tf.keras.optimizers.Adadelta

TensorFlow 1 version View source on GitHub

Optimizer that implements the Adadelta algorithm.

Inherits From: Optimizer

Adadelta optimization is a stochastic gradient descent method that is based on adaptive learning rate per dimension to address two drawbacks:

  • The continual decay of learning rates throughout training
  • The need for a manually selected global learning rate

Adadelta is a more robust extension of Adagrad that adapts learning rates based on a moving window of gradient updates, instead of accumulating all past gradients. This way, Adadelta continues learning even when many updates have been done. Compared to Adagrad, in the original version of Adadelta you don't have to set an initial learning rate. In this version, initial learning rate can be set, as in most other Keras optimizers.

According to section 4.3 ("Effective Learning rates"), near the end of training step sizes converge to 1 which is effectively a high learning rate which would cause divergence. This occurs only near the end of the training as gradients and step sizes are small, and the epsilon constant in the numerator and denominator dominate past gradients and parameter updates which converge the learning rate to 1.

According to section 4.4("Speech Data"),where a large neural network with 4 hidden layers was trained on a corpus of US English data, ADADELTA was used with 100 network replicas.The epsilon used is 1e-6 with rho=0.95 which converged faster than ADAGRAD, by the following construction: def init(self, lr=1.0, rho=0.95, epsilon=1e-6, decay=0., **kwargs):

learning_rate A Tensor, floating point value, or a schedule that is a tf.keras.optimizers.schedules.LearningRateSchedule. The learning rate. To match the exact form in the original paper use 1.0.
rho A Tensor or a floating point value. The decay rate.
epsilon A Tensor or a floating point value. A constant epsilon used to better conditioning the grad update.
name Optional name prefix for the operations created when applying gradients. Defaults to "Adadelta".
**kwargs Keyword arguments. Allowed to be one of "clipnorm" or "clipvalue". "clipnorm" (float) clips gradients by norm; "clipvalue" (float) clips gradients by value.

Reference:

name A non-empty string. The name to use for accumulators created for the optimizer.
**kwargs keyword arguments. Allowed to be {clipnorm, clipvalue, lr, decay}. clipnorm is clip gradients by norm; clipvalue is clip gradients by value, decay is included for backward compatibility to allow time inverse decay of learning rate. lr is included for backward compatibility, recommended to use learning_rate instead.

ValueError If name is malformed.

iterations Variable. The number of training steps this Optimizer has run.
weights Returns variables of this Optimizer based on the order created.

Methods

add_slot

View source

Add a new slot variable for var.

add_weight

View source

apply_gradients

View source

Apply gradients to variables.

This is the second part of minimize(). It returns an Operation that applies gradients.

The method sums gradients from all replicas in the presence of tf.distribute.Strategy by default. You can aggregate gradients yourself by passing experimental_aggregate_gradients=False.

Example:

grads = tape.gradient(loss, vars)
grads = tf.distribute.get_replica_context().all_reduce('sum', grads)
# Processing aggregated gradients.
optimizer.apply_gradients(zip(grads, vars),
    experimental_aggregate_gradients=False)

Args
grads_and_vars List of (gradient, variable) pairs.
name Optional name for the returned operation. Default to the name passed to the Optimizer constructor.
experimental_aggregate_gradients Whether to sum gradients from different replicas in the presense of tf.distribute.Strategy. If False, it's user responsibility to aggregate the gradients. Default to True.

Returns
An Operation that applies the specified gradients. The iterations will be automatically increased by 1.

Raises
TypeError If grads_and_vars is malformed.
ValueError If none of the variables have gradients.

from_config

View source

Creates an optimizer from its config.

This method is the reverse of get_config, capable of instantiating the same optimizer from the config dictionary.

Arguments
config A Python dictionary, typically the output of get_config.
custom_objects A Python dictionary mapping names to additional Python objects used to create this optimizer, such as a function used for a hyperparameter.

Returns
An optimizer instance.

get_config

View source

Returns the config of the optimizer.

An optimizer config is a Python dictionary (serializable) containing the configuration of an optimizer. The same optimizer can be reinstantiated later (without any saved state) from this configuration.

Returns
Python dictionary.

get_gradients

View source

Returns gradients of loss with respect to params.

Arguments
loss Loss tensor.
params List of variables.

Returns
List of gradient tensors.

Raises
ValueError In case any gradient cannot be computed (e.g. if gradient function not implemented).

get_slot

View source

get_slot_names

View source

A list of names for this optimizer's slots.

get_updates

View source

get_weights

View source

Returns the current weights of the optimizer.

The weights of an optimizer are its state (ie, variables). This function returns the weight values associated with this optimizer as a list of Numpy arrays. The first value is always the iterations count of the optimizer, followed by the optimizer's state variables in the order they were created. The returned list can in turn be used to load state into similarly parameterized optimizers.

For example, the RMSprop optimizer for this simple model returns a list of three values-- the iteration count, followed by the root-mean-square value of the kernel and bias of the single Dense layer:

opt = tf.keras.optimizers.RMSprop()