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tf.keras.experimental.LinearModel

TensorFlow 2 version View source on GitHub

Class LinearModel

Linear Model for regression and classification problems.

Inherits From: Model

Aliases:

This model approximates the following function:

\(y = \beta + \sum_{i=1}^{N} w_{i} * x_{i}\)
where
\(\beta\)
is the bias and
\(w_{i}\)
is the weight for each feature.

Example:

model = LinearModel()
model.compile(optimizer='sgd', loss='mse')
model.fit(x, y, epochs)

This model accepts sparse float inputs as well:

Example:

model = LinearModel()
opt = tf.keras.optimizers.Adam()
loss_fn = tf.keras.losses.MeanSquaredError()
with tf.GradientTape() as tape:
  output = model(sparse_input)
  loss = tf.reduce_mean(loss_fn(target, output))
grads = tape.gradient(loss, model.weights)
opt.apply_gradients(zip(grads, model.weights))

__init__

View source

__init__(
    units=1,
    activation=None,
    use_bias=True,
    kernel_initializer='glorot_uniform',
    bias_initializer='zeros',
    kernel_regularizer=None,
    bias_regularizer=None,
    **kwargs
)

Create a Linear Model.

Args:

  • units: Positive integer, output dimension without the batch size.
  • activation: Activation function to use. If you don't specify anything, no activation is applied.
  • use_bias: whether to calculate the bias/intercept for this model. If set to False, no bias/intercept will be used in calculations, e.g., the data is already centered.
  • kernel_initializer: Initializer for the kernel weights matrices.
  • bias_initializer: Initializer for the bias vector.
  • kernel_regularizer: regularizer for kernel vectors.
  • bias_regularizer: regularizer for bias vector.
  • **kwargs: The keyword arguments that are passed on to BaseLayer.init.

Properties

layers

metrics_names

Returns the model's display labels for all outputs.

run_eagerly

Settable attribute indicating whether the model should run eagerly.

Running eagerly means that your model will be run step by step, like Python code. Your model might run slower, but it should become easier for you to debug it by stepping into individual layer calls.

By default, we will attempt to compile your model to a static graph to deliver the best execution performance.

Returns:

Boolean, whether the model should run eagerly.

sample_weights

state_updates

Returns the updates from all layers that are stateful.

This is useful for separating training updates and state updates, e.g. when we need to update a layer's internal state during prediction.

Returns:

A list of update ops.

stateful

Methods

compile

View source

compile(
    optimizer='rmsprop',
    loss=None,
    metrics=None,
    loss_weights=None,
    sample_weight_mode=None,
    weighted_metrics=None,
    target_tensors=None,
    distribute=None,
    **kwargs
)

Configures the model for training.

Arguments:

  • optimizer: String (name of optimizer) or optimizer instance. See tf.keras.optimizers.
  • loss: String (name of objective function), objective function or tf.losses.Loss instance. See tf.losses. If the model has multiple outputs, you can use a different loss on each output by passing a dictionary or a list of losses. The loss value that will be minimized by the model will then be the sum of all individual losses.
  • metrics: List of metrics to be evaluated by the model during training and testing. Typically you will use metrics=['accuracy']. To specify different metrics for different outputs of a multi-output model, you could also pass a dictionary, such as metrics={'output_a': 'accuracy', 'output_b': ['accuracy', 'mse']}. You can also pass a list (len = len(outputs)) of lists of metrics such as metrics=[['accuracy'], ['accuracy', 'mse']] or metrics=['accuracy', ['accuracy', 'mse']].
  • loss_weights: Optional list or dictionary specifying scalar coefficients (Python floats) to weight the loss contributions of different model outputs. The loss value that will be minimized by the model will then be the weighted sum of all individual losses, weighted by the loss_weights coefficients. If a list, it is expected to have a 1:1 mapping to the model's outputs. If a tensor, it is expected to map output names (strings) to scalar coefficients.
  • sample_weight_mode: If you need to do timestep-wise sample weighting (2D weights), set this to "temporal". None defaults to sample-wise weights (1D). If the model has multiple outputs, you can use a different sample_weight_mode on each output by passing a dictionary or a list of modes.
  • weighted_metrics: List of metrics to be evaluated and weighted by sample_weight or class_weight during training and testing.
  • target_tensors: By default, Keras will create placeholders for the model's target, which will be fed with the target data during training. If instead you would like to use your own target tensors (in turn, Keras will not expect external Numpy data for these targets at training time), you can specify them via the target_tensors argument. It can be a single tensor (for a single-output model), a list of tensors, or a dict mapping output names to target tensors.
  • distribute: NOT SUPPORTED IN TF 2.0, please create and compile the model under distribution strategy scope instead of passing it to compile.
  • **kwargs: Any additional arguments.

