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tfp.sts.LocalLinearTrendStateSpaceModel

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State space model for a local linear trend.

Inherits From: LinearGaussianStateSpaceModel

tfp.sts.LocalLinearTrendStateSpaceModel(
    num_timesteps, level_scale, slope_scale, initial_state_prior,
    observation_noise_scale=0.0, initial_step=0, validate_args=False,
    allow_nan_stats=True, name=None
)

A state space model (SSM) posits a set of latent (unobserved) variables that evolve over time with dynamics specified by a probabilistic transition model p(z[t+1] | z[t]). At each timestep, we observe a value sampled from an observation model conditioned on the current state, p(x[t] | z[t]). The special case where both the transition and observation models are Gaussians with mean specified as a linear function of the inputs, is known as a linear Gaussian state space model and supports tractable exact probabilistic calculations; see tfp.distributions.LinearGaussianStateSpaceModel for details.

The local linear trend model is a special case of a linear Gaussian SSM, in which the latent state posits a level and slope, each evolving via a Gaussian random walk:

level[t] = level[t-1] + slope[t-1] + Normal(0., level_scale)
slope[t] = slope[t-1] + Normal(0., slope_scale)

The latent state is the two-dimensional tuple [level, slope]. The level is observed at each timestep.

The parameters level_scale, slope_scale, and observation_noise_scale are each (a batch of) scalars. The batch shape of this Distribution is the broadcast batch shape of these parameters and of the initial_state_prior.

Mathematical Details

The linear trend model implements a tfp.distributions.LinearGaussianStateSpaceModel with latent_size = 2 and observation_size = 1, following the transition model:

transition_matrix = [[1., 1.]
                     [0., 1.]]
transition_noise ~ N(loc=0., scale=diag([level_scale, slope_scale]))

which implements the evolution of [level, slope] described above, and the observation model:

observation_matrix = [[1., 0.]]
observation_noise ~ N(loc=0, scale=observation_noise_scale)

which picks out the first latent component, i.e., the level, as the observation at each timestep.

Examples

A simple model definition:

linear_trend_model = LocalLinearTrendStateSpaceModel(
    num_timesteps=50,
    level_scale=0.5,
    slope_scale=0.5,
    initial_state_prior=tfd.MultivariateNormalDiag(scale_diag=[1., 1.]))

y = linear_trend_model.sample() # y has shape [50, 1]
lp = linear_trend_model.log_prob(y) # log_prob is scalar

Passing additional parameter dimensions constructs a batch of models. The overall batch shape is the broadcast batch shape of the parameters:

linear_trend_model = LocalLinearTrendStateSpaceModel(
    num_timesteps=50,
    level_scale=tf.ones([10]),
    slope_scale=0.5,
    initial_state_prior=tfd.MultivariateNormalDiag(
      scale_diag=tf.ones([10, 10, 2])))

y = linear_trend_model.sample(5) # y has shape [5, 10, 10, 50, 1]
lp = linear_trend_model.log_prob(y) # has shape [5, 10, 10]

Args:

  • num_timesteps: Scalar int Tensor number of timesteps to model with this distribution.
  • level_scale: Scalar (any additional dimensions are treated as batch dimensions) float Tensor indicating the standard deviation of the level transitions.
  • slope_scale: Scalar (any additional dimensions are treated as batch dimensions) float Tensor indicating the standard deviation of the slope transitions.
  • initial_state_prior: instance of tfd.MultivariateNormal representing the prior distribution on latent states; must have event shape [2].
  • observation_noise_scale: Scalar (any additional dimensions are treated as batch dimensions) float Tensor indicating the standard deviation of the observation noise.
  • initial_step: Optional scalar int Tensor specifying the starting timestep. Default value: 0.
  • validate_args: Python bool. Whether to validate input with asserts. If validate_args is False, and the inputs are invalid, correct behavior is not guaranteed. Default value: False.
  • allow_nan_stats: Python bool. If False, raise an exception if a statistic (e.g. mean/mode/etc...) is undefined for any batch member. If True, batch members with valid parameters leading to undefined statistics will return NaN for this statistic. Default value: True.
  • name: Python str name prefixed to ops created by this class. Default value: "LocalLinearTrendStateSpaceModel".

