A piecewise rational quadratic spline, as developed in .

Inherits From: `AutoCompositeTensorBijector`, `Bijector`

This transformation represents a monotonically increasing piecewise rational quadratic function. Outside of the bounds of `knot_x`/`knot_y`, the transform behaves as an identity function.

Typically this bijector will be used as part of a chain, with splines for trailing `x` dimensions conditioned on some of the earlier `x` dimensions, and with the inverse then solved first for unconditioned dimensions, then using conditioning derived from those inverses, and so forth. For example, if we split a 15-D `xs` vector into 3 components, we may implement a forward and inverse as follows:

``````nsplits = 3

class SplineParams(tf.Module):

def __init__(self, nbins=32, interval_width=2, range_min=-1,
min_bin_width=1e-3, min_slope=1e-3):
self._nbins = nbins
self._interval_width = interval_width  # Sum of bin widths.
self._range_min = range_min  # Position of first knot.
self._min_bin_width = min_bin_width  # Bin width lower bound.
self._min_slope = min_slope  # Lower bound for slopes at internal knots.
self._built = False
self._bin_widths = None
self._bin_heights = None
self._knot_slopes = None

def __call__(self, x, nunits):
if not self._built:
def _bin_positions(x):
out_shape = tf.concat((tf.shape(x)[:-1], (nunits, self._nbins)), 0)
x = tf.reshape(x, out_shape)
return tf.math.softmax(x, axis=-1) * (
self._interval_width - self._nbins * self._min_bin_width
) + self._min_bin_width

def _slopes(x):
out_shape = tf.concat((
tf.shape(x)[:-1], (nunits, self._nbins - 1)), 0)
x = tf.reshape(x, out_shape)
return tf.math.softplus(x) + self._min_slope

self._bin_widths = tf.keras.layers.Dense(
nunits * self._nbins, activation=_bin_positions, name='w')
self._bin_heights = tf.keras.layers.Dense(
nunits * self._nbins, activation=_bin_positions, name='h')
self._knot_slopes = tf.keras.layers.Dense(
nunits * (self._nbins - 1), activation=_slopes, name='s')
self._built = True

bin_widths=self._bin_widths(x),
bin_heights=self._bin_heights(x),
knot_slopes=self._knot_slopes(x),
range_min=self._range_min)

xs = np.random.randn(3, 15).astype(np.float32)  # Keras won't Dense(.)(vec).
splines = [SplineParams() for _ in range(nsplits)]

def spline_flow():
stack = tfb.Identity()
for i in range(nsplits):
stack = tfb.RealNVP(5 * i, bijector_fn=splines[i])(stack)
return stack

ys = spline_flow().forward(xs)
ys_inv = spline_flow().inverse(ys)  # ys_inv ~= xs
``````

For a one-at-a-time autoregressive flow as in , it would be profitable to implement a mask over `xs` to parallelize either the inverse or the forward pass and implement the other using a `tf.while_loop`. See `tfp.bijectors.MaskedAutoregressiveFlow` for support doing so (paired with `tfp.bijectors.Invert` depending which direction should be parallel).

: Conor Durkan, Artur Bekasov, Iain Murray, George Papamakarios. Neural Spline Flows. arXiv preprint arXiv:1906.04032, 2019. https://arxiv.org/abs/1906.04032

`bin_widths` The widths of the spans between subsequent knot `x` positions, a floating point `Tensor`. Must be positive, and at least 1-D. Innermost axis must sum to the same value as `bin_heights`. The knot `x` positions will be a first at `range_min`, followed by knots at ```range_min + cumsum(bin_widths, axis=-1)```.
`bin_heights` The heights of the spans between subsequent knot `y` positions, a floating point `Tensor`. Must be positive, and at least 1-D. Innermost axis must sum to the same value as `bin_widths`. The knot `y` positions will be a first at `range_min`, followed by knots at `range_min + cumsum(bin_heights, axis=-1)`.
`knot_slopes` The slope of the spline at each knot, a floating point `Tensor`. Must be positive. `1`s are implicitly padded for the first and last implicit knots corresponding to `range_min` and ```range_min + sum(bin_widths, axis=-1)```. Innermost axis size should be 1 less than that of `bin_widths`/`bin_heights`, or 1 for broadcasting.
`range_min` The `x`/`y` position of the first knot, which has implicit slope `1`. `range_max` is implicit, and can be computed as ```range_min + sum(bin_widths, axis=-1)```. Scalar floating point `Tensor`.
`validate_args` Toggles argument validation (can hurt performance).
`name` Optional name scope for associated ops. (Defaults to `'RationalQuadraticSpline'`).

