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tfp.layers.IndependentLogistic

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An independent logistic Keras layer.

Inherits From: DistributionLambda

Example

tfd = tfp.distributions
tfpl = tfp.layers
tfk = tf.keras
tfkl = tf.keras.layers

# Create a stochastic encoder -- e.g., for use in a variational auto-encoder.
input_shape = [28, 28, 1]
encoded_shape = 2
encoder = tfk.Sequential([
  tfkl.InputLayer(input_shape=input_shape),
  tfkl.Flatten(),
  tfkl.Dense(10, activation='relu'),
  tfkl.Dense(tfpl.IndependentLogistic.params_size(encoded_shape)),
  tfpl.IndependentLogistic(encoded_shape)
])

event_shape integer vector Tensor representing the shape of single draw from this distribution.
convert_to_tensor_fn Python callable that takes a tfd.Distribution instance and returns a tf.Tensor-like object. Default value: tfd.Distribution.sample.
validate_args Python bool, default False. When True distribution parameters are checked for validity despite possibly degrading runtime performance. When False invalid inputs may silently render incorrect outputs. Default value: False.
**kwargs Additional keyword arguments passed to tf.keras.Layer.

activity_regularizer Optional regularizer function for the output of this layer.
compute_dtype The dtype of the layer's computations.

This is equivalent to Layer.dtype_policy.compute_dtype. Unless mixed precision is used, this is the same as Layer.dtype, the dtype of the weights.

Layers automatically cast their inputs to the compute dtype, which causes computations and the output to be in the compute dtype as well. This is done by the base Layer class in Layer.call, so you do not have to insert these casts if implementing your own layer.

Layers often perform certain internal computations in higher precision when compute_dtype is float16 or bfloat16 for numeric stability. The output will still typically be float16 or bfloat16 in such cases.

dtype The dtype of the layer weights.

This is equivalent to Layer.dtype_policy.variable_dtype. Unless mixed precision is used, this is the same as Layer.compute_dtype, the dtype of the layer's computations.

dtype_policy The dtype policy associated with this layer.

This is an instance of a tf.keras.mixed_precision.Policy.

dynamic Whether the layer is dynamic (eager-only); set in the constructor.
input Retrieves the input tensor(s) of a layer.

Only applicable if the layer has exactly one input, i.e. if it is connected to one incoming layer.

input_spec InputSpec instance(s) describing the input format for this layer.

When you create a layer subclass, you can set self.input_spec to enable the layer to run input compatibility checks when it is called. Consider a Conv2D layer: it can only be called on a single input tensor of rank 4. As such, you can set, in __init__():

self.input_spec = tf.keras.layers.InputSpec(ndim=4)

Now, if you try to call the layer on an input that isn't rank 4 (for instance, an input of shape (2,), it will raise a nicely-formatted error:

ValueError: Input 0 of layer conv2d is incompatible with the layer:
expected ndim=4, found ndim=1. Full shape received: [2]

Input checks that can be specified via input_spec include:

  • Structure (e.g. a single input, a list of 2 inputs, etc)
  • Shape
  • Rank (ndim)
  • Dtype

For more information, see tf.keras.layers.InputSpec.

losses List of losses added using the add_loss() API.

Variable regularization tensors are created when this property is accessed, so it is eager safe: accessing losses under a tf.GradientTape will propagate gradients back to the corresponding variables.

class MyLayer(tf.keras.layers.Layer):
  def call(self, inputs):
    self.add_loss(tf.abs(tf.reduce_mean(inputs)))
    return inputs
l = MyLayer()
l(np.ones((10, 1)))
l.losses
[1.0]
inputs = tf.keras.Input(shape=(10,))
x = tf.keras.layers.Dense(10)(inputs)
outputs = tf.keras.layers.Dense(1)(x)
model = tf.keras.Model(inputs, outputs)
# Activity regularization.
len(model.losses)
0
model.add_loss(tf.abs(tf.reduce_mean(x)))
len(model.losses)
1
inputs = tf.keras.Input(shape=(10,))
d = tf.keras.layers.Dense(10, kernel_initializer='ones')
x = d(inputs)
outputs = tf.keras.layers.Dense(1)(x)
model = tf.keras.Model(inputs, outputs)
# Weight regularization.
model.add_loss(lambda: tf.reduce_mean(d.kernel))
model.losses
[<tf.Tensor: shape=(), dtype=float32, numpy=1.0>]

metrics List of metrics added using the add_metric() API.

input = tf.keras.layers.Input(shape=(3,))
d = tf.keras.layers.Dense(2)
output = d(input)
d.add_metric(tf.reduce_max(output), name='max')
d.add_metric(tf.reduce_min(output), name='min')
[m.name for m in d.metrics]
['max', 'min']

name Name of the layer (string), set in the constructor.
name_scope Returns a tf.name_scope instance for this class.
non_trainable_weights List of all non-trainable weights tracked by this layer.

