: 0.5860 - auc: 0.9225 - val_loss: 0.0025 - val_tp: 72.0000 - val_fp: 8.0000 - val_tn: 45474.0000 - val_fn: 15.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9995 - val_precision: 0.9000 - val_recall: 0.8276 - val_auc: 0.9537
Epoch 34/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0041 - tp: 185.0000 - fp: 33.0000 - tn: 181929.0000 - fn: 129.0000 - accuracy: 0.9991 - precision: 0.8486 - recall: 0.5892 - auc: 0.9273 - val_loss: 0.0025 - val_tp: 71.0000 - val_fp: 8.0000 - val_tn: 45474.0000 - val_fn: 16.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9995 - val_precision: 0.8987 - val_recall: 0.8161 - val_auc: 0.9537
Epoch 35/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0044 - tp: 178.0000 - fp: 36.0000 - tn: 181926.0000 - fn: 136.0000 - accuracy: 0.9991 - precision: 0.8318 - recall: 0.5669 - auc: 0.9160 - val_loss: 0.0025 - val_tp: 71.0000 - val_fp: 8.0000 - val_tn: 45474.0000 - val_fn: 16.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9995 - val_precision: 0.8987 - val_recall: 0.8161 - val_auc: 0.9537
Epoch 36/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0045 - tp: 171.0000 - fp: 33.0000 - tn: 181929.0000 - fn: 143.0000 - accuracy: 0.9990 - precision: 0.8382 - recall: 0.5446 - auc: 0.9192 - val_loss: 0.0025 - val_tp: 71.0000 - val_fp: 8.0000 - val_tn: 45474.0000 - val_fn: 16.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9995 - val_precision: 0.8987 - val_recall: 0.8161 - val_auc: 0.9538
Epoch 37/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0042 - tp: 189.0000 - fp: 35.0000 - tn: 181927.0000 - fn: 125.0000 - accuracy: 0.9991 - precision: 0.8438 - recall: 0.6019 - auc: 0.9242 - val_loss: 0.0025 - val_tp: 69.0000 - val_fp: 6.0000 - val_tn: 45476.0000 - val_fn: 18.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9995 - val_precision: 0.9200 - val_recall: 0.7931 - val_auc: 0.9538
Epoch 38/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0041 - tp: 185.0000 - fp: 25.0000 - tn: 181937.0000 - fn: 129.0000 - accuracy: 0.9992 - precision: 0.8810 - recall: 0.5892 - auc: 0.9176 - val_loss: 0.0025 - val_tp: 71.0000 - val_fp: 8.0000 - val_tn: 45474.0000 - val_fn: 16.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9995 - val_precision: 0.8987 - val_recall: 0.8161 - val_auc: 0.9537
Epoch 39/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0043 - tp: 181.0000 - fp: 35.0000 - tn: 181927.0000 - fn: 133.0000 - accuracy: 0.9991 - precision: 0.8380 - recall: 0.5764 - auc: 0.9225 - val_loss: 0.0025 - val_tp: 68.0000 - val_fp: 6.0000 - val_tn: 45476.0000 - val_fn: 19.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9995 - val_precision: 0.9189 - val_recall: 0.7816 - val_auc: 0.9538
Epoch 40/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0043 - tp: 175.0000 - fp: 30.0000 - tn: 181932.0000 - fn: 139.0000 - accuracy: 0.9991 - precision: 0.8537 - recall: 0.5573 - auc: 0.9209 - val_loss: 0.0025 - val_tp: 69.0000 - val_fp: 6.0000 - val_tn: 45476.0000 - val_fn: 18.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9995 - val_precision: 0.9200 - val_recall: 0.7931 - val_auc: 0.9538
Epoch 41/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0041 - tp: 180.0000 - fp: 32.0000 - tn: 181930.0000 - fn: 134.0000 - accuracy: 0.9991 - precision: 0.8491 - recall: 0.5732 - auc: 0.9320 - val_loss: 0.0025 - val_tp: 71.0000 - val_fp: 8.0000 - val_tn: 45474.0000 - val_fn: 16.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9995 - val_precision: 0.8987 - val_recall: 0.8161 - val_auc: 0.9537
Epoch 42/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0040 - tp: 188.0000 - fp: 34.0000 - tn: 181928.0000 - fn: 126.0000 - accuracy: 0.9991 - precision: 0.8468 - recall: 0.5987 - auc: 0.9209 - val_loss: 0.0025 - val_tp: 71.0000 - val_fp: 8.0000 - val_tn: 45474.0000 - val_fn: 16.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9995 - val_precision: 0.8987 - val_recall: 0.8161 - val_auc: 0.9538
Epoch 43/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0043 - tp: 176.0000 - fp: 33.0000 - tn: 181929.0000 - fn: 138.0000 - accuracy: 0.9991 - precision: 0.8421 - recall: 0.5605 - auc: 0.9225 - val_loss: 0.0025 - val_tp: 69.0000 - val_fp: 6.0000 - val_tn: 45476.0000 - val_fn: 18.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9995 - val_precision: 0.9200 - val_recall: 0.7931 - val_auc: 0.9538
Epoch 44/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0042 - tp: 172.0000 - fp: 37.0000 - tn: 181925.0000 - fn: 142.0000 - accuracy: 0.9990 - precision: 0.8230 - recall: 0.5478 - auc: 0.9129 - val_loss: 0.0025 - val_tp: 69.0000 - val_fp: 7.0000 - val_tn: 45475.0000 - val_fn: 18.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9995 - val_precision: 0.9079 - val_recall: 0.7931 - val_auc: 0.9537
Epoch 45/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0043 - tp: 175.0000 - fp: 36.0000 - tn: 181926.0000 - fn: 139.0000 - accuracy: 0.9990 - precision: 0.8294 - recall: 0.5573 - auc: 0.9368 - val_loss: 0.0025 - val_tp: 69.0000 - val_fp: 7.0000 - val_tn: 45475.0000 - val_fn: 18.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9995 - val_precision: 0.9079 - val_recall: 0.7931 - val_auc: 0.9537
Epoch 46/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0043 - tp: 176.0000 - fp: 33.0000 - tn: 181929.0000 - fn: 138.0000 - accuracy: 0.9991 - precision: 0.8421 - recall: 0.5605 - auc: 0.9240 - val_loss: 0.0025 - val_tp: 69.0000 - val_fp: 7.0000 - val_tn: 45475.0000 - val_fn: 18.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9995 - val_precision: 0.9079 - val_recall: 0.7931 - val_auc: 0.9538
Epoch 47/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0039 - tp: 178.0000 - fp: 27.0000 - tn: 181935.0000 - fn: 136.0000 - accuracy: 0.9991 - precision: 0.8683 - recall: 0.5669 - auc: 0.9273 - val_loss: 0.0025 - val_tp: 72.0000 - val_fp: 8.0000 - val_tn: 45474.0000 - val_fn: 15.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9995 - val_precision: 0.9000 - val_recall: 0.8276 - val_auc: 0.9537
Epoch 48/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0039 - tp: 198.0000 - fp: 34.0000 - tn: 181928.0000 - fn: 116.0000 - accuracy: 0.9992 - precision: 0.8534 - recall: 0.6306 - auc: 0.9256 - val_loss: 0.0025 - val_tp: 68.0000 - val_fp: 5.0000 - val_tn: 45477.0000 - val_fn: 19.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9995 - val_precision: 0.9315 - val_recall: 0.7816 - val_auc: 0.9538
Epoch 49/100
85/90 [===========================>..] - ETA: 0s - loss: 0.0043 - tp: 162.0000 - fp: 29.0000 - tn: 173750.0000 - fn: 139.0000 - accuracy: 0.9990 - precision: 0.8482 - recall: 0.5382 - auc: 0.9157Restoring model weights from the end of the best epoch.
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.0042 - tp: 171.0000 - fp: 30.0000 - tn: 181932.0000 - fn: 143.0000 - accuracy: 0.9991 - precision: 0.8507 - recall: 0.5446 - auc: 0.9191 - val_loss: 0.0024 - val_tp: 69.0000 - val_fp: 6.0000 - val_tn: 45476.0000 - val_fn: 18.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9995 - val_precision: 0.9200 - val_recall: 0.7931 - val_auc: 0.9537
Epoch 00049: early stopping

Periksa riwayat pelatihan

Di bagian ini, Anda akan menghasilkan plot akurasi dan kehilangan model Anda pada set pelatihan dan validasi. Ini berguna untuk memeriksa overfitting, yang dapat Anda pelajari lebih lanjut dalam tutorial ini.

