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A state & compute distribution policy on a list of devices.

See the guide for overview and examples. See tf.distribute.StrategyExtended and tf.distribute for a glossary of concepts mentioned on this page such as "per-replica", replica, and reduce.

In short:

A custom training loop can be as simple as:

with my_strategy.scope():
  def distribute_train_epoch(dataset):
    def replica_fn(input):
      # process input and return result
      return result

    total_result = 0
    for x in dataset:
      per_replica_result = my_strategy.run(replica_fn, args=(x,))
      total_result += my_strategy.reduce(tf.distribute.ReduceOp.SUM,
                                         per_replica_result, axis=None)
    return total_result

  dist_dataset = my_strategy.experimental_distribute_dataset(dataset)
  for _ in range(EPOCHS):
    train_result = distribute_train_epoch(dist_dataset)

This takes an ordinary dataset and replica_fn and runs it distributed using a particular tf.distribute.Strategy named my_strategy above. Any variables created in replica_fn are created using my_strategy's policy, and library functions called by replica_fn can use the get_replica_context() API to implement distributed-specific behavior.

You can use the reduce API to aggregate results across replicas and use this as a return value from one iteration over a tf.distribute.DistributedDataset. Or you can use tf.keras.metrics (such as loss, accuracy, etc.) to accumulate metrics across steps in a given epoch.

See the custom training loop tutorial for a more detailed example.

cluster_resolver Returns the cluster resolver associated with this strategy.

In general, when using a multi-worker tf.distribute strategy such as tf.distribute.experimental.MultiWorkerMirroredStrategy or tf.distribute.TPUStrategy(), there is a tf.distribute.cluster_resolver.ClusterResolver associated with the strategy used, and such an instance is returned by this property.

Strategies that intend to have an associated tf.distribute.cluster_resolver.ClusterResolver must set the relevant attribute, or override this property; otherwise, None is returned by default. Those strategies should also provide information regarding what is returned by this property.

Single-worker strategies usually do not have a tf.distribute.cluster_resolver.ClusterResolver, and in those cases this property will return None.

The tf.distribute.cluster_resolver.ClusterResolver may be useful when the user needs to access information such as the cluster spec, task type or task id. For example,

os.environ['TF_CONFIG'] = json.dumps({
'cluster': {
'worker': ["localhost:12345", "localhost:23456"],
'ps': ["localhost:34567"]
'task': {'type': 'worker', 'index': 0}

# This implicitly uses TF_CONFIG for the cluster and current task info.
strategy = tf.distribute.experimental.MultiWorkerMirroredStrategy()


if strategy.cluster_resolver.task_type == 'worker':
# Perform something that's only applicable on workers. Since we set this
# as a worker above, this block will run on this particular instance.
elif strategy.cluster_resolver.task_type == 'ps':
# Perform something that's only applicable on parameter servers. Since we
# set this as a worker above, this block will not run on this particular
# instance.

For more information, please see tf.distribute.cluster_resolver.ClusterResolver's API docstring.

extended tf.distribute.StrategyExtended with additional methods.
num_replicas_in_sync Returns number of replicas over which gradients are aggregated.



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Distributes tf.data.Dataset instances created by calls to dataset_fn.

The argument dataset_fn that users pass in is an input function that has a tf.distribute.InputContext argument and returns a tf.data.Dataset instance. It is expected that the returned dataset from dataset_fn is already batched by per-replica batch size (i.e. global batch size divided by the number of replicas in sync) and sharded. tf.distribute.Strategy.distribute_datasets_from_function does not batch or shard the tf.data.Dataset instance returned from the input function. dataset_fn will be called on the CPU device of each of the workers and each generates a dataset where every replica on that worker will dequeue one batch of inputs (i.e. if a worker has two replicas, two batches will be dequeued from the Dataset every step).

This method can be used for several purposes. First, it allows you to specify your own batching and sharding logic. (In contrast, tf.distribute.experimental_distribute_dataset does batching and sharding for you.) For example, where experimental_distribute_dataset is unable to shard the input files, this method might be used to manually shard the dataset (avoiding the slow fallback behavior in experimental_distribute_dataset). In cases where the dataset is infinite, this sharding can be done by creating dataset replicas that differ only in their random seed.

The dataset_fn should take an tf.distribute.InputContext instance where information about batching and input replication can be accessed.

You can use element_spec property of the tf.distribute.DistributedDataset returned by this API to query the tf.TypeSpec of the elements returned by the iterator. This can be used to set the input_signature property of a tf.function. Follow tf.distribute.DistributedDataset.element_spec to see an example.