Attributes:

  • allow_nan_stats: Python bool describing behavior when a stat is undefined.

    Stats return +/- infinity when it makes sense. E.g., the variance of a Cauchy distribution is infinity. However, sometimes the statistic is undefined, e.g., if a distribution's pdf does not achieve a maximum within the support of the distribution, the mode is undefined. If the mean is undefined, then by definition the variance is undefined. E.g. the mean for Student's T for df = 1 is undefined (no clear way to say it is either + or - infinity), so the variance = E[(X - mean)**2] is also undefined.

  • batch_shape: Shape of a single sample from a single event index as a TensorShape.

    May be partially defined or unknown.

    The batch dimensions are indexes into independent, non-identical parameterizations of this distribution.

  • dtype: The DType of Tensors handled by this Distribution.

  • event_shape: Shape of a single sample from a single batch as a TensorShape.

    May be partially defined or unknown.

  • final_step: DEPRECATED FUNCTION

  • initial_state_prior

  • initial_step

  • latent_size: DEPRECATED FUNCTION

  • level_scale: Standard deviation of the level transitions.

  • name: Name prepended to all ops created by this Distribution.

  • name_scope: Returns a tf.name_scope instance for this class.

  • num_timesteps

  • observation_matrix

  • observation_noise

  • observation_noise_scale: Standard deviation of the observation noise.

  • observation_size

  • parameters: Dictionary of parameters used to instantiate this Distribution.

  • reparameterization_type: Describes how samples from the distribution are reparameterized.

    Currently this is one of the static instances tfd.FULLY_REPARAMETERIZED or tfd.NOT_REPARAMETERIZED.

  • slope_scale: Standard deviation of the slope transitions.

  • submodules: Sequence of all sub-modules.

    Submodules are modules which are properties of this module, or found as properties of modules which are properties of this module (and so on).

a = tf.Module()
b = tf.Module()
c = tf.Module()
a.b = b
b.c = c
assert list(a.submodules) == [b, c]
assert list(b.submodules) == [c]
assert list(c.submodules) == []
  • trainable_variables: Sequence of trainable variables owned by this module and its submodules.

  • transition_matrix

  • transition_noise

  • validate_args: Python bool indicating possibly expensive checks are enabled.

  • variables: Sequence of variables owned by this module and its submodules.

Methods

__getitem__

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__getitem__(
    slices
)

Slices the batch axes of this distribution, returning a new instance.

b = tfd.Bernoulli(logits=tf.zeros([3, 5, 7, 9]))
b.batch_shape  # => [3, 5, 7, 9]
b2 = b[:, tf.newaxis, ..., -2:, 1::2]
b2.batch_shape  # => [3, 1, 5, 2, 4]

x = tf.random.normal([5, 3, 2, 2])
cov = tf.matmul(x, x, transpose_b=True)
chol = tf.cholesky(cov)
loc = tf.random.normal([4, 1, 3, 1])
mvn = tfd.MultivariateNormalTriL(loc, chol)
mvn.batch_shape  # => [4, 5, 3]
mvn.event_shape  # => [2]
mvn2 = mvn[:, 3:, ..., ::-1, tf.newaxis]
mvn2.batch_shape  # => [4, 2, 3, 1]
mvn2.event_shape  # => [2]

Args:

  • slices: slices from the [] operator

Returns:

  • dist: A new tfd.Distribution instance with sliced parameters.

__iter__

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__iter__()

backward_smoothing_pass

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backward_smoothing_pass(
    filtered_means, filtered_covs, predicted_means, predicted_covs
)

Run the backward pass in Kalman smoother.

The backward smoothing is using Rauch, Tung and Striebel smoother as as discussed in section 18.3.2 of Kevin P. Murphy, 2012, Machine Learning: A Probabilistic Perspective, The MIT Press. The inputs are returned by forward_filter function.

