A distribution strategy for running on a single device.

Inherits From: Strategy

Used in the notebooks

Used in the tutorials

Using this strategy will place any variables created in its scope on the specified device. Input distributed through this strategy will be prefetched to the specified device. Moreover, any functions called via will also be placed on the specified device as well.

Typical usage of this strategy could be testing your code with the tf.distribute.Strategy API before switching to other strategies which actually distribute to multiple devices/machines.

For example:

strategy = tf.distribute.OneDeviceStrategy(device="/gpu:0")

with strategy.scope():
  v = tf.Variable(1.0)
  print(v.device)  # /job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:GPU:0

def step_fn(x):
  return x * 2

result = 0
for i in range(10):
  result +=, args=(i,))
print(result)  # 90

device Device string identifier for the device on which the variables should be placed. See class docs for more details on how the device is used. Examples: "/cpu:0", "/gpu:0", "/device:CPU:0", "/device:GPU:0"

cluster_resolver Returns the cluster resolver associated with this strategy.

In general, when using a multi-worker tf.distribute strategy such as tf.distribute.experimental.MultiWorkerMirroredStrategy or tf.distribute.experimental.TPUStrategy(), there is a tf.distribute.cluster_resolver.ClusterResolver associated with the strategy used, and such an instance is returned by this property.

Strategies that intend to have an associated tf.distribute.cluster_resolver.ClusterResolver must set the relevant attribute, or override this property; otherwise, None is returned by default. Those strategies should also provide information regarding what is returned by this property.

Single-worker strategies usually do not have a tf.distribute.cluster_resolver.ClusterResolver, and in those cases this property will return None.

The tf.distribute.cluster_resolver.ClusterResolver may be useful when the user needs to access information such as the cluster spec, task type or task id. For example,

os.environ['TF_CONFIG'] = json.dumps({
'cluster': {
'worker': ["localhost:12345", "localhost:23456"],
'ps': ["localhost:34567"]
'task': {'type': 'worker', 'index': 0}

# This implicitly uses TF_CONFIG for the cluster and current task info.
strategy = tf.distribute.experimental.MultiWorkerMirroredStrategy()


if strategy.cluster_resolver.task_type == 'worker':
# Perform something that's only applicable on workers. Since we set this
# as a worker above, this block will run on this particular instance.
elif strategy.cluster_resolver.task_type == 'ps':
# Perform something that's only applicable on parameter servers. Since we
# set this as a worker above, this block will not run on this particular
# instance.

For more information, please see tf.distribute.cluster_resolver.ClusterResolver's API docstring.

extended tf.distribute.StrategyExtended with additional methods.
num_replicas_in_sync Returns number of replicas over which gradients are aggregated.



View source

Adds annotation that tensor will be assigned to a logical device.

# Initializing TPU system with 2 logical devices and 4 replicas.
resolver = tf.distribute.cluster_resolver.TPUClusterResolver(tpu='')
topology = tf.tpu.experimental.initialize_tpu_system(resolver)
device_assignment =
    computation_shape=[1, 1, 1, 2],
strategy = tf.distribute.TPUStrategy(
    resolver, experimental_device_assignment=device_assignment)
iterator = iter(inputs)

def step_fn(inputs):
  output = tf.add(inputs, inputs)

  # Add operation will be executed on logical device 0.
  output = strategy.experimental_assign_to_logical_device(output, 0)
  return output, args=(next(iterator),))

tensor Input tensor to annotate.
logical_device_id Id of the logical core to which the tensor will be assigned.

ValueError The logical device id presented is not consistent with total number of partitions specified by the device assignment.

Annotated tensor with idential value as tensor.