Selain itu, Anda dapat membuat plot ini untuk semua metrik yang Anda buat di atas. Negatif palsu dimasukkan sebagai contoh.

 def plot_metrics(history):
  metrics =  ['loss', 'auc', 'precision', 'recall']
  for n, metric in enumerate(metrics):
    name = metric.replace("_"," ").capitalize()
    plt.subplot(2,2,n+1)
    plt.plot(history.epoch,  history.history[metric], color=colors[0], label='Train')
    plt.plot(history.epoch, history.history['val_'+metric],
             color=colors[0], linestyle="--", label='Val')
    plt.xlabel('Epoch')
    plt.ylabel(name)
    if metric == 'loss':
      plt.ylim([0, plt.ylim()[1]])
    elif metric == 'auc':
      plt.ylim([0.8,1])
    else:
      plt.ylim([0,1])

    plt.legend()

 
 plot_metrics(baseline_history)
 

png

Evaluasi metrik

Anda dapat menggunakan matriks kebingungan untuk meringkas label yang sebenarnya vs yang diprediksi di mana sumbu X adalah label yang diprediksi dan sumbu Y adalah label yang sebenarnya.

 train_predictions_baseline = model.predict(train_features, batch_size=BATCH_SIZE)
test_predictions_baseline = model.predict(test_features, batch_size=BATCH_SIZE)
 
 def plot_cm(labels, predictions, p=0.5):
  cm = confusion_matrix(labels, predictions > p)
  plt.figure(figsize=(5,5))
  sns.heatmap(cm, annot=True, fmt="d")
  plt.title('Confusion matrix @{:.2f}'.format(p))
  plt.ylabel('Actual label')
  plt.xlabel('Predicted label')

  print('Legitimate Transactions Detected (True Negatives): ', cm[0][0])
  print('Legitimate Transactions Incorrectly Detected (False Positives): ', cm[0][1])
  print('Fraudulent Transactions Missed (False Negatives): ', cm[1][0])
  print('Fraudulent Transactions Detected (True Positives): ', cm[1][1])
  print('Total Fraudulent Transactions: ', np.sum(cm[1]))
 

Evaluasilah model Anda pada set data uji dan tampilkan hasilnya untuk metrik yang Anda buat di atas.

 baseline_results = model.evaluate(test_features, test_labels,
                                  batch_size=BATCH_SIZE, verbose=0)
for name, value in zip(model.metrics_names, baseline_results):
  print(name, ': ', value)
print()

plot_cm(test_labels, test_predictions_baseline)
 
loss :  0.002310588490217924
tp :  69.0
fp :  5.0
tn :  56866.0
fn :  22.0
accuracy :  0.9995260238647461
precision :  0.9324324131011963
recall :  0.7582417726516724
auc :  0.9557874202728271

Legitimate Transactions Detected (True Negatives):  56866
Legitimate Transactions Incorrectly Detected (False Positives):  5
Fraudulent Transactions Missed (False Negatives):  22
Fraudulent Transactions Detected (True Positives):  69
Total Fraudulent Transactions:  91

png

Jika model telah memprediksi semuanya dengan sempurna, ini akan menjadi matriks diagonal di mana nilai dari diagonal utama, menunjukkan prediksi yang salah, akan menjadi nol. Dalam kasus ini, matriks menunjukkan bahwa Anda memiliki relatif sedikit kesalahan positif, yang berarti bahwa ada beberapa transaksi yang sah yang ditandai dengan salah. Namun, Anda mungkin ingin memiliki lebih sedikit negatif palsu meskipun ada biaya untuk meningkatkan jumlah positif palsu. Pertukaran ini mungkin lebih disukai karena negatif palsu akan memungkinkan transaksi penipuan untuk dilalui, sedangkan positif palsu dapat menyebabkan email dikirim ke pelanggan untuk meminta mereka memverifikasi aktivitas kartu mereka.

Plot ROC

Sekarang plot ROC . Plot ini berguna karena memperlihatkan, sekilas, kisaran kinerja yang dapat dicapai model hanya dengan menyetel ambang output.

 def plot_roc(name, labels, predictions, **kwargs):
  fp, tp, _ = sklearn.metrics.roc_curve(labels, predictions)

  plt.plot(100*fp, 100*tp, label=name, linewidth=2, **kwargs)
  plt.xlabel('False positives [%]')
  plt.ylabel('True positives [%]')
  plt.xlim([-0.5,20])
  plt.ylim([80,100.5])
  plt.grid(True)
  ax = plt.gca()
  ax.set_aspect('equal')
 
 plot_roc("Train Baseline", train_labels, train_predictions_baseline, color=colors[0])
plot_roc("Test Baseline", test_labels, test_predictions_baseline, color=colors[0], linestyle='--')
plt.legend(loc='lower right')
 
<matplotlib.legend.Legend at 0x7fa50c5adef0>

png

Sepertinya presisi relatif tinggi, tetapi daya ingat dan area di bawah kurva ROC (AUC) tidak setinggi yang Anda inginkan. Pengklasifikasi sering menghadapi tantangan ketika mencoba memaksimalkan ketepatan dan daya ingat, yang terutama benar ketika bekerja dengan dataset yang tidak seimbang. Penting untuk mempertimbangkan biaya dari berbagai jenis kesalahan dalam konteks masalah yang Anda pedulikan. Dalam contoh ini, negatif palsu (transaksi penipuan dilewatkan) mungkin memiliki biaya keuangan, sedangkan positif palsu (transaksi salah ditandai sebagai penipuan) dapat menurunkan kebahagiaan pengguna.

Bobot kelas

Hitung bobot kelas

Tujuannya adalah untuk mengidentifikasi transaksi penipuan, tetapi Anda tidak memiliki sampel positif yang sangat banyak untuk dikerjakan, sehingga Anda ingin memiliki penggolong berat yang memberatkan beberapa contoh yang tersedia. Anda dapat melakukan ini dengan melewatkan bobot Keras untuk setiap kelas melalui parameter. Ini akan menyebabkan model "lebih memperhatikan" contoh-contoh dari kelas yang kurang terwakili.

 # Scaling by total/2 helps keep the loss to a similar magnitude.
# The sum of the weights of all examples stays the same.
weight_for_0 = (1 / neg)*(total)/2.0 
weight_for_1 = (1 / pos)*(total)/2.0

class_weight = {0: weight_for_0, 1: weight_for_1}

print('Weight for class 0: {:.2f}'.format(weight_for_0))
print('Weight for class 1: {:.2f}'.format(weight_for_1))
 
Weight for class 0: 0.50
Weight for class 1: 289.44

Latih model dengan bobot kelas

Sekarang coba pelatihan ulang dan evaluasi model dengan bobot kelas untuk melihat bagaimana hal itu memengaruhi prediksi.

 weighted_model = make_model()
weighted_model.load_weights(initial_weights)

weighted_history = weighted_model.fit(
    train_features,
    train_labels,
    batch_size=BATCH_SIZE,
    epochs=EPOCHS,
    callbacks = [early_stopping],
    validation_data=(val_features, val_labels),
    # The class weights go here
    class_weight=class_weight) 
 