Args:

  • filtered_means: Means of the per-timestep filtered marginal distributions p(z[t] | x[:t]), as a Tensor of shape sample_shape(x) + batch_shape + [num_timesteps, latent_size].
  • filtered_covs: Covariances of the per-timestep filtered marginal distributions p(z[t] | x[:t]), as a Tensor of shape batch_shape + [num_timesteps, latent_size, latent_size].
  • predicted_means: Means of the per-timestep predictive distributions over latent states, p(z[t+1] | x[:t]), as a Tensor of shape sample_shape(x) + batch_shape + [num_timesteps, latent_size].
  • predicted_covs: Covariances of the per-timestep predictive distributions over latent states, p(z[t+1] | x[:t]), as a Tensor of shape batch_shape + [num_timesteps, latent_size, latent_size].

Returns:

  • posterior_means: Means of the smoothed marginal distributions p(z[t] | x[1:T]), as a Tensor of shape sample_shape(x) + batch_shape + [num_timesteps, latent_size], which is of the same shape as filtered_means.
  • posterior_covs: Covariances of the smoothed marginal distributions p(z[t] | x[1:T]), as a Tensor of shape batch_shape + [num_timesteps, latent_size, latent_size]. which is of the same shape as filtered_covs.

batch_shape_tensor

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batch_shape_tensor(
    name='batch_shape_tensor'
)

Shape of a single sample from a single event index as a 1-D Tensor.

The batch dimensions are indexes into independent, non-identical parameterizations of this distribution.

Args:

  • name: name to give to the op

Returns:

  • batch_shape: Tensor.

cdf

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cdf(
    value, name='cdf', **kwargs
)

Cumulative distribution function.

Given random variable X, the cumulative distribution function cdf is:

cdf(x) := P[X <= x]

Args:

  • value: float or double Tensor.
  • name: Python str prepended to names of ops created by this function.
  • **kwargs: Named arguments forwarded to subclass implementation.

Returns:

  • cdf: a Tensor of shape sample_shape(x) + self.batch_shape with values of type self.dtype.

copy

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copy(
    **override_parameters_kwargs
)

Creates a deep copy of the distribution.

Args:

  • **override_parameters_kwargs: String/value dictionary of initialization arguments to override with new values.

Returns:

  • distribution: A new instance of type(self) initialized from the union of self.parameters and override_parameters_kwargs, i.e., dict(self.parameters, **override_parameters_kwargs).

covariance

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covariance(
    name='covariance', **kwargs
)

Covariance.

Covariance is (possibly) defined only for non-scalar-event distributions.

For example, for a length-k, vector-valued distribution, it is calculated as,

Cov[i, j] = Covariance(X_i, X_j) = E[(X_i - E[X_i]) (X_j - E[X_j])]

where Cov is a (batch of) k x k matrix, 0 <= (i, j) < k, and E denotes expectation.

Alternatively, for non-vector, multivariate distributions (e.g., matrix-valued, Wishart), Covariance shall return a (batch of) matrices under some vectorization of the events, i.e.,

Cov[i, j] = Covariance(Vec(X)_i, Vec(X)_j) = [as above]

where Cov is a (batch of) k' x k' matrices, 0 <= (i, j) < k' = reduce_prod(event_shape), and Vec is some function mapping indices of this distribution's event dimensions to indices of a length-k' vector.

Args:

  • name: Python str prepended to names of ops created by this function.
  • **kwargs: Named arguments forwarded to subclass implementation.

Returns:

  • covariance: Floating-point Tensor with shape [B1, ..., Bn, k', k'] where the first n dimensions are batch coordinates and k' = reduce_prod(self.event_shape).

cross_entropy

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cross_entropy(
    other, name='cross_entropy'
)

Computes the (Shannon) cross entropy.

Denote this distribution (self) by P and the other distribution by Q. Assuming P, Q are absolutely continuous with respect to one another and permit densities p(x) dr(x) and q(x) dr(x), (Shannon) cross entropy is defined as:

H[P, Q] = E_p[-log q(X)] = -int_F p(x) log q(x) dr(x)

where F denotes the support of the random variable X ~ P.

