tf.contrib.layers.batch_norm( inputs, decay=0.999, center=True, scale=False, epsilon=0.001, activation_fn=None, param_initializers=None, param_regularizers=None, updates_collections=tf.GraphKeys.UPDATE_OPS, is_training=True, reuse=None, variables_collections=None, outputs_collections=None, trainable=True, batch_weights=None, fused=None, data_format=DATA_FORMAT_NHWC, zero_debias_moving_mean=False, scope=None, renorm=False, renorm_clipping=None, renorm_decay=0.99, adjustment=None )
Adds a Batch Normalization layer from http://arxiv.org/abs/1502.03167.
"Batch Normalization: Accelerating Deep Network Training by Reducing Internal Covariate Shift"
Sergey Ioffe, Christian Szegedy
Can be used as a normalizer function for conv2d and fully_connected. The
normalization is over all but the last dimension if
and all but the second dimension if
NCHW. In case of a 2D
tensor this corresponds to the batch dimension, while in case of a 4D tensor
corresponds to the batch and space dimensions.
update_ops = tf.get_collection(tf.GraphKeys.UPDATE_OPS) with tf.control_dependencies(update_ops): train_op = optimizer.minimize(loss)
One can set updates_collections=None to force the updates in place, but that can have a speed penalty, especially in distributed settings.
inputs: A tensor with 2 or more dimensions, where the first dimension has
batch_size. The normalization is over all but the last dimension if
NHWCand the second dimension if
decay: Decay for the moving average. Reasonable values for
decayare close to 1.0, typically in the multiple-nines range: 0.999, 0.99, 0.9, etc. Lower
decayvalue (recommend trying
decay=0.9) if model experiences reasonably good training performance but poor validation and/or test performance. Try zero_debias_moving_mean=True for improved stability.
center: If True, add offset of
betato normalized tensor. If False,
scale: If True, multiply by
gamma. If False,
gammais not used. When the next layer is linear (also e.g.
nn.relu), this can be disabled since the scaling can be done by the next layer.
epsilon: Small float added to variance to avoid dividing by zero.
activation_fn: Activation function, default set to None to skip it and maintain a linear activation.
param_initializers: Optional initializers for beta, gamma, moving mean and moving variance.
param_regularizers: Optional regularizer for beta and gamma.
updates_collections: Collections to collect the update ops for computation. The updates_ops need to be executed with the train_op. If None, a control dependency would be added to make sure the updates are computed in place.
is_training: Whether or not the layer is in training mode. In training mode it would accumulate the statistics of the moments into
moving_varianceusing an exponential moving average with the given
decay. When it is not in training mode then it would use the values of the
reuse: Whether or not the layer and its variables should be reused. To be able to reuse the layer scope must be given.
variables_collections: Optional collections for the variables.
outputs_collections: Collections to add the outputs.
Truealso add variables to the graph collection
batch_weights: An optional tensor of shape
[batch_size], containing a frequency weight for each batch item. If present, then the batch normalization uses weighted mean and variance. (This can be used to correct for bias in training example selection.)
True, use a faster, fused implementation if possible. If
False, use the system recommended implementation.
data_format: A string.
zero_debias_moving_mean: Use zero_debias for moving_mean. It creates a new pair of variables 'moving_mean/biased' and 'moving_mean/local_step'.
scope: Optional scope for
renorm: Whether to use Batch Renormalization (https://arxiv.org/abs/1702.03275). This adds extra variables during training. The inference is the same for either value of this parameter.
renorm_clipping: A dictionary that may map keys 'rmax', 'rmin', 'dmax' to scalar
Tensorsused to clip the renorm correction. The correction
(r, d)is used as
corrected_value = normalized_value * r + d, with
rclipped to [rmin, rmax], and
dto [-dmax, dmax]. Missing rmax, rmin, dmax are set to inf, 0, inf, respectively.
renorm_decay: Momentum used to update the moving means and standard deviations with renorm. Unlike
momentum, this affects training and should be neither too small (which would add noise) nor too large (which would give stale estimates). Note that
decayis still applied to get the means and variances for inference.
adjustment: A function taking the
Tensorcontaining the (dynamic) shape of the input tensor and returning a pair (scale, bias) to apply to the normalized values (before gamma and beta), only during training. For example,
adjustment = lambda shape: ( tf.random_uniform(shape[-1:], 0.93, 1.07), tf.random_uniform(shape[-1:], -0.1, 0.1))will scale the normalized value by up to 7% up or down, then shift the result by up to 0.1 (with independent scaling and bias for each feature but shared across all examples), and finally apply gamma and/or beta. If
None, no adjustment is applied.
Tensor representing the output of the operation.
ValueError: If the rank of
ValueError: If rank or channels dimension of