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Computes liveness information for each op in each block.

A "live" variable is one that this analysis cannot prove will not be read later in the execution of the program:

Note that the semantics assumed by this analysis is that the control flow graph being analyzed does not use variable stacks internally, but they will only be used to implement the function sequence when function calls are lowered. For this reason, a write (as from PrimOp and FunctionCallOp) is treated as killing a variable, even though the downstream virtual machine pushes the outputs of PrimOp. This semantics is also why lower_function_calls can place PopOps.

The algorithm is to traverse the blocks in the CFG in reverse order, computing the in-block liveness map and the set of variables that are live into the entry of each block.

  • Within a block, proceed down the instructions in reverse order, updating the live variable set as each instruction is stepped over, and recording (a copy of) it. The set of variables that are live out of the last instruction of a block is the union of the variables that are live into the blocks to which control may be transferred (plus anything the terminator instruction itself may read).

  • As coded, this assumes that all control transfers go later in the CFG. Supporting loops will require equation solving.

  • As coded, crashes in the presence of IndirectGotoOp.

The latter two limitations amount to requiring this liveness analysis only be used before lowering function calls, and that the body of every Function analyzed be loop-free. Ergo, all recursive computations must cross FunctionCallOp boundaries in any program to which this is applied.

graph The ControlFlowGraph on which to perform liveness analysis.
live_out A Python list of str. The set of variables that are live on exit from this graph.

liveness_map Python dict mapping each Block in graph to a LivenessInfo tuple. Each of these has three fields: live_into_block gives the frozenset of str variable names live into the block; live_out_instructions gives a list parallel to the Block's instructions list, of variables live out of that instruction; and live_out_of_block gives the frozenset of str variable names live out of the block.

ValueError If an invalid instruction is encountered, or if trying to do liveness analysis in the presence of IndirectGotoOp or of backward control transfers.