Args:

Returns:

  • cross_entropy: self.dtype Tensor with shape [B1, ..., Bn] representing n different calculations of (Shannon) cross entropy.

entropy

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entropy(
    name='entropy', **kwargs
)

Shannon entropy in nats.

event_shape_tensor

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event_shape_tensor(
    name='event_shape_tensor'
)

Shape of a single sample from a single batch as a 1-D int32 Tensor.

Args:

  • name: name to give to the op

Returns:

  • event_shape: Tensor.

forward_filter

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forward_filter(
    x, mask=None
)

Run a Kalman filter over a provided sequence of outputs.

Note that the returned values filtered_means, predicted_means, and observation_means depend on the observed time series x, while the corresponding covariances are independent of the observed series; i.e., they depend only on the model itself. This means that the mean values have shape concat([sample_shape(x), batch_shape, [num_timesteps, {latent/observation}_size]]), while the covariances have shape concat[(batch_shape, [num_timesteps, {latent/observation}_size, {latent/observation}_size]]), which does not depend on the sample shape.

Args:

  • x: a float-type Tensor with rightmost dimensions [num_timesteps, observation_size] matching self.event_shape. Additional dimensions must match or be broadcastable to self.batch_shape; any further dimensions are interpreted as a sample shape.
  • mask: optional bool-type Tensor with rightmost dimension [num_timesteps]; True values specify that the value of x at that timestep is masked, i.e., not conditioned on. Additional dimensions must match or be broadcastable to self.batch_shape; any further dimensions must match or be broadcastable to the sample shape of x. Default value: None.

Returns:

  • log_likelihoods: Per-timestep log marginal likelihoods log p(x[t] | x[:t-1]) evaluated at the input x, as a Tensor of shape sample_shape(x) + batch_shape + [num_timesteps].
  • filtered_means: Means of the per-timestep filtered marginal distributions p(z[t] | x[:t]), as a Tensor of shape sample_shape(x) + batch_shape + [num_timesteps, latent_size].
  • filtered_covs: Covariances of the per-timestep filtered marginal distributions p(z[t] | x[:t]), as a Tensor of shape sample_shape(mask) + batch_shape + [num_timesteps, latent_size, latent_size]. Note that the covariances depend only on the model and the mask, not on the data, so this may have fewer dimensions than filtered_means.
  • predicted_means: Means of the per-timestep predictive distributions over latent states, p(z[t+1] | x[:t]), as a Tensor of shape sample_shape(x) + batch_shape + [num_timesteps, latent_size].
  • predicted_covs: Covariances of the per-timestep predictive distributions over latent states, p(z[t+1] | x[:t]), as a Tensor of shape sample_shape(mask) + batch_shape + [num_timesteps, latent_size, latent_size]. Note that the covariances depend only on the model and the mask, not on the data, so this may have fewer dimensions than predicted_means.
  • observation_means: Means of the per-timestep predictive distributions over observations, p(x[t] | x[:t-1]), as a Tensor of shape sample_shape(x) + batch_shape + [num_timesteps, observation_size].
  • observation_covs: Covariances of the per-timestep predictive distributions over observations, p(x[t] | x[:t-1]), as a Tensor of shape sample_shape(mask) + batch_shape + [num_timesteps, observation_size, observation_size]. Note that the covariances depend only on the model and the mask, not on the data, so this may have fewer dimensions than observation_means.

is_scalar_batch

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is_scalar_batch(
    name='is_scalar_batch'
)

Indicates that batch_shape == [].

Args:

  • name: Python str prepended to names of ops created by this function.

Returns:

  • is_scalar_batch: bool scalar Tensor.

is_scalar_event

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is_scalar_event(
    name='is_scalar_event'
)

Indicates that event_shape == [].

Args:

  • name: Python str prepended to names of ops created by this function.

Returns:

  • is_scalar_event: bool scalar Tensor.

kl_divergence

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kl_divergence(
    other, name='kl_divergence'
)

Computes the Kullback--Leibler divergence.