Epoch 1/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 15ms/step - loss: 2.5149 - tp: 105.0000 - fp: 66.0000 - tn: 238767.0000 - fn: 300.0000 - accuracy: 0.9985 - precision: 0.6140 - recall: 0.2593 - auc: 0.7803 - val_loss: 0.0067 - val_tp: 25.0000 - val_fp: 6.0000 - val_tn: 45476.0000 - val_fn: 62.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9985 - val_precision: 0.8065 - val_recall: 0.2874 - val_auc: 0.9211
Epoch 2/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 1.2482 - tp: 145.0000 - fp: 124.0000 - tn: 181838.0000 - fn: 169.0000 - accuracy: 0.9984 - precision: 0.5390 - recall: 0.4618 - auc: 0.8560 - val_loss: 0.0062 - val_tp: 68.0000 - val_fp: 12.0000 - val_tn: 45470.0000 - val_fn: 19.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9993 - val_precision: 0.8500 - val_recall: 0.7816 - val_auc: 0.9408
Epoch 3/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.8972 - tp: 177.0000 - fp: 237.0000 - tn: 181725.0000 - fn: 137.0000 - accuracy: 0.9979 - precision: 0.4275 - recall: 0.5637 - auc: 0.8876 - val_loss: 0.0079 - val_tp: 73.0000 - val_fp: 16.0000 - val_tn: 45466.0000 - val_fn: 14.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9993 - val_precision: 0.8202 - val_recall: 0.8391 - val_auc: 0.9518
Epoch 4/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.6983 - tp: 210.0000 - fp: 387.0000 - tn: 181575.0000 - fn: 104.0000 - accuracy: 0.9973 - precision: 0.3518 - recall: 0.6688 - auc: 0.9028 - val_loss: 0.0098 - val_tp: 74.0000 - val_fp: 19.0000 - val_tn: 45463.0000 - val_fn: 13.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9993 - val_precision: 0.7957 - val_recall: 0.8506 - val_auc: 0.9600
Epoch 5/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.6417 - tp: 220.0000 - fp: 583.0000 - tn: 181379.0000 - fn: 94.0000 - accuracy: 0.9963 - precision: 0.2740 - recall: 0.7006 - auc: 0.9084 - val_loss: 0.0119 - val_tp: 74.0000 - val_fp: 25.0000 - val_tn: 45457.0000 - val_fn: 13.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9992 - val_precision: 0.7475 - val_recall: 0.8506 - val_auc: 0.9777
Epoch 6/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.5846 - tp: 232.0000 - fp: 977.0000 - tn: 180985.0000 - fn: 82.0000 - accuracy: 0.9942 - precision: 0.1919 - recall: 0.7389 - auc: 0.9048 - val_loss: 0.0148 - val_tp: 74.0000 - val_fp: 34.0000 - val_tn: 45448.0000 - val_fn: 13.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9990 - val_precision: 0.6852 - val_recall: 0.8506 - val_auc: 0.9802
Epoch 7/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.5404 - tp: 234.0000 - fp: 1464.0000 - tn: 180498.0000 - fn: 80.0000 - accuracy: 0.9915 - precision: 0.1378 - recall: 0.7452 - auc: 0.9190 - val_loss: 0.0183 - val_tp: 74.0000 - val_fp: 50.0000 - val_tn: 45432.0000 - val_fn: 13.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9986 - val_precision: 0.5968 - val_recall: 0.8506 - val_auc: 0.9823
Epoch 8/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.4714 - tp: 241.0000 - fp: 1862.0000 - tn: 180100.0000 - fn: 73.0000 - accuracy: 0.9894 - precision: 0.1146 - recall: 0.7675 - auc: 0.9252 - val_loss: 0.0225 - val_tp: 76.0000 - val_fp: 84.0000 - val_tn: 45398.0000 - val_fn: 11.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9979 - val_precision: 0.4750 - val_recall: 0.8736 - val_auc: 0.9851
Epoch 9/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.4329 - tp: 247.0000 - fp: 2508.0000 - tn: 179454.0000 - fn: 67.0000 - accuracy: 0.9859 - precision: 0.0897 - recall: 0.7866 - auc: 0.9345 - val_loss: 0.0282 - val_tp: 76.0000 - val_fp: 170.0000 - val_tn: 45312.0000 - val_fn: 11.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9960 - val_precision: 0.3089 - val_recall: 0.8736 - val_auc: 0.9873
Epoch 10/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.4467 - tp: 249.0000 - fp: 3175.0000 - tn: 178787.0000 - fn: 65.0000 - accuracy: 0.9822 - precision: 0.0727 - recall: 0.7930 - auc: 0.9210 - val_loss: 0.0341 - val_tp: 78.0000 - val_fp: 282.0000 - val_tn: 45200.0000 - val_fn: 9.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9936 - val_precision: 0.2167 - val_recall: 0.8966 - val_auc: 0.9881
Epoch 11/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.3947 - tp: 260.0000 - fp: 3569.0000 - tn: 178393.0000 - fn: 54.0000 - accuracy: 0.9801 - precision: 0.0679 - recall: 0.8280 - auc: 0.9290 - val_loss: 0.0394 - val_tp: 78.0000 - val_fp: 346.0000 - val_tn: 45136.0000 - val_fn: 9.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9922 - val_precision: 0.1840 - val_recall: 0.8966 - val_auc: 0.9877
Epoch 12/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.3694 - tp: 257.0000 - fp: 4294.0000 - tn: 177668.0000 - fn: 57.0000 - accuracy: 0.9761 - precision: 0.0565 - recall: 0.8185 - auc: 0.9418 - val_loss: 0.0473 - val_tp: 78.0000 - val_fp: 504.0000 - val_tn: 44978.0000 - val_fn: 9.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9887 - val_precision: 0.1340 - val_recall: 0.8966 - val_auc: 0.9879
Epoch 13/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.3479 - tp: 262.0000 - fp: 4886.0000 - tn: 177076.0000 - fn: 52.0000 - accuracy: 0.9729 - precision: 0.0509 - recall: 0.8344 - auc: 0.9403 - val_loss: 0.0539 - val_tp: 78.0000 - val_fp: 586.0000 - val_tn: 44896.0000 - val_fn: 9.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9869 - val_precision: 0.1175 - val_recall: 0.8966 - val_auc: 0.9881
Epoch 14/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.3653 - tp: 263.0000 - fp: 5360.0000 - tn: 176602.0000 - fn: 51.0000 - accuracy: 0.9703 - precision: 0.0468 - recall: 0.8376 - auc: 0.9370 - val_loss: 0.0610 - val_tp: 78.0000 - val_fp: 664.0000 - val_tn: 44818.0000 - val_fn: 9.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9852 - val_precision: 0.1051 - val_recall: 0.8966 - val_auc: 0.9876
Epoch 15/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.3673 - tp: 262.0000 - fp: 5820.0000 - tn: 176142.0000 - fn: 52.0000 - accuracy: 0.9678 - precision: 0.0431 - recall: 0.8344 - auc: 0.9316 - val_loss: 0.0658 - val_tp: 78.0000 - val_fp: 715.0000 - val_tn: 44767.0000 - val_fn: 9.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9841 - val_precision: 0.0984 - val_recall: 0.8966 - val_auc: 0.9877
Epoch 16/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.3228 - tp: 262.0000 - fp: 6230.0000 - tn: 175732.0000 - fn: 52.0000 - accuracy: 0.9655 - precision: 0.0404 - recall: 0.8344 - auc: 0.9445 - val_loss: 0.0716 - val_tp: 79.0000 - val_fp: 805.0000 - val_tn: 44677.0000 - val_fn: 8.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9822 - val_precision: 0.0894 - val_recall: 0.9080 - val_auc: 0.9877
Epoch 17/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.3299 - tp: 268.0000 - fp: 6572.0000 - tn: 175390.0000 - fn: 46.0000 - accuracy: 0.9637 - precision: 0.0392 - recall: 0.8535 - auc: 0.9423 - val_loss: 0.0757 - val_tp: 81.0000 - val_fp: 846.0000 - val_tn: 44636.0000 - val_fn: 6.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9813 - val_precision: 0.0874 - val_recall: 0.9310 - val_auc: 0.9878
Epoch 18/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.2522 - tp: 276.0000 - fp: 6934.0000 - tn: 175028.0000 - fn: 38.0000 - accuracy: 0.9618 - precision: 0.0383 - recall: 0.8790 - auc: 0.9610 - val_loss: 0.0779 - val_tp: 81.0000 - val_fp: 874.0000 - val_tn: 44608.0000 - val_fn: 6.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9807 - val_precision: 0.0848 - val_recall: 0.9310 - val_auc: 0.9877
Epoch 19/100
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.3607 - tp: 264.0000 - fp: 6790.0000 - tn: 175172.0000 - fn: 50.0000 - accuracy: 0.9625 - precision: 0.0374 - recall: 0.8408 - auc: 0.9303 - val_loss: 0.0781 - val_tp: 81.0000 - val_fp: 865.0000 - val_tn: 44617.0000 - val_fn: 6.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9809 - val_precision: 0.0856 - val_recall: 0.9310 - val_auc: 0.9879
Epoch 20/100
89/90 [============================>.] - ETA: 0s - loss: 0.2977 - tp: 269.0000 - fp: 6769.0000 - tn: 175189.0000 - fn: 45.0000 - accuracy: 0.9626 - precision: 0.0382 - recall: 0.8567 - auc: 0.9488Restoring model weights from the end of the best epoch.
90/90 [==============================] - 1s 6ms/step - loss: 0.2977 - tp: 269.0000 - fp: 6769.0000 - tn: 175193.0000 - fn: 45.0000 - accuracy: 0.9626 - precision: 0.0382 - recall: 0.8567 - auc: 0.9488 - val_loss: 0.0780 - val_tp: 81.0000 - val_fp: 853.0000 - val_tn: 44629.0000 - val_fn: 6.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9811 - val_precision: 0.0867 - val_recall: 0.9310 - val_auc: 0.9879
Epoch 00020: early stopping

Periksa riwayat pelatihan

 plot_metrics(weighted_history)
 

png

Evaluasi metrik

 train_predictions_weighted = weighted_model.predict(train_features, batch_size=BATCH_SIZE)
test_predictions_weighted = weighted_model.predict(test_features, batch_size=BATCH_SIZE)
 
 weighted_results = weighted_model.evaluate(test_features, test_labels,
                                           batch_size=BATCH_SIZE, verbose=0)
for name, value in zip(weighted_model.metrics_names, weighted_results):
  print(name, ': ', value)
print()

plot_cm(test_labels, test_predictions_weighted)
 
loss :  0.03226418048143387
tp :  82.0
fp :  352.0
tn :  56519.0
fn :  9.0
accuracy :  0.993662416934967
precision :  0.18894009292125702
recall :  0.901098906993866
auc :  0.9671803712844849

Legitimate Transactions Detected (True Negatives):  56519
Legitimate Transactions Incorrectly Detected (False Positives):  352
Fraudulent Transactions Missed (False Negatives):  9
Fraudulent Transactions Detected (True Positives):  82
Total Fraudulent Transactions:  91

png

Di sini Anda dapat melihat bahwa dengan bobot kelas akurasi dan presisi lebih rendah karena ada lebih banyak false positive, tetapi sebaliknya recall dan AUC lebih tinggi karena model tersebut juga menemukan lebih banyak positive positive. Meskipun memiliki akurasi yang lebih rendah, model ini memiliki daya ingat yang lebih tinggi (dan mengidentifikasi lebih banyak transaksi penipuan). Tentu saja, ada biaya untuk kedua jenis kesalahan (Anda tidak ingin mengganggu pengguna dengan menandai terlalu banyak transaksi yang sah sebagai penipuan, juga). Pertimbangkan dengan hati-hati kompromi di antara berbagai jenis kesalahan ini untuk aplikasi Anda.

