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Optimizer that implements the FTRL algorithm.

Inherits From: Optimizer

This version has support for both online L2 (McMahan et al., 2013) and shrinkage-type L2, which is the addition of an L2 penalty to the loss function.


Ad-click prediction: McMahan et al., 2013 (pdf)

learning_rate A float value or a constant float Tensor.
learning_rate_power A float value, must be less or equal to zero. Controls how the learning rate decreases during training. Use zero for a fixed learning rate. See section 3.1 in (McMahan et al., 2013).
initial_accumulator_value The starting value for accumulators. Only zero or positive values are allowed.
l1_regularization_strength A float value, must be greater than or equal to zero.
l2_regularization_strength A float value, must be greater than or equal to zero.
use_locking If True use locks for update operations.
name Optional name prefix for the operations created when applying gradients. Defaults to "Ftrl".
accum_name The suffix for the variable that keeps the gradient squared accumulator. If not present, defaults to name.
linear_name The suffix for the variable that keeps the linear gradient accumulator. If not present, defaults to name + "1".
l2_shrinkage_regularization_strength A float value, must be greater than or equal to zero. This differs from L2 above in that the L2 above is a stabilization penalty, whereas this L2 shrinkage is a magnitude penalty. The FTRL formulation can be written as: w{t+1} = argminw(\hat{g}{1:t}w + L1||w||_1 + L2||w||_2^2), where \hat{g} = g + (2L2_shrinkagew), and g is the gradient of the loss function w.r.t. the weights w. Specifically, in the absence of L1 regularization, it is equivalent to the following update rule: w_{t+1} = w_t - lr_t / (beta + 2L2lr_t) * g_t - 2L2_shrinkagelr_t / (beta + 2L2lr_t) * w_t where lr_t is the learning rate at t. When input is sparse shrinkage will only happen on the active weights.
beta A float value; corresponds to the beta parameter in the paper.

ValueError If one of the arguments is invalid.



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Apply gradients to variables.

This is the second part of minimize(). It returns an Operation that applies gradients.

grads_and_vars List of (gradient, variable) pairs as returned by compute_gradients().
global_step Optional Variable to increment by one after the variables have been updated.
name Optional name for the returned operation. Default to the name passed to the Optimizer constructor.

An Operation that applies the specified gradients. If global_step was not None, that operation also increments global_step.

TypeError If grads_and_vars is malformed.
ValueError If none of the variables have gradients.
RuntimeError If you should use _distributed_apply() instead.


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Compute gradients of loss for the variables in var_list.

This is the first part of minimize(). It returns a list of (gradient, variable) pairs where "gradient" is the gradient for "variable". Note that "gradient" can be a Tensor, an IndexedSlices, or None if there is no gradient for the given variable.

loss A Tensor containing the value to minimize or a callable taking no arguments which returns the value to minimize. When eager execution is enabled it must be a callable.
var_list Optional list or tuple of tf.Variable to update to minimize loss. Defaults to the list of variables collected in the graph under the key GraphKeys.TRAINABLE_VARIABLES.
gate_gradients How to gate the computation of gradients. Can be GATE_NONE, GATE_OP, or GATE_GRAPH.
aggregation_method Specifies the method used to combine gradient terms. Valid values are defined in the class AggregationMethod.
colocate_gradients_with_ops If True, try colocating gradients with the corresponding op.
grad_loss Optional. A Tensor holding the gradient computed for loss.

A list of (gradient, variable) pairs. Variable is always present, but gradient can be None.

TypeError If var_list contains anything else than Variable objects.
ValueError If some arguments are invalid.
RuntimeError If called with eager execution enabled and loss is not callable.

eager compatibilit