Denote this distribution (self) by p and the other distribution by q. Assuming p, q are absolutely continuous with respect to reference measure r, the KL divergence is defined as:

KL[p, q] = E_p[log(p(X)/q(X))]
         = -int_F p(x) log q(x) dr(x) + int_F p(x) log p(x) dr(x)
         = H[p, q] - H[p]

where F denotes the support of the random variable X ~ p, H[., .] denotes (Shannon) cross entropy, and H[.] denotes (Shannon) entropy.

Args:

Returns:

  • kl_divergence: self.dtype Tensor with shape [B1, ..., Bn] representing n different calculations of the Kullback-Leibler divergence.

latent_size_tensor

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latent_size_tensor()

latents_to_observations

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latents_to_observations(
    latent_means, latent_covs
)

Push latent means and covariances forward through the observation model.

Args:

  • latent_means: float Tensor of shape [..., num_timesteps, latent_size]
  • latent_covs: float Tensor of shape [..., num_timesteps, latent_size, latent_size].

Returns:

  • observation_means: float Tensor of shape [..., num_timesteps, observation_size]
  • observation_covs: float Tensor of shape [..., num_timesteps, observation_size, observation_size]

log_cdf

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log_cdf(
    value, name='log_cdf', **kwargs
)

Log cumulative distribution function.

Given random variable X, the cumulative distribution function cdf is:

log_cdf(x) := Log[ P[X <= x] ]

Often, a numerical approximation can be used for log_cdf(x) that yields a more accurate answer than simply taking the logarithm of the cdf when x << -1.

Args:

  • value: float or double Tensor.
  • name: Python str prepended to names of ops created by this function.
  • **kwargs: Named arguments forwarded to subclass implementation.

Returns:

  • logcdf: a Tensor of shape sample_shape(x) + self.batch_shape with values of type self.dtype.

log_prob

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log_prob(
    value, name='log_prob', **kwargs
)

Log probability density/mass function.

Additional documentation from LinearGaussianStateSpaceModel:

kwargs:
  • mask: optional bool-type Tensor with rightmost dimension [num_timesteps]; True values specify that the value of x at that timestep is masked, i.e., not conditioned on. Additional dimensions must match or be broadcastable to self.batch_shape; any further dimensions must match or be broadcastable to the sample shape of x. Default value: None.

Args:

  • value: float or double Tensor.
  • name: Python str prepended to names of ops created by this function.
  • **kwargs: Named arguments forwarded to subclass implementation.

Returns:

  • log_prob: a Tensor of shape sample_shape(x) + self.batch_shape with values of type self.dtype.

log_survival_function

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log_survival_function(
    value, name='log_survival_function', **kwargs
)

Log survival function.

Given random variable X, the survival function is defined:

log_survival_function(x) = Log[ P[X > x] ]
                         = Log[ 1 - P[X <= x] ]
                         = Log[ 1 - cdf(x) ]

Typically, different numerical approximations can be used for the log survival function, which are more accurate than 1 - cdf(x) when x >> 1.

Args:

  • value: float or double Tensor.
  • name: Python str prepended to names of ops created by this function.
  • **kwargs: Named arguments forwarded to subclass implementation.

Returns:

Tensor of shape sample_shape(x) + self.batch_shape with values of type self.dtype.

mean

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mean(
    name='mean', **kwargs
)

Mean.

mode

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mode(
    name='mode', **kwargs
)

Mode.

observation_size_tensor

View source

observation_size_tensor()

param_shapes

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@classmethod
param_shapes(
    cls, sample_shape, name='DistributionParamShapes'
)

Shapes of parameters given the desired shape of a call to sample().

This is a class method that describes what key/value arguments are required to instantiate the given Distribution so that a particular shape is returned for that instance's call to sample().

Subclasses should override class method _param_shapes.

Args:

  • sample_shape: Tensor or python list/tuple. Desired shape of a call to sample().
  • name: name to prepend ops with.

Returns:

dict of parameter name to Tensor shapes.

param_static_shapes

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@classmethod
param_static_shapes(
    cls, sample_shape
)

param_shapes with static (i.e. TensorShape) shapes.