Plot ROC

 plot_roc("Train Baseline", train_labels, train_predictions_baseline, color=colors[0])
plot_roc("Test Baseline", test_labels, test_predictions_baseline, color=colors[0], linestyle='--')

plot_roc("Train Weighted", train_labels, train_predictions_weighted, color=colors[1])
plot_roc("Test Weighted", test_labels, test_predictions_weighted, color=colors[1], linestyle='--')


plt.legend(loc='lower right')
 
<matplotlib.legend.Legend at 0x7fa54c0729e8>

png

Oversampling

Mengabaikan kelas minoritas

Pendekatan yang terkait adalah dengan menguji ulang dataset dengan melakukan oversampling pada kelas minoritas.

 pos_features = train_features[bool_train_labels]
neg_features = train_features[~bool_train_labels]

pos_labels = train_labels[bool_train_labels]
neg_labels = train_labels[~bool_train_labels]
 

Menggunakan NumPy

Anda dapat menyeimbangkan dataset secara manual dengan memilih jumlah indeks acak yang tepat dari contoh positif:

 ids = np.arange(len(pos_features))
choices = np.random.choice(ids, len(neg_features))

res_pos_features = pos_features[choices]
res_pos_labels = pos_labels[choices]

res_pos_features.shape
 
(181962, 29)
 resampled_features = np.concatenate([res_pos_features, neg_features], axis=0)
resampled_labels = np.concatenate([res_pos_labels, neg_labels], axis=0)

order = np.arange(len(resampled_labels))
np.random.shuffle(order)
resampled_features = resampled_features[order]
resampled_labels = resampled_labels[order]

resampled_features.shape
 
(363924, 29)

Menggunakan tf.data

Jika Anda menggunakan tf.data cara termudah untuk menghasilkan contoh-contoh yang seimbang adalah mulai dengan dataset positive dan negative , dan menggabungkannya. Lihat panduan tf.data untuk lebih banyak contoh.

 BUFFER_SIZE = 100000

def make_ds(features, labels):
  ds = tf.data.Dataset.from_tensor_slices((features, labels))#.cache()
  ds = ds.shuffle(BUFFER_SIZE).repeat()
  return ds

pos_ds = make_ds(pos_features, pos_labels)
neg_ds = make_ds(neg_features, neg_labels)
 

Setiap dataset menyediakan pasangan (feature, label) :

 for features, label in pos_ds.take(1):
  print("Features:\n", features.numpy())
  print()
  print("Label: ", label.numpy())
 
Features:
 [ 0.23104754  0.83661044 -0.31875356  1.9796369   1.28403692  0.07389102
  1.03350673 -0.11568355 -1.54396817  0.88004244 -1.66944551 -0.24324391
  0.45900013  0.14583622 -2.06637388  0.42470592 -0.94489216 -0.83112221
 -1.83416278 -0.34138858  0.14130878  0.51019975  0.08224586  0.6642136
 -1.39031637 -0.42194185  0.22525572  0.28277796 -4.86369823]

Label:  1

Gabungkan keduanya menggunakan experimental.sample_from_datasets :

 resampled_ds = tf.data.experimental.sample_from_datasets([pos_ds, neg_ds], weights=[0.5, 0.5])
resampled_ds = resampled_ds.batch(BATCH_SIZE).prefetch(2)
 
 for features, label in resampled_ds.take(1):
  print(label.numpy().mean())
 
0.49609375

Untuk menggunakan dataset ini, Anda membutuhkan jumlah langkah per zaman.

Definisi "zaman" dalam hal ini kurang jelas. Katakan itu jumlah kumpulan yang diperlukan untuk melihat setiap contoh negatif satu kali:

 resampled_steps_per_epoch = np.ceil(2.0*neg/BATCH_SIZE)
resampled_steps_per_epoch
 
278.0

Melatih data yang terlalu banyak

Sekarang coba latih model dengan set data yang disampel alih-alih menggunakan bobot kelas untuk melihat bagaimana metode ini dibandingkan.

 resampled_model = make_model()
resampled_model.load_weights(initial_weights)

# Reset the bias to zero, since this dataset is balanced.
output_layer = resampled_model.layers[-1] 
output_layer.bias.assign([0])

val_ds = tf.data.Dataset.from_tensor_slices((val_features, val_labels)).cache()
val_ds = val_ds.batch(BATCH_SIZE).prefetch(2) 

resampled_history = resampled_model.fit(
    resampled_ds,
    epochs=EPOCHS,
    steps_per_epoch=resampled_steps_per_epoch,
    callbacks = [early_stopping],
    validation_data=val_ds)
 
