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Initializer capable of adapting its scale to the shape of weights tensors.

Inherits From: Initializer

Used in the notebooks

Used in the tutorials

Also available via the shortcut function tf.keras.initializers.variance_scaling.

With distribution="truncated_normal" or "untruncated_normal", samples are drawn from a truncated/untruncated normal distribution with a mean of zero and a standard deviation (after truncation, if used) stddev = sqrt(scale / n), where n is:

  • number of input units in the weight tensor, if mode="fan_in"
  • number of output units, if mode="fan_out"
  • average of the numbers of input and output units, if mode="fan_avg"

With distribution="uniform", samples are drawn from a uniform distribution within [-limit, limit], where limit = sqrt(3 * scale / n).


# Standalone usage:
initializer = tf.keras.initializers.VarianceScaling(
scale=0.1, mode='fan_in', distribution='uniform')
values = initializer(shape=(2, 2))
# Usage in a Keras layer:
initializer = tf.keras.initializers.VarianceScaling(
scale=0.1, mode='fan_in', distribution='uniform')
layer = tf.keras.layers.Dense(3, kernel_initializer=initializer)

scale Scaling factor (positive float).
mode One of "fan_in", "fan_out", "fan_avg".
distribution Random distribution to use. One of "truncated_normal", "untruncated_normal" and "uniform".
seed A Python integer. Used to create random seeds. See tf.compat.v1.set_random_seed for behavior. Note that seeded initializer will not produce same random values across multiple calls, but multiple initializers will produce same sequence when constructed with same seed value.



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Instantiates an initializer from a configuration dictionary.


initializer = RandomUniform(-1, 1)
config = initializer.get_config()
initializer = RandomUniform.from_config(config)

config A Python dictionary, the output of get_config.

A tf.keras.initializers.Initializer instance.


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Returns the configuration of the initializer as a JSON-serializable dict.

A JSON-serializable Python dict.


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Returns a tensor object initialized as specified by the initializer.

shape Shape of the tensor.
dtype Optional dtype of the tensor. Only floating point types are supported. If not specified, tf.keras.backend.floatx() is used, which default to float32 unless you configured it otherwise (via tf.keras.backend.set_floatx(float_dtype))
**kwargs Additional keyword arguments.