This is a class method that describes what key/value arguments are required to instantiate the given Distribution so that a particular shape is returned for that instance's call to sample(). Assumes that the sample's shape is known statically.

Subclasses should override class method _param_shapes to return constant-valued tensors when constant values are fed.

Args:

  • sample_shape: TensorShape or python list/tuple. Desired shape of a call to sample().

Returns:

dict of parameter name to TensorShape.

Raises:

  • ValueError: if sample_shape is a TensorShape and is not fully defined.

posterior_marginals

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posterior_marginals(
    x, mask=None
)

Run a Kalman smoother to return posterior mean and cov.

Note that the returned values smoothed_means depend on the observed time series x, while the smoothed_covs are independent of the observed series; i.e., they depend only on the model itself. This means that the mean values have shape concat([sample_shape(x), batch_shape, [num_timesteps, {latent/observation}_size]]), while the covariances have shape concat[(batch_shape, [num_timesteps, {latent/observation}_size, {latent/observation}_size]]), which does not depend on the sample shape.

This function only performs smoothing. If the user wants the intermediate values, which are returned by filtering pass forward_filter, one could get it by:

(log_likelihoods,
 filtered_means, filtered_covs,
 predicted_means, predicted_covs,
 observation_means, observation_covs) = model.forward_filter(x)
smoothed_means, smoothed_covs = model.backward_smoothing_pass(x)

where x is an observation sequence.

Args:

  • x: a float-type Tensor with rightmost dimensions [num_timesteps, observation_size] matching self.event_shape. Additional dimensions must match or be broadcastable to self.batch_shape; any further dimensions are interpreted as a sample shape.
  • mask: optional bool-type Tensor with rightmost dimension [num_timesteps]; True values specify that the value of x at that timestep is masked, i.e., not conditioned on. Additional dimensions must match or be broadcastable to self.batch_shape; any further dimensions must match or be broadcastable to the sample shape of x. Default value: None.

Returns:

  • smoothed_means: Means of the per-timestep smoothed distributions over latent states, p(z[t] | x[:T]), as a Tensor of shape sample_shape(x) + batch_shape + [num_timesteps, observation_size].
  • smoothed_covs: Covariances of the per-timestep smoothed distributions over latent states, p(z[t] | x[:T]), as a Tensor of shape sample_shape(mask) + batch_shape + [num_timesteps, observation_size, observation_size]. Note that the covariances depend only on the model and the mask, not on the data, so this may have fewer dimensions than filtered_means.

posterior_sample

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posterior_sample(
    x, sample_shape, mask=None, seed=None, name=None
)

Draws samples from the posterior over latent trajectories.

This method uses Durbin-Koopman sampling [1], an efficient algorithm to sample from the posterior latents of a linear Gaussian state space model. The cost of drawing a sample is equal to the cost of drawing a prior sample (.sample(sample_shape)), plus the cost of Kalman smoothing ( .posterior_marginals(...) on both the observed time series and the prior sample. This method is significantly more efficient in graph mode, because it uses only the posterior means and can elide the unneeded calculation of marginal covariances.

[1] Durbin, J. and Koopman, S.J. A simple and efficient simulation smoother for state space time series analysis. Biometrika 89(3):603-615, 2002. https://www.jstor.org/stable/4140605

Args:

  • x: a float-type Tensor with rightmost dimensions [num_timesteps, observation_size] matching self.event_shape. Additional dimensions must match or be broadcastable with self.batch_shape.
  • sample_shape: int Tensor shape of samples to draw.
  • mask: optional bool-type Tensor with rightmost dimension [num_timesteps]; True values specify that the value of x at that timestep is masked, i.e., not conditioned on. Additional dimensions must match or be broadcastable with self.batch_shape and x.shape[:-2]. Default value: None.
  • seed: Python int random seed.
  • name: Python str name for ops generated by this method.

Returns:

  • latent_posterior_sample: Float Tensor of shape concat([sample_shape, batch_shape, [num_timesteps, latent_size]]), where batch_shape is the broadcast shape of self.batch_shape, x.shape[:-2], and mask.shape[:-1], representing n samples from the posterior over latent states given the observed value x.

prob

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prob(
    value, name='prob', **kwargs
)

Probability density/mass function.