Epoch 1/100
278/278 [==============================] - 6s 23ms/step - loss: 0.4356 - tp: 223484.0000 - fp: 51288.0000 - tn: 290777.0000 - fn: 60757.0000 - accuracy: 0.8211 - precision: 0.8133 - recall: 0.7862 - auc: 0.8933 - val_loss: 0.2172 - val_tp: 79.0000 - val_fp: 1076.0000 - val_tn: 44406.0000 - val_fn: 8.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9762 - val_precision: 0.0684 - val_recall: 0.9080 - val_auc: 0.9792
Epoch 2/100
278/278 [==============================] - 6s 20ms/step - loss: 0.2177 - tp: 246785.0000 - fp: 12557.0000 - tn: 271871.0000 - fn: 38131.0000 - accuracy: 0.9110 - precision: 0.9516 - recall: 0.8662 - auc: 0.9686 - val_loss: 0.1226 - val_tp: 80.0000 - val_fp: 951.0000 - val_tn: 44531.0000 - val_fn: 7.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9790 - val_precision: 0.0776 - val_recall: 0.9195 - val_auc: 0.9835
Epoch 3/100
278/278 [==============================] - 6s 21ms/step - loss: 0.1751 - tp: 250631.0000 - fp: 9797.0000 - tn: 275174.0000 - fn: 33742.0000 - accuracy: 0.9235 - precision: 0.9624 - recall: 0.8813 - auc: 0.9810 - val_loss: 0.0940 - val_tp: 82.0000 - val_fp: 966.0000 - val_tn: 44516.0000 - val_fn: 5.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9787 - val_precision: 0.0782 - val_recall: 0.9425 - val_auc: 0.9836
Epoch 4/100
278/278 [==============================] - 6s 22ms/step - loss: 0.1532 - tp: 254169.0000 - fp: 9171.0000 - tn: 275694.0000 - fn: 30310.0000 - accuracy: 0.9307 - precision: 0.9652 - recall: 0.8935 - auc: 0.9861 - val_loss: 0.0802 - val_tp: 82.0000 - val_fp: 918.0000 - val_tn: 44564.0000 - val_fn: 5.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9797 - val_precision: 0.0820 - val_recall: 0.9425 - val_auc: 0.9847
Epoch 5/100
278/278 [==============================] - 6s 22ms/step - loss: 0.1372 - tp: 257034.0000 - fp: 9061.0000 - tn: 275758.0000 - fn: 27491.0000 - accuracy: 0.9358 - precision: 0.9659 - recall: 0.9034 - auc: 0.9892 - val_loss: 0.0720 - val_tp: 82.0000 - val_fp: 910.0000 - val_tn: 44572.0000 - val_fn: 5.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9799 - val_precision: 0.0827 - val_recall: 0.9425 - val_auc: 0.9854
Epoch 6/100
278/278 [==============================] - 6s 22ms/step - loss: 0.1260 - tp: 258997.0000 - fp: 9079.0000 - tn: 275819.0000 - fn: 25449.0000 - accuracy: 0.9394 - precision: 0.9661 - recall: 0.9105 - auc: 0.9911 - val_loss: 0.0666 - val_tp: 81.0000 - val_fp: 915.0000 - val_tn: 44567.0000 - val_fn: 6.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9798 - val_precision: 0.0813 - val_recall: 0.9310 - val_auc: 0.9856
Epoch 7/100
278/278 [==============================] - 6s 21ms/step - loss: 0.1167 - tp: 261100.0000 - fp: 9112.0000 - tn: 276180.0000 - fn: 22952.0000 - accuracy: 0.9437 - precision: 0.9663 - recall: 0.9192 - auc: 0.9925 - val_loss: 0.0623 - val_tp: 81.0000 - val_fp: 911.0000 - val_tn: 44571.0000 - val_fn: 6.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9799 - val_precision: 0.0817 - val_recall: 0.9310 - val_auc: 0.9858
Epoch 8/100
278/278 [==============================] - 6s 22ms/step - loss: 0.1082 - tp: 263945.0000 - fp: 9428.0000 - tn: 275276.0000 - fn: 20695.0000 - accuracy: 0.9471 - precision: 0.9655 - recall: 0.9273 - auc: 0.9937 - val_loss: 0.0587 - val_tp: 81.0000 - val_fp: 910.0000 - val_tn: 44572.0000 - val_fn: 6.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9799 - val_precision: 0.0817 - val_recall: 0.9310 - val_auc: 0.9857
Epoch 9/100
278/278 [==============================] - 6s 21ms/step - loss: 0.1014 - tp: 268108.0000 - fp: 10376.0000 - tn: 274312.0000 - fn: 16548.0000 - accuracy: 0.9527 - precision: 0.9627 - recall: 0.9419 - auc: 0.9944 - val_loss: 0.0543 - val_tp: 80.0000 - val_fp: 873.0000 - val_tn: 44609.0000 - val_fn: 7.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9807 - val_precision: 0.0839 - val_recall: 0.9195 - val_auc: 0.9857
Epoch 10/100
278/278 [==============================] - 6s 22ms/step - loss: 0.0951 - tp: 277520.0000 - fp: 12692.0000 - tn: 271795.0000 - fn: 7337.0000 - accuracy: 0.9648 - precision: 0.9563 - recall: 0.9742 - auc: 0.9950 - val_loss: 0.0495 - val_tp: 79.0000 - val_fp: 829.0000 - val_tn: 44653.0000 - val_fn: 8.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9816 - val_precision: 0.0870 - val_recall: 0.9080 - val_auc: 0.9855
Epoch 11/100
278/278 [==============================] - 6s 21ms/step - loss: 0.0895 - tp: 278865.0000 - fp: 12938.0000 - tn: 271719.0000 - fn: 5822.0000 - accuracy: 0.9670 - precision: 0.9557 - recall: 0.9795 - auc: 0.9955 - val_loss: 0.0450 - val_tp: 79.0000 - val_fp: 789.0000 - val_tn: 44693.0000 - val_fn: 8.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9825 - val_precision: 0.0910 - val_recall: 0.9080 - val_auc: 0.9859
Epoch 12/100
278/278 [==============================] - 6s 21ms/step - loss: 0.0842 - tp: 279845.0000 - fp: 13187.0000 - tn: 272121.0000 - fn: 4191.0000 - accuracy: 0.9695 - precision: 0.9550 - recall: 0.9852 - auc: 0.9960 - val_loss: 0.0410 - val_tp: 79.0000 - val_fp: 733.0000 - val_tn: 44749.0000 - val_fn: 8.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9837 - val_precision: 0.0973 - val_recall: 0.9080 - val_auc: 0.9813
Epoch 13/100
278/278 [==============================] - 6s 22ms/step - loss: 0.0792 - tp: 281765.0000 - fp: 12977.0000 - tn: 271393.0000 - fn: 3209.0000 - accuracy: 0.9716 - precision: 0.9560 - recall: 0.9887 - auc: 0.9963 - val_loss: 0.0389 - val_tp: 79.0000 - val_fp: 721.0000 - val_tn: 44761.0000 - val_fn: 8.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9840 - val_precision: 0.0988 - val_recall: 0.9080 - val_auc: 0.9814
Epoch 14/100
278/278 [==============================] - 6s 21ms/step - loss: 0.0754 - tp: 281962.0000 - fp: 13026.0000 - tn: 272154.0000 - fn: 2202.0000 - accuracy: 0.9733 - precision: 0.9558 - recall: 0.9923 - auc: 0.9966 - val_loss: 0.0348 - val_tp: 79.0000 - val_fp: 646.0000 - val_tn: 44836.0000 - val_fn: 8.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9856 - val_precision: 0.1090 - val_recall: 0.9080 - val_auc: 0.9763
Epoch 15/100
278/278 [==============================] - 6s 23ms/step - loss: 0.0722 - tp: 283858.0000 - fp: 12932.0000 - tn: 271419.0000 - fn: 1135.0000 - accuracy: 0.9753 - precision: 0.9564 - recall: 0.9960 - auc: 0.9967 - val_loss: 0.0331 - val_tp: 79.0000 - val_fp: 640.0000 - val_tn: 44842.0000 - val_fn: 8.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9858 - val_precision: 0.1099 - val_recall: 0.9080 - val_auc: 0.9714
Epoch 16/100
278/278 [==============================] - 6s 22ms/step - loss: 0.0689 - tp: 283059.0000 - fp: 12757.0000 - tn: 273004.0000 - fn: 524.0000 - accuracy: 0.9767 - precision: 0.9569 - recall: 0.9982 - auc: 0.9970 - val_loss: 0.0308 - val_tp: 79.0000 - val_fp: 583.0000 - val_tn: 44899.0000 - val_fn: 8.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9870 - val_precision: 0.1193 - val_recall: 0.9080 - val_auc: 0.9667
Epoch 17/100
278/278 [==============================] - 6s 23ms/step - loss: 0.0661 - tp: 283879.0000 - fp: 12340.0000 - tn: 272779.0000 - fn: 346.0000 - accuracy: 0.9777 - precision: 0.9583 - recall: 0.9988 - auc: 0.9971 - val_loss: 0.0289 - val_tp: 79.0000 - val_fp: 542.0000 - val_tn: 44940.0000 - val_fn: 8.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9879 - val_precision: 0.1272 - val_recall: 0.9080 - val_auc: 0.9618
Epoch 18/100
278/278 [==============================] - 6s 22ms/step - loss: 0.0635 - tp: 284858.0000 - fp: 12157.0000 - tn: 272120.0000 - fn: 209.0000 - accuracy: 0.9783 - precision: 0.9591 - recall: 0.9993 - auc: 0.9973 - val_loss: 0.0277 - val_tp: 79.0000 - val_fp: 511.0000 - val_tn: 44971.0000 - val_fn: 8.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9886 - val_precision: 0.1339 - val_recall: 0.9080 - val_auc: 0.9621
Epoch 19/100
278/278 [==============================] - 6s 23ms/step - loss: 0.0620 - tp: 284459.0000 - fp: 11978.0000 - tn: 272718.0000 - fn: 189.0000 - accuracy: 0.9786 - precision: 0.9596 - recall: 0.9993 - auc: 0.9973 - val_loss: 0.0261 - val_tp: 79.0000 - val_fp: 478.0000 - val_tn: 45004.0000 - val_fn: 8.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9893 - val_precision: 0.1418 - val_recall: 0.9080 - val_auc: 0.9624
Epoch 20/100
278/278 [==============================] - 6s 23ms/step - loss: 0.0600 - tp: 284950.0000 - fp: 11793.0000 - tn: 272572.0000 - fn: 29.0000 - accuracy: 0.9792 - precision: 0.9603 - recall: 0.9999 - auc: 0.9974 - val_loss: 0.0252 - val_tp: 79.0000 - val_fp: 463.0000 - val_tn: 45019.0000 - val_fn: 8.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9897 - val_precision: 0.1458 - val_recall: 0.9080 - val_auc: 0.9626
Epoch 21/100
276/278 [============================>.] - ETA: 0s - loss: 0.0581 - tp: 282210.0000 - fp: 11270.0000 - tn: 271768.0000 - fn: 0.0000e+00 - accuracy: 0.9801 - precision: 0.9616 - recall: 1.0000 - auc: 0.9975Restoring model weights from the end of the best epoch.
278/278 [==============================] - 6s 22ms/step - loss: 0.0581 - tp: 284274.0000 - fp: 11360.0000 - tn: 273710.0000 - fn: 0.0000e+00 - accuracy: 0.9800 - precision: 0.9616 - recall: 1.0000 - auc: 0.9975 - val_loss: 0.0241 - val_tp: 79.0000 - val_fp: 444.0000 - val_tn: 45038.0000 - val_fn: 8.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9901 - val_precision: 0.1511 - val_recall: 0.9080 - val_auc: 0.9628
Epoch 00021: early stopping

Jika proses pelatihan mempertimbangkan seluruh dataset pada setiap pembaruan gradien, oversampling ini pada dasarnya akan identik dengan bobot kelas.

Tetapi ketika melatih model batch-wise, seperti yang Anda lakukan di sini, data oversampled memberikan sinyal gradien yang lebih halus: Alih-alih setiap contoh positif ditampilkan dalam satu batch dengan bobot besar, mereka ditampilkan dalam banyak batch berbeda setiap kali dengan berat kecil.

Sinyal gradien yang lebih halus ini memudahkan untuk melatih model.

Periksa riwayat pelatihan

Perhatikan bahwa distribusi metrik akan berbeda di sini, karena data pelatihan memiliki distribusi yang sama sekali berbeda dari validasi dan data uji.

 plot_metrics(resampled_history )
 

png

Latih kembali

Karena pelatihan lebih mudah pada data yang seimbang, prosedur pelatihan di atas mungkin cocok dengan cepat.

Jadi putus zaman untuk memberikan callbacks.EarlyStopping Awal Berhenti kontrol yang lebih baik atas kapan harus berhenti pelatihan.

 resampled_model = make_model()
resampled_model.load_weights(initial_weights)

# Reset the bias to zero, since this dataset is balanced.
output_layer = resampled_model.layers[-1] 
output_layer.bias.assign([0])

resampled_history = resampled_model.fit(
    resampled_ds,
    # These are not real epochs
    steps_per_epoch = 20,
    epochs=10*EPOCHS,
    callbacks = [early_stopping],
    validation_data=(val_ds))
 