`bin_heights`

`bin_widths`

`dtype`

`forward_min_event_ndims` Returns the minimal number of dimensions bijector.forward operates on.

Multipart bijectors return structured `ndims`, which indicates the expected structure of their inputs. Some multipart bijectors, notably Composites, may return structures of `None`.

`graph_parents` Returns this `Bijector`'s graph_parents as a Python list.
`has_static_min_event_ndims` Returns True if the bijector has statically-known `min_event_ndims`.
`inverse_min_event_ndims` Returns the minimal number of dimensions bijector.inverse operates on.

Multipart bijectors return structured `event_ndims`, which indicates the expected structure of their outputs. Some multipart bijectors, notably Composites, may return structures of `None`.

`is_constant_jacobian` Returns true iff the Jacobian matrix is not a function of x.

`knot_slopes`

`name` Returns the string name of this `Bijector`.
`parameters` Dictionary of parameters used to instantiate this `Bijector`.
`range_min`

`trainable_variables`

`validate_args` Returns True if Tensor arguments will be validated.
`variables`

## Methods

### `copy`

View source

Creates a copy of the bijector.

Args
`**override_parameters_kwargs` String/value dictionary of initialization arguments to override with new values.

Returns
`bijector` A new instance of `type(self)` initialized from the union of self.parameters and override_parameters_kwargs, i.e., `dict(self.parameters, **override_parameters_kwargs)`.

### `experimental_batch_shape`

View source

Returns the batch shape of this bijector for inputs of the given rank.

The batch shape of a bijector decribes the set of distinct transformations it represents on events of a given size. For example: the bijector `tfb.Scale([1., 2.])` has batch shape `` for scalar events (`event_ndims = 0`), because applying it to a scalar event produces two scalar outputs, the result of two different scaling transformations. The same bijector has batch shape `[]` for vector events, because applying it to a vector produces (via elementwise multiplication) a single vector output.

Bijectors that operate independently on multiple state parts, such as `tfb.JointMap`, must broadcast to a coherent batch shape. Some events may not be valid: for example, the bijector `tfd.JointMap([tfb.Scale([1., 2.]), tfb.Scale([1., 2., 3.])])` does not produce a valid batch shape when `event_ndims = [0, 0]`, since the batch shapes of the two parts are inconsistent. The same bijector does define valid batch shapes of `[]`, ``, and `` if `event_ndims` is `[1, 1]`, `[0, 1]`, or `[1, 0]`, respectively.

Since transforming a single event produces a scalar log-det-Jacobian, the batch shape of a bijector with non-constant Jacobian is expected to equal the shape of `forward_log_det_jacobian(x, event_ndims=x_event_ndims)` or `inverse_log_det_jacobian(y, event_ndims=y_event_ndims)`, for `x` or `y` of the specified `ndims`.

Args
`x_event_ndims` Optional Python `int` (structure) number of dimensions in a probabilistic event passed to `forward`; this must be greater than or equal to `self.forward_min_event_ndims`. If `None`, defaults to `self.forward_min_event_ndims`. Mutually exclusive with `y_event_ndims`. Default value: `None`.
`y_event_ndims` Optional Python `int` (structure) number of dimensions in a probabilistic event passed to `inverse`; this must be greater than or equal to `self.inverse_min_event_ndims`. Mutually exclusive with `x_event_ndims`. Default value: `None`.

Returns
`batch_shape` `TensorShape` batch shape of this bijector for a value with the given event rank. May be unknown or partially defined.

### `experimental_batch_shape_tensor`

View source

Returns the batch shape of this bijector for inputs of the given rank.

The batch shape of a bijector decribes the set of distinct transformations it represents on events of a given size. For example: the bijector `tfb.Scale([1., 2.])` has batch shape `` for scalar events (`event_ndims = 0`), because applying it to a scalar event produces two scalar outputs, the result of two different scaling transformations. The same bijector has batch shape `[]` for vector events, because applying it to a vector produces (via elementwise multiplication) a single vector output.