Non-trainable weights are not updated during training. They are expected to be updated manually in call().

output Retrieves the output tensor(s) of a layer.

Only applicable if the layer has exactly one output, i.e. if it is connected to one incoming layer.

submodules Sequence of all sub-modules.

Submodules are modules which are properties of this module, or found as properties of modules which are properties of this module (and so on).

a = tf.Module()
b = tf.Module()
c = tf.Module()
a.b = b
b.c = c
list(a.submodules) == [b, c]
True
list(b.submodules) == [c]
True
list(c.submodules) == []
True

supports_masking Whether this layer supports computing a mask using compute_mask.
trainable

trainable_weights List of all trainable weights tracked by this layer.

Trainable weights are updated via gradient descent during training.

variable_dtype Alias of Layer.dtype, the dtype of the weights.
weights Returns the list of all layer variables/weights.

Methods

add_loss

Add loss tensor(s), potentially dependent on layer inputs.

Some losses (for instance, activity regularization losses) may be dependent on the inputs passed when calling a layer. Hence, when reusing the same layer on different inputs a and b, some entries in layer.losses may be dependent on a and some on b. This method automatically keeps track of dependencies.

This method can be used inside a subclassed layer or model's call function, in which case losses should be a Tensor or list of Tensors.

Example:

class MyLayer(tf.keras.layers.Layer):
  def call(self, inputs):
    self.add_loss(tf.abs(tf.reduce_mean(inputs)))
    return inputs

This method can also be called directly on a Functional Model during construction. In this case, any loss Tensors passed to this Model must be symbolic and be able to be traced back to the model's Inputs. These losses become part of the model's topology and are tracked in get_config.

Example:

inputs = tf.keras.Input(shape=(10,))
x = tf.keras.layers.Dense(10)(inputs)
outputs = tf.keras.layers.Dense(1)(x)
model = tf.keras.Model(inputs, outputs)
# Activity regularization.
model.add_loss(tf.abs(tf.reduce_mean(x)))

If this is not the case for your loss (if, for example, your loss references a Variable of one of the model's layers), you can wrap your loss in a zero-argument lambda. These losses are not tracked as part of the model's topology since they can't be serialized.

Example:

inputs = tf.keras.Input(shape=(10,))
d = tf.keras.layers.Dense(10)
x = d(inputs)
outputs = tf.keras.layers.Dense(1)(x)
model = tf.keras.Model(inputs, outputs)
# Weight regularization.
model.add_loss(lambda: tf.reduce_mean(d.kernel))

Args
losses Loss tensor, or list/tuple of tensors. Rather than tensors, losses may also be zero-argument callables which create a loss tensor.
**kwargs Used for backwards compatibility only.

add_metric

Adds metric tensor to the layer.

This method can be used inside the call() method of a subclassed layer or model.

class MyMetricLayer(tf.keras.layers.Layer):
  def __init__(self):
    super(MyMetricLayer, self).__init__(name='my_metric_layer')
    self.mean = tf.keras.metrics.Mean(name='metric_1')

  def call(self, inputs):
    self.add_metric(self.mean(inputs))
    self.add_metric(tf.reduce_sum(inputs), name='metric_2')
    return inputs

This method can also be called directly on a Functional Model during construction. In this case, any tensor passed to this Model must be symbolic and be able to be traced back to the model's Inputs. These metrics become part of the model's topology and are tracked when you save the model via save().

inputs = tf.keras.Input(shape=(10,))
x = tf.keras.layers.Dense(10)(inputs)
outputs = tf.keras.layers.Dense(1)(x)
model = tf.keras.Model(inputs, outputs)
model.add_metric(math_ops.reduce_sum(x), name='metric_1')