Epoch 1/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 1s 60ms/step - loss: 1.0656 - tp: 9507.0000 - fp: 7370.0000 - tn: 58667.0000 - fn: 10985.0000 - accuracy: 0.7879 - precision: 0.5633 - recall: 0.4639 - auc: 0.8255 - val_loss: 0.5792 - val_tp: 66.0000 - val_fp: 13452.0000 - val_tn: 32030.0000 - val_fn: 21.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.7043 - val_precision: 0.0049 - val_recall: 0.7586 - val_auc: 0.7866
Epoch 2/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 1s 26ms/step - loss: 0.6996 - tp: 13383.0000 - fp: 7208.0000 - tn: 13397.0000 - fn: 6972.0000 - accuracy: 0.6538 - precision: 0.6499 - recall: 0.6575 - auc: 0.7027 - val_loss: 0.5702 - val_tp: 76.0000 - val_fp: 12408.0000 - val_tn: 33074.0000 - val_fn: 11.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.7275 - val_precision: 0.0061 - val_recall: 0.8736 - val_auc: 0.9076
Epoch 3/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 1s 28ms/step - loss: 0.5532 - tp: 15127.0000 - fp: 6665.0000 - tn: 14055.0000 - fn: 5113.0000 - accuracy: 0.7125 - precision: 0.6942 - recall: 0.7474 - auc: 0.7952 - val_loss: 0.5335 - val_tp: 79.0000 - val_fp: 9006.0000 - val_tn: 36476.0000 - val_fn: 8.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.8022 - val_precision: 0.0087 - val_recall: 0.9080 - val_auc: 0.9408
Epoch 4/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 1s 28ms/step - loss: 0.4738 - tp: 16061.0000 - fp: 5669.0000 - tn: 14890.0000 - fn: 4340.0000 - accuracy: 0.7556 - precision: 0.7391 - recall: 0.7873 - auc: 0.8495 - val_loss: 0.4883 - val_tp: 78.0000 - val_fp: 5756.0000 - val_tn: 39726.0000 - val_fn: 9.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.8735 - val_precision: 0.0134 - val_recall: 0.8966 - val_auc: 0.9489
Epoch 5/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 23ms/step - loss: 0.4266 - tp: 16612.0000 - fp: 4719.0000 - tn: 15715.0000 - fn: 3914.0000 - accuracy: 0.7892 - precision: 0.7788 - recall: 0.8093 - auc: 0.8786 - val_loss: 0.4435 - val_tp: 78.0000 - val_fp: 3758.0000 - val_tn: 41724.0000 - val_fn: 9.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9173 - val_precision: 0.0203 - val_recall: 0.8966 - val_auc: 0.9539
Epoch 6/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 23ms/step - loss: 0.3908 - tp: 16911.0000 - fp: 3861.0000 - tn: 16514.0000 - fn: 3674.0000 - accuracy: 0.8160 - precision: 0.8141 - recall: 0.8215 - auc: 0.8976 - val_loss: 0.4032 - val_tp: 79.0000 - val_fp: 2770.0000 - val_tn: 42712.0000 - val_fn: 8.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9390 - val_precision: 0.0277 - val_recall: 0.9080 - val_auc: 0.9590
Epoch 7/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 25ms/step - loss: 0.3664 - tp: 17049.0000 - fp: 3209.0000 - tn: 17179.0000 - fn: 3523.0000 - accuracy: 0.8356 - precision: 0.8416 - recall: 0.8287 - auc: 0.9108 - val_loss: 0.3682 - val_tp: 79.0000 - val_fp: 2119.0000 - val_tn: 43363.0000 - val_fn: 8.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9533 - val_precision: 0.0359 - val_recall: 0.9080 - val_auc: 0.9634
Epoch 8/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 24ms/step - loss: 0.3467 - tp: 17100.0000 - fp: 2699.0000 - tn: 17686.0000 - fn: 3475.0000 - accuracy: 0.8493 - precision: 0.8637 - recall: 0.8311 - auc: 0.9193 - val_loss: 0.3373 - val_tp: 79.0000 - val_fp: 1753.0000 - val_tn: 43729.0000 - val_fn: 8.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9614 - val_precision: 0.0431 - val_recall: 0.9080 - val_auc: 0.9675
Epoch 9/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 1s 29ms/step - loss: 0.3285 - tp: 17043.0000 - fp: 2345.0000 - tn: 18228.0000 - fn: 3344.0000 - accuracy: 0.8611 - precision: 0.8790 - recall: 0.8360 - auc: 0.9271 - val_loss: 0.3104 - val_tp: 79.0000 - val_fp: 1495.0000 - val_tn: 43987.0000 - val_fn: 8.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9670 - val_precision: 0.0502 - val_recall: 0.9080 - val_auc: 0.9702
Epoch 10/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 1s 27ms/step - loss: 0.3094 - tp: 17322.0000 - fp: 2012.0000 - tn: 18405.0000 - fn: 3221.0000 - accuracy: 0.8722 - precision: 0.8959 - recall: 0.8432 - auc: 0.9361 - val_loss: 0.2865 - val_tp: 79.0000 - val_fp: 1332.0000 - val_tn: 44150.0000 - val_fn: 8.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9706 - val_precision: 0.0560 - val_recall: 0.9080 - val_auc: 0.9721
Epoch 11/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 1s 29ms/step - loss: 0.2962 - tp: 17184.0000 - fp: 1757.0000 - tn: 18853.0000 - fn: 3166.0000 - accuracy: 0.8798 - precision: 0.9072 - recall: 0.8444 - auc: 0.9406 - val_loss: 0.2654 - val_tp: 79.0000 - val_fp: 1228.0000 - val_tn: 44254.0000 - val_fn: 8.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9729 - val_precision: 0.0604 - val_recall: 0.9080 - val_auc: 0.9739
Epoch 12/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 1s 30ms/step - loss: 0.2835 - tp: 17373.0000 - fp: 1543.0000 - tn: 18909.0000 - fn: 3135.0000 - accuracy: 0.8858 - precision: 0.9184 - recall: 0.8471 - auc: 0.9458 - val_loss: 0.2469 - val_tp: 79.0000 - val_fp: 1155.0000 - val_tn: 44327.0000 - val_fn: 8.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9745 - val_precision: 0.0640 - val_recall: 0.9080 - val_auc: 0.9759
Epoch 13/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 1s 28ms/step - loss: 0.2710 - tp: 17386.0000 - fp: 1395.0000 - tn: 19124.0000 - fn: 3055.0000 - accuracy: 0.8914 - precision: 0.9257 - recall: 0.8505 - auc: 0.9502 - val_loss: 0.2302 - val_tp: 79.0000 - val_fp: 1092.0000 - val_tn: 44390.0000 - val_fn: 8.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9759 - val_precision: 0.0675 - val_recall: 0.9080 - val_auc: 0.9782
Epoch 14/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 24ms/step - loss: 0.2618 - tp: 17336.0000 - fp: 1343.0000 - tn: 19296.0000 - fn: 2985.0000 - accuracy: 0.8943 - precision: 0.9281 - recall: 0.8531 - auc: 0.9541 - val_loss: 0.2156 - val_tp: 79.0000 - val_fp: 1053.0000 - val_tn: 44429.0000 - val_fn: 8.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9767 - val_precision: 0.0698 - val_recall: 0.9080 - val_auc: 0.9797
Epoch 15/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 24ms/step - loss: 0.2529 - tp: 17466.0000 - fp: 1154.0000 - tn: 19366.0000 - fn: 2974.0000 - accuracy: 0.8992 - precision: 0.9380 - recall: 0.8545 - auc: 0.9574 - val_loss: 0.2026 - val_tp: 79.0000 - val_fp: 1029.0000 - val_tn: 44453.0000 - val_fn: 8.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9772 - val_precision: 0.0713 - val_recall: 0.9080 - val_auc: 0.9806
Epoch 16/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 24ms/step - loss: 0.2456 - tp: 17579.0000 - fp: 1075.0000 - tn: 19322.0000 - fn: 2984.0000 - accuracy: 0.9009 - precision: 0.9424 - recall: 0.8549 - auc: 0.9590 - val_loss: 0.1923 - val_tp: 79.0000 - val_fp: 1017.0000 - val_tn: 44465.0000 - val_fn: 8.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9775 - val_precision: 0.0721 - val_recall: 0.9080 - val_auc: 0.9813
Epoch 17/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 25ms/step - loss: 0.2382 - tp: 17573.0000 - fp: 982.0000 - tn: 19540.0000 - fn: 2865.0000 - accuracy: 0.9061 - precision: 0.9471 - recall: 0.8598 - auc: 0.9620 - val_loss: 0.1828 - val_tp: 79.0000 - val_fp: 1005.0000 - val_tn: 44477.0000 - val_fn: 8.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9778 - val_precision: 0.0729 - val_recall: 0.9080 - val_auc: 0.9819
Epoch 18/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 1s 28ms/step - loss: 0.2307 - tp: 17711.0000 - fp: 966.0000 - tn: 19448.0000 - fn: 2835.0000 - accuracy: 0.9072 - precision: 0.9483 - recall: 0.8620 - auc: 0.9644 - val_loss: 0.1736 - val_tp: 80.0000 - val_fp: 990.0000 - val_tn: 44492.0000 - val_fn: 7.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9781 - val_precision: 0.0748 - val_recall: 0.9195 - val_auc: 0.9825
Epoch 19/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 1s 28ms/step - loss: 0.2280 - tp: 17732.0000 - fp: 952.0000 - tn: 19442.0000 - fn: 2834.0000 - accuracy: 0.9076 - precision: 0.9490 - recall: 0.8622 - auc: 0.9653 - val_loss: 0.1660 - val_tp: 80.0000 - val_fp: 974.0000 - val_tn: 44508.0000 - val_fn: 7.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9785 - val_precision: 0.0759 - val_recall: 0.9195 - val_auc: 0.9826
Epoch 20/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 1s 28ms/step - loss: 0.2224 - tp: 17725.0000 - fp: 939.0000 - tn: 19538.0000 - fn: 2758.0000 - accuracy: 0.9097 - precision: 0.9497 - recall: 0.8654 - auc: 0.9667 - val_loss: 0.1591 - val_tp: 80.0000 - val_fp: 962.0000 - val_tn: 44520.0000 - val_fn: 7.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9787 - val_precision: 0.0768 - val_recall: 0.9195 - val_auc: 0.9831
Epoch 21/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 1s 29ms/step - loss: 0.2168 - tp: 17757.0000 - fp: 826.0000 - tn: 19618.0000 - fn: 2759.0000 - accuracy: 0.9125 - precision: 0.9556 - recall: 0.8655 - auc: 0.9689 - val_loss: 0.1531 - val_tp: 80.0000 - val_fp: 967.0000 - val_tn: 44515.0000 - val_fn: 7.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9786 - val_precision: 0.0764 - val_recall: 0.9195 - val_auc: 0.9831
Epoch 22/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 1s 28ms/step - loss: 0.2112 - tp: 17833.0000 - fp: 883.0000 - tn: 19522.0000 - fn: 2722.0000 - accuracy: 0.9120 - precision: 0.9528 - recall: 0.8676 - auc: 0.9703 - val_loss: 0.1479 - val_tp: 80.0000 - val_fp: 975.0000 - val_tn: 44507.0000 - val_fn: 7.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9785 - val_precision: 0.0758 - val_recall: 0.9195 - val_auc: 0.9832
Epoch 23/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 24ms/step - loss: 0.2058 - tp: 17865.0000 - fp: 835.0000 - tn: 19580.0000 - fn: 2680.0000 - accuracy: 0.9142 - precision: 0.9553 - recall: 0.8696 - auc: 0.9723 - val_loss: 0.1427 - val_tp: 80.0000 - val_fp: 977.0000 - val_tn: 44505.0000 - val_fn: 7.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9784 - val_precision: 0.0757 - val_recall: 0.9195 - val_auc: 0.9834
Epoch 24/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 25ms/step - loss: 0.2053 - tp: 17856.0000 - fp: 802.0000 - tn: 19599.0000 - fn: 2703.0000 - accuracy: 0.9144 - precision: 0.9570 - recall: 0.8685 - auc: 0.9727 - val_loss: 0.1375 - val_tp: 80.0000 - val_fp: 969.0000 - val_tn: 44513.0000 - val_fn: 7.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9786 - val_precision: 0.0763 - val_recall: 0.9195 - val_auc: 0.9833
Epoch 25/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 25ms/step - loss: 0.2004 - tp: 17854.0000 - fp: 809.0000 - tn: 19690.0000 - fn: 2607.0000 - accuracy: 0.9166 - precision: 0.9567 - recall: 0.8726 - auc: 0.9740 - val_loss: 0.1331 - val_tp: 80.0000 - val_fp: 976.0000 - val_tn: 44506.0000 - val_fn: 7.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9784 - val_precision: 0.0758 - val_recall: 0.9195 - val_auc: 0.9837