Bijectors that operate independently on multiple state parts, such as `tfb.JointMap`, must broadcast to a coherent batch shape. Some events may not be valid: for example, the bijector `tfd.JointMap([tfb.Scale([1., 2.]), tfb.Scale([1., 2., 3.])])` does not produce a valid batch shape when `event_ndims = [0, 0]`, since the batch shapes of the two parts are inconsistent. The same bijector does define valid batch shapes of `[]`, ``, and `` if `event_ndims` is `[1, 1]`, `[0, 1]`, or `[1, 0]`, respectively.

Since transforming a single event produces a scalar log-det-Jacobian, the batch shape of a bijector with non-constant Jacobian is expected to equal the shape of `forward_log_det_jacobian(x, event_ndims=x_event_ndims)` or `inverse_log_det_jacobian(y, event_ndims=y_event_ndims)`, for `x` or `y` of the specified `ndims`.

Args
`x_event_ndims` Optional Python `int` (structure) number of dimensions in a probabilistic event passed to `forward`; this must be greater than or equal to `self.forward_min_event_ndims`. If `None`, defaults to `self.forward_min_event_ndims`. Mutually exclusive with `y_event_ndims`. Default value: `None`.
`y_event_ndims` Optional Python `int` (structure) number of dimensions in a probabilistic event passed to `inverse`; this must be greater than or equal to `self.inverse_min_event_ndims`. Mutually exclusive with `x_event_ndims`. Default value: `None`.

Returns
`batch_shape_tensor` integer `Tensor` batch shape of this bijector for a value with the given event rank.

### `experimental_compute_density_correction`

View source

Density correction for this transformation wrt the tangent space, at x.

Subclasses of Bijector may call the most specific applicable method of `TangentSpace`, based on whether the transformation is dimension-preserving, coordinate-wise, a projection, or something more general. The backward-compatible assumption is that the transformation is dimension-preserving (goes from R^n to R^n).

Args
`x` `Tensor` (structure). The point at which to calculate the density.
`tangent_space` `TangentSpace` or one of its subclasses. The tangent to the support manifold at `x`.
`backward_compat` `bool` specifying whether to assume that the Bijector is dimension-preserving.
`**kwargs` Optional keyword arguments forwarded to tangent space methods.

Returns
`density_correction` `Tensor` representing the density correction---in log space---under the transformation that this Bijector denotes.

Raises
TypeError if `backward_compat` is False but no method of `TangentSpace` has been called explicitly.

### `forward`

View source

Returns the forward `Bijector` evaluation, i.e., X = g(Y).

Args
`x` `Tensor` (structure). The input to the 'forward' evaluation.
`name` The name to give this op.
`**kwargs` Named arguments forwarded to subclass implementation.

Returns
`Tensor` (structure).

Raises
`TypeError` if `self.dtype` is specified and `x.dtype` is not `self.dtype`.
`NotImplementedError` if `_forward` is not implemented.

### `forward_dtype`

View source

Returns the dtype returned by `forward` for the provided input.

### `forward_event_ndims`

View source

Returns the number of event dimensions produced by `forward`.

Args
`event_ndims` Structure of Python and/or Tensor `int`s, and/or `None` values. The structure should match that of `self.forward_min_event_ndims`, and all non-`None` values must be greater than or equal to the corresponding value in `self.forward_min_event_ndims`.
`**kwargs` Optional keyword arguments forwarded to nested bijectors.

Returns
`forward_event_ndims` Structure of integers and/or `None` values matching `self.inverse_min_event_ndims`. These are computed using 'prefer static' semantics: if any inputs are `None`, some or all of the outputs may be `None`, indicating that the output dimension could not be inferred (conversely, if all inputs are non-`None`, all outputs will be non-`None`). If all input `event_ndims` are Python `int`s, all of the (non-`None`) outputs will be Python `int`s; otherwise, some or all of the outputs may be `Tensor` `int`s.

### `forward_event_shape`

View source

Shape of a single sample from a single batch as a `TensorShape`.

Same meaning as `forward_event_shape_tensor`. May be only partially defined.

Args
`input_shape` `TensorShape` (structure) indicating event-portion shape passed into `forward` function.

Returns
`forward_event_shape_tensor` `TensorShape` (structure) indicating event-portion shape after applying `forward`. Possibly unknown.

### `forward_event_shape_tensor`

View source

Shape of a single sample from a single batch as an `int32` 1D `Tensor`.