Additional documentation from LinearGaussianStateSpaceModel:

kwargs:
  • mask: optional bool-type Tensor with rightmost dimension [num_timesteps]; True values specify that the value of x at that timestep is masked, i.e., not conditioned on. Additional dimensions must match or be broadcastable to self.batch_shape; any further dimensions must match or be broadcastable to the sample shape of x. Default value: None.

Args:

  • value: float or double Tensor.
  • name: Python str prepended to names of ops created by this function.
  • **kwargs: Named arguments forwarded to subclass implementation.

Returns:

  • prob: a Tensor of shape sample_shape(x) + self.batch_shape with values of type self.dtype.

quantile

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quantile(
    value, name='quantile', **kwargs
)

Quantile function. Aka 'inverse cdf' or 'percent point function'.

Given random variable X and p in [0, 1], the quantile is:

quantile(p) := x such that P[X <= x] == p

Args:

  • value: float or double Tensor.
  • name: Python str prepended to names of ops created by this function.
  • **kwargs: Named arguments forwarded to subclass implementation.

Returns:

  • quantile: a Tensor of shape sample_shape(x) + self.batch_shape with values of type self.dtype.

sample

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sample(
    sample_shape=(), seed=None, name='sample', **kwargs
)

Generate samples of the specified shape.

Note that a call to sample() without arguments will generate a single sample.

Args:

  • sample_shape: 0D or 1D int32 Tensor. Shape of the generated samples.
  • seed: Python integer or tfp.util.SeedStream instance, for seeding PRNG.
  • name: name to give to the op.
  • **kwargs: Named arguments forwarded to subclass implementation.

Returns:

  • samples: a Tensor with prepended dimensions sample_shape.

stddev

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stddev(
    name='stddev', **kwargs
)

Standard deviation.

Standard deviation is defined as,

stddev = E[(X - E[X])**2]**0.5

where X is the random variable associated with this distribution, E denotes expectation, and stddev.shape = batch_shape + event_shape.

Args:

  • name: Python str prepended to names of ops created by this function.
  • **kwargs: Named arguments forwarded to subclass implementation.

Returns:

  • stddev: Floating-point Tensor with shape identical to batch_shape + event_shape, i.e., the same shape as self.mean().

survival_function

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survival_function(
    value, name='survival_function', **kwargs
)

Survival function.

Given random variable X, the survival function is defined:

survival_function(x) = P[X > x]
                     = 1 - P[X <= x]
                     = 1 - cdf(x).

Args:

  • value: float or double Tensor.
  • name: Python str prepended to names of ops created by this function.
  • **kwargs: Named arguments forwarded to subclass implementation.

Returns:

Tensor of shape sample_shape(x) + self.batch_shape with values of type self.dtype.

variance

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variance(
    name='variance', **kwargs
)

Variance.

Variance is defined as,

Var = E[(X - E[X])**2]

where X is the random variable associated with this distribution, E denotes expectation, and Var.shape = batch_shape + event_shape.

Args:

  • name: Python str prepended to names of ops created by this function.
  • **kwargs: Named arguments forwarded to subclass implementation.

Returns:

  • variance: Floating-point Tensor with shape identical to batch_shape + event_shape, i.e., the same shape as self.mean().

with_name_scope

@classmethod
with_name_scope(
    cls, method
)

Decorator to automatically enter the module name scope.

class MyModule(tf.Module):
  @tf.Module.with_name_scope
  def __call__(self, x):
    if not hasattr(self, 'w'):
      self.w = tf.Variable(tf.random.normal([x.shape[1], 64]))
    return tf.matmul(x, self.w)

Using the above module would produce tf.Variables and tf.Tensors whose names included the module name:

mod = MyModule()
mod(tf.ones([8, 32]))
# ==> <tf.Tensor: ...>
mod.w
# ==> <tf.Variable ...'my_module/w:0'>

Args:

  • method: The method to wrap.

Returns:

The original method wrapped such that it enters the module's name scope.