Raises:

  • ValueError: In case of invalid arguments for optimizer, loss, metrics or sample_weight_mode.

evaluate

View source

evaluate(
    x=None,
    y=None,
    batch_size=None,
    verbose=1,
    sample_weight=None,
    steps=None,
    callbacks=None,
    max_queue_size=10,
    workers=1,
    use_multiprocessing=False
)

Returns the loss value & metrics values for the model in test mode.

Computation is done in batches.

Arguments:

  • x: Input data. It could be:
    • A Numpy array (or array-like), or a list of arrays (in case the model has multiple inputs).
    • A TensorFlow tensor, or a list of tensors (in case the model has multiple inputs).
    • A dict mapping input names to the corresponding array/tensors, if the model has named inputs.
    • A tf.data dataset.
    • A generator or keras.utils.Sequence instance.
  • y: Target data. Like the input data x, it could be either Numpy array(s) or TensorFlow tensor(s). It should be consistent with x (you cannot have Numpy inputs and tensor targets, or inversely). If x is a dataset, generator or keras.utils.Sequence instance, y should not be specified (since targets will be obtained from the iterator/dataset).
  • batch_size: Integer or None. Number of samples per gradient update. If unspecified, batch_size will default to 32. Do not specify the batch_size is your data is in the form of symbolic tensors, dataset, generators, or keras.utils.Sequence instances (since they generate batches).
  • verbose: 0 or 1. Verbosity mode. 0 = silent, 1 = progress bar.
  • sample_weight: Optional Numpy array of weights for the test samples, used for weighting the loss function. You can either pass a flat (1D) Numpy array with the same length as the input samples (1:1 mapping between weights and samples), or in the case of temporal data, you can pass a 2D array with shape (samples, sequence_length), to apply a different weight to every timestep of every sample. In this case you should make sure to specify sample_weight_mode="temporal" in compile(). This argument is not supported when x is a dataset, instead pass sample weights as the third element of x.
  • steps: Integer or None. Total number of steps (batches of samples) before declaring the evaluation round finished. Ignored with the default value of None. If x is a tf.data dataset and steps is None, 'evaluate' will run until the dataset is exhausted. This argument is not supported with array inputs.
  • callbacks: List of keras.callbacks.Callback instances. List of callbacks to apply during evaluation. See callbacks.
  • max_queue_size: Integer. Used for generator or keras.utils.Sequence input only. Maximum size for the generator queue. If unspecified, max_queue_size will default to 10.
  • workers: Integer. Used for generator or keras.utils.Sequence input only. Maximum number of processes to spin up when using process-based threading. If unspecified, workers will default to 1. If 0, will execute the generator on the main thread.
  • use_multiprocessing: Boolean. Used for generator or keras.utils.Sequence input only. If True, use process-based threading. If unspecified, use_multiprocessing will default to False. Note that because this implementation relies on multiprocessing, you should not pass non-picklable arguments to the generator as they can't be passed easily to children processes.

Returns:

Scalar test loss (if the model has a single output and no metrics) or list of scalars (if the model has multiple outputs and/or metrics). The attribute model.metrics_names will give you the display labels for the scalar outputs.

Raises:

  • ValueError: in case of invalid arguments.

evaluate_generator

View source

evaluate_generator(
    generator,
    steps=None,
    callbacks=None,
    max_queue_size=10,
    workers=1,
    use_multiprocessing=False,
    verbose=0
)

Evaluates the model on a data generator.

The generator should return the same kind of data as accepted by test_on_batch.