Args
`input_shape` `Tensor`, `int32` vector (structure) indicating event-portion shape passed into `forward` function.
`name` name to give to the op

Returns
`forward_event_shape_tensor` `Tensor`, `int32` vector (structure) indicating event-portion shape after applying `forward`.

### `forward_log_det_jacobian`

View source

Returns both the forward_log_det_jacobian.

Args
`x` `Tensor` (structure). The input to the 'forward' Jacobian determinant evaluation.
`event_ndims` Optional number of dimensions in the probabilistic events being transformed; this must be greater than or equal to `self.forward_min_event_ndims`. If `event_ndims` is specified, the log Jacobian determinant is summed to produce a scalar log-determinant for each event. Otherwise (if `event_ndims` is `None`), no reduction is performed. Multipart bijectors require structured event_ndims, such that the batch rank `rank(y[i]) - event_ndims[i]` is the same for all elements `i` of the structured input. In most cases (with the exception of `tfb.JointMap`) they further require that `event_ndims[i] - self.inverse_min_event_ndims[i]` is the same for all elements `i` of the structured input. Default value: `None` (equivalent to `self.forward_min_event_ndims`).
`name` The name to give this op.
`**kwargs` Named arguments forwarded to subclass implementation.

Returns
`Tensor` (structure), if this bijector is injective. If not injective this is not implemented.

Raises
`TypeError` if `y`'s dtype is incompatible with the expected output dtype.
`NotImplementedError` if neither `_forward_log_det_jacobian` nor {`_inverse`, `_inverse_log_det_jacobian`} are implemented, or this is a non-injective bijector.
`ValueError` if the value of `event_ndims` is not valid for this bijector.

### `inverse`

View source

Returns the inverse `Bijector` evaluation, i.e., X = g^{-1}(Y).

Args
`y` `Tensor` (structure). The input to the 'inverse' evaluation.
`name` The name to give this op.
`**kwargs` Named arguments forwarded to subclass implementation.

Returns
`Tensor` (structure), if this bijector is injective. If not injective, returns the k-tuple containing the unique `k` points `(x1, ..., xk)` such that `g(xi) = y`.

Raises
`TypeError` if `y`'s structured dtype is incompatible with the expected output dtype.
`NotImplementedError` if `_inverse` is not implemented.

### `inverse_dtype`

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Returns the dtype returned by `inverse` for the provided input.

### `inverse_event_ndims`

View source

Returns the number of event dimensions produced by `inverse`.

Args
`event_ndims` Structure of Python and/or Tensor `int`s, and/or `None` values. The structure should match that of `self.inverse_min_event_ndims`, and all non-`None` values must be greater than or equal to the corresponding value in `self.inverse_min_event_ndims`.
`**kwargs` Optional keyword arguments forwarded to nested bijectors.

Returns
`inverse_event_ndims` Structure of integers and/or `None` values matching `self.forward_min_event_ndims`. These are computed using 'prefer static' semantics: if any inputs are `None`, some or all of the outputs may be `None`, indicating that the output dimension could not be inferred (conversely, if all inputs are non-`None`, all outputs will be non-`None`). If all input `event_ndims` are Python `int`s, all of the (non-`None`) outputs will be Python `int`s; otherwise, some or all of the outputs may be `Tensor` `int`s.

### `inverse_event_shape`

View source

Shape of a single sample from a single batch as a `TensorShape`.

Same meaning as `inverse_event_shape_tensor`. May be only partially defined.

Args
`output_shape` `TensorShape` (structure) indicating event-portion shape passed into `inverse` function.

Returns
`inverse_event_shape_tensor` `TensorShape` (structure) indicating event-portion shape after applying `inverse`. Possibly unknown.

### `inverse_event_shape_tensor`

View source

Shape of a single sample from a single batch as an `int32` 1D `Tensor`.

Args
`output_shape` `Tensor`, `int32` vector (structure) indicating event-portion shape passed into `inverse` function.
`name` name to give to the op

Returns
`inverse_event_shape_tensor` `Tensor`, `int32` vector (structure) indicating event-portion shape after applying `inverse`.

### `inverse_log_det_jacobian`

View source

Returns the (log o det o Jacobian o inverse)(y).

Mathematically, returns: `log(det(dX/dY))(Y)`. (Recall that: `X=g^{-1}(Y)`.)

Note that `forward_log_det_jacobian` is the negative of this function, evaluated at `g^{-1}(y)`.