Epoch 26/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 24ms/step - loss: 0.1991 - tp: 17857.0000 - fp: 793.0000 - tn: 19690.0000 - fn: 2620.0000 - accuracy: 0.9167 - precision: 0.9575 - recall: 0.8721 - auc: 0.9747 - val_loss: 0.1291 - val_tp: 80.0000 - val_fp: 968.0000 - val_tn: 44514.0000 - val_fn: 7.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9786 - val_precision: 0.0763 - val_recall: 0.9195 - val_auc: 0.9836
Epoch 27/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 1s 40ms/step - loss: 0.1929 - tp: 17836.0000 - fp: 750.0000 - tn: 19833.0000 - fn: 2541.0000 - accuracy: 0.9197 - precision: 0.9596 - recall: 0.8753 - auc: 0.9760 - val_loss: 0.1252 - val_tp: 80.0000 - val_fp: 960.0000 - val_tn: 44522.0000 - val_fn: 7.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9788 - val_precision: 0.0769 - val_recall: 0.9195 - val_auc: 0.9839
Epoch 28/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 1s 29ms/step - loss: 0.1935 - tp: 17776.0000 - fp: 753.0000 - tn: 19827.0000 - fn: 2604.0000 - accuracy: 0.9180 - precision: 0.9594 - recall: 0.8722 - auc: 0.9763 - val_loss: 0.1215 - val_tp: 80.0000 - val_fp: 946.0000 - val_tn: 44536.0000 - val_fn: 7.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9791 - val_precision: 0.0780 - val_recall: 0.9195 - val_auc: 0.9836
Epoch 29/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 1s 32ms/step - loss: 0.1892 - tp: 17877.0000 - fp: 746.0000 - tn: 19791.0000 - fn: 2546.0000 - accuracy: 0.9196 - precision: 0.9599 - recall: 0.8753 - auc: 0.9773 - val_loss: 0.1183 - val_tp: 80.0000 - val_fp: 944.0000 - val_tn: 44538.0000 - val_fn: 7.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9791 - val_precision: 0.0781 - val_recall: 0.9195 - val_auc: 0.9840
Epoch 30/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 1s 30ms/step - loss: 0.1855 - tp: 18053.0000 - fp: 746.0000 - tn: 19673.0000 - fn: 2488.0000 - accuracy: 0.9210 - precision: 0.9603 - recall: 0.8789 - auc: 0.9779 - val_loss: 0.1157 - val_tp: 80.0000 - val_fp: 949.0000 - val_tn: 44533.0000 - val_fn: 7.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9790 - val_precision: 0.0777 - val_recall: 0.9195 - val_auc: 0.9835
Epoch 31/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 1s 27ms/step - loss: 0.1843 - tp: 18042.0000 - fp: 723.0000 - tn: 19656.0000 - fn: 2539.0000 - accuracy: 0.9204 - precision: 0.9615 - recall: 0.8766 - auc: 0.9783 - val_loss: 0.1137 - val_tp: 80.0000 - val_fp: 958.0000 - val_tn: 44524.0000 - val_fn: 7.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9788 - val_precision: 0.0771 - val_recall: 0.9195 - val_auc: 0.9836
Epoch 32/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 1s 26ms/step - loss: 0.1831 - tp: 17974.0000 - fp: 743.0000 - tn: 19741.0000 - fn: 2502.0000 - accuracy: 0.9208 - precision: 0.9603 - recall: 0.8778 - auc: 0.9789 - val_loss: 0.1112 - val_tp: 80.0000 - val_fp: 958.0000 - val_tn: 44524.0000 - val_fn: 7.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9788 - val_precision: 0.0771 - val_recall: 0.9195 - val_auc: 0.9840
Epoch 33/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 1s 26ms/step - loss: 0.1805 - tp: 18172.0000 - fp: 775.0000 - tn: 19591.0000 - fn: 2422.0000 - accuracy: 0.9219 - precision: 0.9591 - recall: 0.8824 - auc: 0.9796 - val_loss: 0.1088 - val_tp: 81.0000 - val_fp: 956.0000 - val_tn: 44526.0000 - val_fn: 6.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9789 - val_precision: 0.0781 - val_recall: 0.9310 - val_auc: 0.9841
Epoch 34/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 24ms/step - loss: 0.1749 - tp: 18125.0000 - fp: 715.0000 - tn: 19698.0000 - fn: 2422.0000 - accuracy: 0.9234 - precision: 0.9620 - recall: 0.8821 - auc: 0.9812 - val_loss: 0.1068 - val_tp: 81.0000 - val_fp: 964.0000 - val_tn: 44518.0000 - val_fn: 6.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9787 - val_precision: 0.0775 - val_recall: 0.9310 - val_auc: 0.9836
Epoch 35/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 23ms/step - loss: 0.1769 - tp: 18135.0000 - fp: 715.0000 - tn: 19694.0000 - fn: 2416.0000 - accuracy: 0.9236 - precision: 0.9621 - recall: 0.8824 - auc: 0.9809 - val_loss: 0.1048 - val_tp: 81.0000 - val_fp: 978.0000 - val_tn: 44504.0000 - val_fn: 6.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9784 - val_precision: 0.0765 - val_recall: 0.9310 - val_auc: 0.9838
Epoch 36/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 1s 30ms/step - loss: 0.1739 - tp: 18006.0000 - fp: 704.0000 - tn: 19827.0000 - fn: 2423.0000 - accuracy: 0.9237 - precision: 0.9624 - recall: 0.8814 - auc: 0.9814 - val_loss: 0.1029 - val_tp: 81.0000 - val_fp: 986.0000 - val_tn: 44496.0000 - val_fn: 6.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9782 - val_precision: 0.0759 - val_recall: 0.9310 - val_auc: 0.9839
Epoch 37/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 1s 27ms/step - loss: 0.1687 - tp: 18002.0000 - fp: 660.0000 - tn: 19879.0000 - fn: 2419.0000 - accuracy: 0.9248 - precision: 0.9646 - recall: 0.8815 - auc: 0.9826 - val_loss: 0.1011 - val_tp: 81.0000 - val_fp: 984.0000 - val_tn: 44498.0000 - val_fn: 6.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9783 - val_precision: 0.0761 - val_recall: 0.9310 - val_auc: 0.9841
Epoch 38/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 1s 28ms/step - loss: 0.1699 - tp: 17932.0000 - fp: 677.0000 - tn: 19986.0000 - fn: 2365.0000 - accuracy: 0.9257 - precision: 0.9636 - recall: 0.8835 - auc: 0.9825 - val_loss: 0.0995 - val_tp: 82.0000 - val_fp: 979.0000 - val_tn: 44503.0000 - val_fn: 5.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9784 - val_precision: 0.0773 - val_recall: 0.9425 - val_auc: 0.9842
Epoch 39/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 1s 30ms/step - loss: 0.1676 - tp: 18086.0000 - fp: 736.0000 - tn: 19780.0000 - fn: 2358.0000 - accuracy: 0.9245 - precision: 0.9609 - recall: 0.8847 - auc: 0.9826 - val_loss: 0.0980 - val_tp: 82.0000 - val_fp: 975.0000 - val_tn: 44507.0000 - val_fn: 5.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9785 - val_precision: 0.0776 - val_recall: 0.9425 - val_auc: 0.9844
Epoch 40/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 1s 27ms/step - loss: 0.1670 - tp: 18066.0000 - fp: 685.0000 - tn: 19868.0000 - fn: 2341.0000 - accuracy: 0.9261 - precision: 0.9635 - recall: 0.8853 - auc: 0.9832 - val_loss: 0.0964 - val_tp: 82.0000 - val_fp: 965.0000 - val_tn: 44517.0000 - val_fn: 5.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9787 - val_precision: 0.0783 - val_recall: 0.9425 - val_auc: 0.9845
Epoch 41/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 23ms/step - loss: 0.1640 - tp: 17950.0000 - fp: 645.0000 - tn: 19995.0000 - fn: 2370.0000 - accuracy: 0.9264 - precision: 0.9653 - recall: 0.8834 - auc: 0.9839 - val_loss: 0.0950 - val_tp: 82.0000 - val_fp: 956.0000 - val_tn: 44526.0000 - val_fn: 5.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9789 - val_precision: 0.0790 - val_recall: 0.9425 - val_auc: 0.9835
Epoch 42/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 25ms/step - loss: 0.1641 - tp: 18083.0000 - fp: 665.0000 - tn: 19842.0000 - fn: 2370.0000 - accuracy: 0.9259 - precision: 0.9645 - recall: 0.8841 - auc: 0.9839 - val_loss: 0.0938 - val_tp: 82.0000 - val_fp: 949.0000 - val_tn: 44533.0000 - val_fn: 5.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9791 - val_precision: 0.0795 - val_recall: 0.9425 - val_auc: 0.9837
Epoch 43/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 23ms/step - loss: 0.1600 - tp: 18012.0000 - fp: 684.0000 - tn: 19970.0000 - fn: 2294.0000 - accuracy: 0.9273 - precision: 0.9634 - recall: 0.8870 - auc: 0.9845 - val_loss: 0.0925 - val_tp: 82.0000 - val_fp: 949.0000 - val_tn: 44533.0000 - val_fn: 5.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9791 - val_precision: 0.0795 - val_recall: 0.9425 - val_auc: 0.9837
Epoch 44/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 1s 27ms/step - loss: 0.1597 - tp: 18346.0000 - fp: 657.0000 - tn: 19657.0000 - fn: 2300.0000 - accuracy: 0.9278 - precision: 0.9654 - recall: 0.8886 - auc: 0.9847 - val_loss: 0.0919 - val_tp: 82.0000 - val_fp: 955.0000 - val_tn: 44527.0000 - val_fn: 5.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9789 - val_precision: 0.0791 - val_recall: 0.9425 - val_auc: 0.9838
Epoch 45/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 1s 28ms/step - loss: 0.1607 - tp: 18109.0000 - fp: 726.0000 - tn: 19836.0000 - fn: 2289.0000 - accuracy: 0.9264 - precision: 0.9615 - recall: 0.8878 - auc: 0.9846 - val_loss: 0.0908 - val_tp: 82.0000 - val_fp: 948.0000 - val_tn: 44534.0000 - val_fn: 5.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9791 - val_precision: 0.0796 - val_recall: 0.9425 - val_auc: 0.9839
Epoch 46/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 1s 27ms/step - loss: 0.1581 - tp: 18192.0000 - fp: 650.0000 - tn: 19833.0000 - fn: 2285.0000 - accuracy: 0.9283 - precision: 0.9655 - recall: 0.8884 - auc: 0.9849 - val_loss: 0.0902 - val_tp: 82.0000 - val_fp: 955.0000 - val_tn: 44527.0000 - val_fn: 5.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9789 - val_precision: 0.0791 - val_recall: 0.9425 - val_auc: 0.9839
Epoch 47/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 1s 28ms/step - loss: 0.1579 - tp: 18301.0000 - fp: 676.0000 - tn: 19760.0000 - fn: 2223.0000 - accuracy: 0.9292 - precision: 0.9644 - recall: 0.8917 - auc: 0.9853 - val_loss: 0.0892 - val_tp: 82.0000 - val_fp: 956.0000 - val_tn: 44526.0000 - val_fn: 5.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9789 - val_precision: 0.0790 - val_recall: 0.9425 - val_auc: 0.9840
Epoch 48/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 1s 28ms/step - loss: 0.1503 - tp: 18172.0000 - fp: 593.0000 - tn: 19959.0000 - fn: 2236.0000 - accuracy: 0.9309 - precision: 0.9684 - recall: 0.8904 - auc: 0.9867 - val_loss: 0.0887 - val_tp: 82.0000 - val_fp: 970.0000 - val_tn: 44512.0000 - val_fn: 5.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9786 - val_precision: 0.0779 - val_recall: 0.9425 - val_auc: 0.9840
Epoch 49/1000
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 25ms/step - loss: 0.1572 - tp: 18217.0000 - fp: 750.0000 - tn: 19709.0000 - fn: 2284.0000 - accuracy: 0.9259 - precision: 0.9605 - recall: 0.8886 - auc: 0.9852 - val_loss: 0.0876 - val_tp: 82.0000 - val_fp: 964.0000 - val_tn: 44518.0000 - val_fn: 5.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9787 - val_precision: 0.0784 - val_recall: 0.9425 - val_auc: 0.9841
Epoch 50/1000
20/20 [==============================] - ETA: 0s - loss: 0.1529 - tp: 18230.0000 - fp: 696.0000 - tn: 19874.0000 - fn: 2160.0000 - accuracy: 0.9303 - precision: 0.9632 - recall: 0.8941 - auc: 0.9860Restoring model weights from the end of the best epoch.
20/20 [==============================] - 0s 23ms/step - loss: 0.1529 - tp: 18230.0000 - fp: 696.0000 - tn: 19874.0000 - fn: 2160.0000 - accuracy: 0.9303 - precision: 0.9632 - recall: 0.8941 - auc: 0.9860 - val_loss: 0.0860 - val_tp: 82.0000 - val_fp: 941.0000 - val_tn: 44541.0000 - val_fn: 5.0000 - val_accuracy: 0.9792 - val_precision: 0.0802 - val_recall: 0.9425 - val_auc: 0.9843
Epoch 00050: early stopping