Arguments:

  • generator: Generator yielding tuples (inputs, targets) or (inputs, targets, sample_weights) or an instance of keras.utils.Sequence object in order to avoid duplicate data when using multiprocessing.
  • steps: Total number of steps (batches of samples) to yield from generator before stopping. Optional for Sequence: if unspecified, will use the len(generator) as a number of steps.
  • callbacks: List of keras.callbacks.Callback instances. List of callbacks to apply during evaluation. See callbacks.
  • max_queue_size: maximum size for the generator queue
  • workers: Integer. Maximum number of processes to spin up when using process-based threading. If unspecified, workers will default to 1. If 0, will execute the generator on the main thread.
  • use_multiprocessing: Boolean. If True, use process-based threading. If unspecified, use_multiprocessing will default to False. Note that because this implementation relies on multiprocessing, you should not pass non-picklable arguments to the generator as they can't be passed easily to children processes.
  • verbose: Verbosity mode, 0 or 1.

Returns:

Scalar test loss (if the model has a single output and no metrics) or list of scalars (if the model has multiple outputs and/or metrics). The attribute model.metrics_names will give you the display labels for the scalar outputs.

Raises:

  • ValueError: in case of invalid arguments.

Raises:

  • ValueError: In case the generator yields data in an invalid format.

fit

View source

fit(
    x=None,
    y=None,
    batch_size=None,
    epochs=1,
    verbose=1,
    callbacks=None,
    validation_split=0.0,
    validation_data=None,
    shuffle=True,
    class_weight=None,
    sample_weight=None,
    initial_epoch=0,
    steps_per_epoch=None,
    validation_steps=None,
    validation_freq=1,
    max_queue_size=10,
    workers=1,
    use_multiprocessing=False,
    **kwargs
)

Trains the model for a fixed number of epochs (iterations on a dataset).

Arguments:

  • x: Input data. It could be:
    • A Numpy array (or array-like), or a list of arrays (in case the model has multiple inputs).
    • A TensorFlow tensor, or a list of tensors (in case the model has multiple inputs).
    • A dict mapping input names to the corresponding array/tensors, if the model has named inputs.
    • A tf.data dataset. Should return a tuple of either (inputs, targets) or (inputs, targets, sample_weights).
    • A generator or keras.utils.Sequence returning (inputs, targets) or (inputs, targets, sample weights).
  • y: Target data. Like the input data x, it could be either Numpy array(s) or TensorFlow tensor(s). It should be consistent with x (you cannot have Numpy inputs and tensor targets, or inversely). If x is a dataset, generator, or keras.utils.Sequence instance, y should not be specified (since targets will be obtained from x).
  • batch_size: Integer or None. Number of samples per gradient update. If unspecified, batch_size will default to 32. Do not specify the batch_size if your data is in the form of symbolic tensors, datasets, generators, or keras.utils.Sequence instances (since they generate batches).
  • epochs: Integer. Number of epochs to train the model. An epoch is an iteration over the entire x and y data provided. Note that in conjunction with initial_epoch, epochs is to be understood as "final epoch". The model is not trained for a number of iterations given by epochs, but merely until the epoch of index epochs is reached.
  • verbose: 0, 1, or 2. Verbosity mode. 0 = silent, 1 = progress bar, 2 = one line per epoch. Note that the progress bar is not particularly useful when logged to a file, so verbose=2 is recommended when not running interactively (eg, in a production environment).
  • callbacks: List of keras.callbacks.Callback instances. List of callbacks to apply during training. See tf.keras.callbacks.
  • validation_split: Float between 0 and 1. Fraction of the training data to be used as validation data. The model will set apart this fraction of the training data, will not train on it, and will evaluate the loss and any model metrics on this data at the end of each epoch. The validation data is selected from the last samples in the x and y data provided, before shuffling. This argument is not supported when x is a dataset, generator or keras.utils.Sequence instance.
  • validation_data: Data on which to evaluate the loss and any model metrics at the end of each epoch. The model will not be trained on this data. validation_data will override validation_split. validation_data could be:
    • tuple (x_val, y_val) of Numpy arrays or tensors
    • tuple (x_val, y_val, val_sample_weights) of Numpy arrays
    • dataset For the first two cases, batch_size must be provided. For the last case, validation_steps must be provided.
  • shuffle: Boolean (whether to shuffle the training data before each epoch) or str (for 'batch'). 'batch' is a special option for dealing with the limitations of HDF5 data; it shuffles in batch-sized chunks. Has no effect when steps_per_epoch is not None.
  • class_weight: Optional dictionary mapping class indices (integers) to a weight (float) value, used for weighting the loss function (during training only). This can be useful to tell the model to "pay more attention" to samples from an under-represented class.
  • sample_weight: Optional Numpy array of weights for the training samples, used for weighting the loss function (during training only). You can either pass a flat (1D) Numpy array with the same length as the input samples (1:1 mapping between weights and samples), or in the case of temporal data, you can pass a 2D array with shape (samples, sequence_length), to apply a different weight to every timestep of every sample. In this case you should make sure to specify sample_weight_mode="temporal" in compile(). This argument is not supported when x is a dataset, generator, or keras.utils.Sequence instance, instead provide the sample_weights as the third element of x.
  • initial_epoch: Integer. Epoch at which to start training (useful for resuming a previous training run).
  • steps_per_epoch: Integer or None. Total number of steps (batches of samples) before declaring one epoch finished and starting the next epoch. When training with input tensors such as TensorFlow data tensors, the default None is equal to the number of samples in your dataset divided by the batch size, or 1 if that cannot be determined. If x is a tf.data dataset, and 'steps_per_epoch' is None, the epoch will run until the input dataset is exhausted. This argument is not supported with array inputs.
  • validation_steps: Only relevant if validation_data is provided and is a tf.data dataset. Total number of steps (batches of samples) to draw before stopping when performing validation at the end of every epoch. If validation_data is a tf.data dataset and 'validation_steps' is None, validation will run until the validation_data dataset is exhausted.
  • validation_freq: Only relevant if validation data is provided. Integer or collections_abc.Container instance (e.g. list, tuple, etc.). If an integer, specifies how many training epochs to run before a new validation run is performed, e.g. validation_freq=2 runs validation every 2 epochs. If a Container, specifies the epochs on which to run validation, e.g. validation_freq=[1, 2, 10] runs validation at the end of the 1st, 2nd, and 10th epochs.
  • max_queue_size: Integer. Used for generator or keras.utils.Sequence input only. Maximum size for the generator queue. If unspecified, max_queue_size will default to 10.
  • workers: Integer. Used for generator or keras.utils.Sequence input only. Maximum number of processes to spin up when using process-based threading. If unspecified, workers will default to 1. If 0, will execute the generator on the main thread.
  • use_multiprocessing: Boolean. Used for generator or keras.utils.Sequence input only. If True, use process-based threading. If unspecified, use_multiprocessing will default to False. Note that because this implementation relies on multiprocessing, you should not pass non-picklable arguments to the generator as they can't be passed easily to children processes.
  • **kwargs: Used for backwards compatibility.