Args
`y` `Tensor` (structure). The input to the 'inverse' Jacobian determinant evaluation.
`event_ndims` Optional number of dimensions in the probabilistic events being transformed; this must be greater than or equal to `self.inverse_min_event_ndims`. If `event_ndims` is specified, the log Jacobian determinant is summed to produce a scalar log-determinant for each event. Otherwise (if `event_ndims` is `None`), no reduction is performed. Multipart bijectors require structured event_ndims, such that the batch rank `rank(y[i]) - event_ndims[i]` is the same for all elements `i` of the structured input. In most cases (with the exception of `tfb.JointMap`) they further require that `event_ndims[i] - self.inverse_min_event_ndims[i]` is the same for all elements `i` of the structured input. Default value: `None` (equivalent to `self.inverse_min_event_ndims`).
`name` The name to give this op.
`**kwargs` Named arguments forwarded to subclass implementation.

Returns
`ildj` `Tensor`, if this bijector is injective. If not injective, returns the tuple of local log det Jacobians, `log(det(Dg_i^{-1}(y)))`, where `g_i` is the restriction of `g` to the `ith` partition `Di`.

Raises
`TypeError` if `x`'s dtype is incompatible with the expected inverse-dtype.
`NotImplementedError` if `_inverse_log_det_jacobian` is not implemented.
`ValueError` if the value of `event_ndims` is not valid for this bijector.

### `parameter_properties`

View source

Returns a dict mapping constructor arg names to property annotations.

This dict should include an entry for each of the bijector's `Tensor`-valued constructor arguments.

Args
`dtype` Optional float `dtype` to assume for continuous-valued parameters. Some constraining bijectors require advance knowledge of the dtype because certain constants (e.g., `tfb.Softplus.low`) must be instantiated with the same dtype as the values to be transformed.

Returns
`parameter_properties` A `str ->`tfp.python.internal.parameter_properties.ParameterProperties`dict mapping constructor argument names to`ParameterProperties` instances.

### `__call__`

View source

Applies or composes the `Bijector`, depending on input type.

This is a convenience function which applies the `Bijector` instance in three different ways, depending on the input:

1. If the input is a `tfd.Distribution` instance, return `tfd.TransformedDistribution(distribution=input, bijector=self)`.
2. If the input is a `tfb.Bijector` instance, return `tfb.Chain([self, input])`.
3. Otherwise, return `self.forward(input)`

Args
`value` A `tfd.Distribution`, `tfb.Bijector`, or a (structure of) `Tensor`.
`name` Python `str` name given to ops created by this function.
`**kwargs` Additional keyword arguments passed into the created `tfd.TransformedDistribution`, `tfb.Bijector`, or `self.forward`.

Returns
`composition` A `tfd.TransformedDistribution` if the input was a `tfd.Distribution`, a `tfb.Chain` if the input was a `tfb.Bijector`, or a (structure of) `Tensor` computed by `self.forward`.

#### Examples

``````sigmoid = tfb.Reciprocal()(
tfb.Shift(shift=1.)(
tfb.Exp()(
tfb.Scale(scale=-1.))))
# ==> `tfb.Chain([
#         tfb.Reciprocal(),
#         tfb.Shift(shift=1.),
#         tfb.Exp(),
#         tfb.Scale(scale=-1.),
#      ])`  # ie, `tfb.Sigmoid()`

log_normal = tfb.Exp()(tfd.Normal(0, 1))
# ==> `tfd.TransformedDistribution(tfd.Normal(0, 1), tfb.Exp())`

tfb.Exp()([-1., 0., 1.])
# ==> tf.exp([-1., 0., 1.])
``````

### `__eq__`

View source

Return self==value.

### `__getitem__`

View source

[{ "type": "thumb-down", "id": "missingTheInformationINeed", "label":"Missing the information I need" },{ "type": "thumb-down", "id": "tooComplicatedTooManySteps", "label":"Too complicated / too many steps" },{ "type": "thumb-down", "id": "outOfDate", "label":"Out of date" },{ "type": "thumb-down", "id": "samplesCodeIssue", "label":"Samples / code issue" },{ "type": "thumb-down", "id": "otherDown", "label":"Other" }]
[{ "type": "thumb-up", "id": "easyToUnderstand", "label":"Easy to understand" },{ "type": "thumb-up", "id": "solvedMyProblem", "label":"Solved my problem" },{ "type": "thumb-up", "id": "otherUp", "label":"Other" }]