Periksa kembali riwayat pelatihan

 plot_metrics(resampled_history)
 

png

Evaluasi metrik

 train_predictions_resampled = resampled_model.predict(train_features, batch_size=BATCH_SIZE)
test_predictions_resampled = resampled_model.predict(test_features, batch_size=BATCH_SIZE)
 
 resampled_results = resampled_model.evaluate(test_features, test_labels,
                                             batch_size=BATCH_SIZE, verbose=0)
for name, value in zip(resampled_model.metrics_names, resampled_results):
  print(name, ': ', value)
print()

plot_cm(test_labels, test_predictions_resampled)
 
loss :  0.09607589244842529
tp :  84.0
fp :  1195.0
tn :  55676.0
fn :  7.0
accuracy :  0.9788982272148132
precision :  0.06567630916833878
recall :  0.9230769276618958
auc :  0.9697299599647522

Legitimate Transactions Detected (True Negatives):  55676
Legitimate Transactions Incorrectly Detected (False Positives):  1195
Fraudulent Transactions Missed (False Negatives):  7
Fraudulent Transactions Detected (True Positives):  84
Total Fraudulent Transactions:  91

png

Plot ROC

 plot_roc("Train Baseline", train_labels, train_predictions_baseline, color=colors[0])
plot_roc("Test Baseline", test_labels, test_predictions_baseline, color=colors[0], linestyle='--')

plot_roc("Train Weighted", train_labels, train_predictions_weighted, color=colors[1])
plot_roc("Test Weighted", test_labels, test_predictions_weighted, color=colors[1], linestyle='--')

plot_roc("Train Resampled", train_labels, train_predictions_resampled,  color=colors[2])
plot_roc("Test Resampled", test_labels, test_predictions_resampled,  color=colors[2], linestyle='--')
plt.legend(loc='lower right')
 
<matplotlib.legend.Legend at 0x7fa4bc66c9b0>

png

Menerapkan tutorial ini untuk masalah Anda

Klasifikasi data yang tidak seimbang adalah tugas yang sulit secara inheren karena ada begitu sedikit sampel untuk dipelajari. Anda harus selalu mulai dengan data terlebih dahulu dan melakukan yang terbaik untuk mengumpulkan sampel sebanyak mungkin dan memberikan pemikiran substansial pada fitur apa yang mungkin relevan sehingga model tersebut bisa mendapatkan hasil maksimal dari kelas minoritas Anda. Pada titik tertentu model Anda mungkin berjuang untuk meningkatkan dan menghasilkan hasil yang Anda inginkan, jadi penting untuk mengingat konteks masalah Anda dan pertukaran antara berbagai jenis kesalahan.