Returns:

A History object. Its History.history attribute is a record of training loss values and metrics values at successive epochs, as well as validation loss values and validation metrics values (if applicable).

Raises:

  • RuntimeError: If the model was never compiled.
  • ValueError: In case of mismatch between the provided input data and what the model expects.

fit_generator

View source

fit_generator(
    generator,
    steps_per_epoch=None,
    epochs=1,
    verbose=1,
    callbacks=None,
    validation_data=None,
    validation_steps=None,
    validation_freq=1,
    class_weight=None,
    max_queue_size=10,
    workers=1,
    use_multiprocessing=False,
    shuffle=True,
    initial_epoch=0
)

Fits the model on data yielded batch-by-batch by a Python generator.

The generator is run in parallel to the model, for efficiency. For instance, this allows you to do real-time data augmentation on images on CPU in parallel to training your model on GPU.

The use of keras.utils.Sequence guarantees the ordering and guarantees the single use of every input per epoch when using use_multiprocessing=True.

Arguments:

  • generator: A generator or an instance of Sequence (keras.utils.Sequence) object in order to avoid duplicate data when using multiprocessing. The output of the generator must be either
    • a tuple (inputs, targets)
    • a tuple (inputs, targets, sample_weights). This tuple (a single output of the generator) makes a single batch. Therefore, all arrays in this tuple must have the same length (equal to the size of this batch). Different batches may have different sizes. For example, the last batch of the epoch is commonly smaller than the others, if the size of the dataset is not divisible by the batch size. The generator is expected to loop over its data indefinitely. An epoch finishes when steps_per_epoch batches have been seen by the model.
  • steps_per_epoch: Total number of steps (batches of samples) to yield from generator before declaring one epoch fini